What's New: Science Worksheets and Study Guides

Matter Kindergarten Science
Matter Kindergarten Science
Pushing, Moving, Pulling Kindergarten Science
Matter Kindergarten Science
All About Me Kindergarten Science
Matter Kindergarten Science
Weather Kindergarten Science

Kentucky Standards for Fourth Grade Science

KY.AE. Academic Expectation

AE.1. Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

1.10. Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.
1.11. Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.
1.16. Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.
1.3. Students make sense of the various things they observe.
1.5-1.9. Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

AE.2. Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

2.1. Science: Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2. Science: Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.4. Science: Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.6. Science: Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.

KY.CC. Core Content for Assessment v.4.1

SC-04-1.1. Structure and Transformation of Matter: In the elementary years of conceptual development, students will be studying properties of matter and physical changes of matter at the macro level through direct observations, forming the foundation for subsequent learning.

SC-04-1.1.1. Physical Science: Students will explain how matter, including water, can be changed from one state to another.

SC-04-1.2. Motion and Forces: In the elementary years of conceptual development, students need multiple opportunities to experience, observe and describe (in words and pictures) motion, including factors (pushing and pulling) that affect motion.

SC-04-1.2.1. Physical Science: Students will interpret or represent data related to an object's straight-line motion in order to make inferences and predictions of changes in position and/or time.
SC-04-1.2.2. Physical Science: Students will infer causes and effects of pushes and pulls (forces) on objects based on representations or interpretations of straight-line movement/motion in charts, graphs, and qualitative comparisons.
SC-04-1.2.3. Physical Science: Students will explain that sound is a result of vibrations, a type of motion; describe pitch (high, low) as a difference in sounds that are produced and relate that to the rate of vibration.

SC-04-2.3. The Earth and the Universe: Development of conceptual understandings about processes that shape the Earth begin at the elementary level with understanding what Earth materials are and that change occurs. At the heart of elementary students' initial understanding of the Earth's place in the universe is direct observation of the earth-sun-moon system. Students can derive important conceptual understandings about the system as they describe interactions resulting in shadows, moon phases and day and night. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels.

SC-04-2.3.1. Earth/Space Science: Students will classify earth materials by the ways that they are used; explain how their properties make them useful for different purposes.
SC-04-2.3.2. Earth/Space Science: Students will describe and explain consequences of changes to the surface of the Earth, including some common fast changes (e.g., landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes), and some common slow changes (e.g., erosion, weathering).
SC-04-2.3.3. Earth/Space Science: Students will make generalizations and/or predictions about weather changes from day to day and over seasons based on weather data.
SC-04-2.3.4. Earth/Space Science: Students will identify patterns, recognize relationships and draw conclusions about the Earth-Sun system by interpreting a variety of representations/models (e.g., diagrams, sundials, distance of sun above horizon) of the sun's apparent movement in the sky.
SC-04-2.3.5. Earth/Space Science: Students will understand that the moon moves across the sky on a daily basis much like the Sun. The observable shape of the moon can be described as it changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts about a month.

SC-04-3.4. Unity and Diversity: Elementary students begin to observe the macroscopic features of organisms in order to make comparisons and classifications based upon likenesses and differences. Looking for patterns in the appearance and behavior of an organism leads to the notion that offspring are much like the parents, but not exactly alike.

SC-04-3.4.1. Biological Science: Students will compare the different structures and functions of plants and animals that contribute to the growth, survival and reproduction of the organisms; make inferences about the relationship between structure and function in organisms.
SC-04-3.4.2. Biological Science: Students will understand that things in the environment are classified as living, nonliving and once living. Living things differ from nonliving things. Organisms are classified into groups by using various characteristics (e.g., body coverings, body structures).
SC-04-3.4.3. Biological Science: Students will compare a variety of life cycles of plants and animals in order to classify and make inferences about an organism.

SC-04-3.5. Biological Change: Elementary students build a foundational knowledge of change by observing slow and fast changes caused by nature in their own environment, noting changes that humans and other organisms cause in their environment and observing fossils found in or near their environment.

SC-04-3.5.1. Students will use representations of fossils to draw conclusions about the nature of the organisms and the basic environments that existed at the time; make inferences about the relationships to organisms that are alive today.

SC-04-4.6. Energy Transformations: Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels).

SC-04-4.6.1. Unifying Concepts: Students will analyze patterns and make generalizations about the basic relationships of plants and animals in an ecosystem (food chain).
SC-04-4.6.2. Unifying Concepts: Students will analyze data/evidence of the Sun providing light and heat to earth; use data/evidence to substantiate the conclusion that the Sun's light and heat are necessary to sustaining life on Earth.
SC-04-4.6.3. Unifying Concepts: Students will evaluate a variety of models/representations of electrical circuits (open, closed, series and/or parallel) to make predictions related to changes in the system; compare the properties of conducting and non-conducting materials.
SC-04-4.6.4. Unifying Concepts: Students will analyze models/representations of light in order to generalize about the behavior of light; represent the path of light as it interacts with a variety of surfaces (reflecting, refracting, absorbing).
SC-04-4.6.5. Unifying Concepts: Students will identify ways that heat can be produced (e.g. burning, rubbing) and properties of materials that conduct heat better than others; describe the movement of heat between objects.

SC-04-4.7. Interdependence: Elementary learners need to become acquainted with ecosystems that are easily observable to them by beginning to study the habitats of many types of local organisms. Students begin to investigate the survival needs of different organisms and how the environment affects optimum conditions for survival.

SC-04-4.7.1. Unifying Concepts: Students will make predictions and/or inferences based on patterns of evidence related to the survival and reproductive success of organisms in particular environments.

KY.PS. Program of Studies 2006

SC-4-BC. Big Idea: Biological Change (Biological Science) - The only thing certain is that everything changes. Elementary students build a foundational knowledge of change by observing slow and fast changes caused by nature in their own environment, noting changes that humans and other organisms cause in their environment, and observing fossils found in or near their environment. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.7)

SC-4-BC-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will examine fossils and representations of fossils to make comparisons among organisms that lived long ago and organisms of today and draw conclusions about the nature of the organisms and basic environments represented by fossils
SC-4-BC-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will answer student-generated questions about how/why organisms and the environment have changed over time using information from a variety of print and non-print sources to support claims/provide evidence for conclusions
SC-4-BC-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the structures and characteristics of fossils provide information about the nature of an organism, the environmental conditions where/when it lived and how it is related to organisms still alive today.

SC-4-ET. Big Idea: Energy Transformations (Unifying Concepts) - Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels). (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5)

SC-4-ET-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will observe/construct, analyze patterns and explain basic relationships of plants and animals in an ecosystem (e.g., food webs)
SC-4-ET-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze food webs in order to draw conclusions about the relationship between the sun's heat and light and sustaining most life on Earth
SC-4-ET-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will demonstrate open and closed circuits, and series and parallel circuits using batteries, bulbs and wires; analyze models of a variety of electrical circuits in order to predict changes to the systems
SC-4-ET-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify and compare how heat is transferred through different materials in order to make predictions and draw conclusions about the heat conductivity of materials (e.g., compare the 'hotness' of wooden spoons, metal spoons, plastic spoons when exposed to higher temperatures)
SC-4-ET-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will design and conduct investigations/experiments to compare properties of conducting and non-conducting materials (both heat and electrical), documenting and communicating (speak, draw, write, demonstrate) observations, designs, procedures and results of scientific investigations
SC-4-ET-S-8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will make predictions/inferences about the behavior of light as it interacts with materials of differing properties
SC-4-ET-S-9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will answer student-generated questions about forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound, magnetic effects) using information from a variety of print and non-print sources
SC-4-ET-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that ecosystems are defined by the relationships that occur within them. These relationships can be determined through observation of the organisms and their environment.
SC-4-ET-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that light and heat from the sun are essential to sustaining most life on earth. Plants change energy from the sun's light into energy that is used as food by the plant.
SC-4-ET-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that electrical energy can be used for a variety of purposes. Many electrical systems share some common features, including a source of energy, a closed conducting path and a device that performs a function by utilizing that energy.
SC-4-ET-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that light interacts with different kinds of matter in different ways and those interactions can be predicted based on the type of matter involved.
SC-4-ET-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that heat is a form of energy that results when another form of energy is transformed. Heat flows through different materials at different rates, and it naturally flows from warmer areas to cooler ones.
SC-4-ET-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that seeing how a model works after changes are made to it may suggest how the real thing would work if the same thing were done to it.

SC-4-EU. Big Idea: Grade: The Earth and the Universe (Earth/Space Science) - The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on earth in many ways. Development of conceptual understandings about processes that shape the Earth begin at the elementary level with understanding what Earth materials are and that change occurs. At the heart of elementary students' initial understanding of the Earth's place in the universe is direct observation of the Earth-sun-moon system. Students can derive important conceptual understandings about the system as they describe interactions resulting in shadows, moon phases, and day and night. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.4)

SC-4-EU-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use the properties of earth materials to make and support decisions about using them for different purposes (e.g., growing plants, building materials, fuel)
SC-4-EU-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze weather data to make predictions about future weather
SC-4-EU-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will assess the accuracy of weather predictions and the evidence used to support the predictions made by each other and meteorologists
SC-4-EU-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and compare the processes, factors involved and consequences of slow changes to earth's surface (e.g., erosion and weathering)
SC-4-EU-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and compare contributing factors and consequences of fast changes to earth's surface (e.g., landslides, earthquakes, floods)
SC-4-EU-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that classifying Earth materials according to their properties allows decisions to be made about their usefulness for various purposes.
SC-4-EU-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that weather data can be organized and represented in ways that reveal patterns needed for making predictions about the future, but the weather is so complex that it cannot always be predicted beyond being more or less likely to occur.
SC-4-EU-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the surface of the Earth is always changing through both fast and slow processes. These changes may be steady, repetitive or irregular. Careful analysis of data from past events allows the prediction of expected consequences when similar events happen again.

SC-4-I. Big Idea: Interdependence (Unifying Concepts) - It is not difficult for students to grasp the general notion that species depend on one another and on the environment for survival. But their awareness must be supported by knowledge of the kinds of relationships that exist among organisms, the kinds of physical conditions that organisms must cope with, the kinds of environments created by the interaction of organisms with one another and their physical surroundings, and the complexity of such systems. Elementary learners need to become acquainted with ecosystems that are easily observable to them by beginning to study the habitats of many types of local organisms. Students begin to investigate the survival needs of different organisms and how the environment affects optimum conditions for survival. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.5)

SC-4-I-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will observe, document and explain the cause and effect relationships existing between organisms and their environments
SC-4-I-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use evidence and observations to make predictions/draw conclusions about how changes in the environment affect the plants' and animals' ability to survive
SC-4-I-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will observe, document and describe human interactions that impact the local environment
SC-4-I-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and provide examples of how beneficial and harmful are relative terms
SC-4-I-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will evaluate the consequences of changes caused by humans or other organisms, and propose solutions to real life situations/dilemmas
SC-4-I-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that all living things depend on their environment and other organisms within it for their survival. Certain patterns of behavior or physical features may help an organism survive in some environments yet perish in others.
SC-4-I-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that environmental relationships extend beyond food (e.g. shelter, seed transport).
SC-4-I-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that people impact their environment in both beneficial and harmful ways. Some of these impacts can be predicted, while others cannot.
SC-4-I-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that beneficial and harmful are relative terms: any single action can be both beneficial and harmful to different organisms in an ecosystem.

SC-4-MF. Big Idea: Motion and Forces (Physical Science) - Whether observing airplanes, baseballs, planets, or people, the motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. In the elementary years of conceptual development, students need multiple opportunities to experience, observe, and describe (in words and pictures) motion, including factors (e.g., pushing, pulling) that affect motion. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.4)

SC-4-MF-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will measure and record changes (using appropriate charts, graphs) in the position and motion of an object to which a force has been applied
SC-4-MF-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will make inferences about the size of forces or the change in motion produced by various forces
SC-4-MF-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate how the rate of vibration of an object changes the pitch (high-low) of the sound it produces
SC-4-MF-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use tools and resources, such as stopwatches, sonic rangers, microscopes, computer simulations/animations and video clips, to observe motions that are hard to see or quantify and compare the usefulness/limitations of such tools
SC-4-MF-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will answer student-generated questions through investigative and non-investigative processes about what affects motion and sound using information from a variety of print and non-print sources
SC-4-MF-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that an object's motion can be described as its change in position over time and can be represented in a variety of ways.
SC-4-MF-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that forces (pushes and pulls) cause changes in the direction or speed of something moving; the greater the force on an object, the greater its change in motion.
SC-4-MF-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that sound is produced by the vibration of matter, and the rate of vibration affects the pitch of the sound.

SC-4-STM. Big Idea: Structure and Transformation of Matter (Physical Science) - A basic understanding of matter is essential to the conceptual development of other big ideas in science. In the elementary years of conceptual development, students will be studying properties of matter and physical changes of matter at the macro level through direct observations, forming the foundation for subsequent learning. The use of models (and an understanding of their scales and limitations) is an effective means of learning about the structure of matter. Looking for patterns in properties is also critical to comparing and explaining differences in matter. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.4)

SC-4-STM-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify matter as solids, liquids and gases
SC-4-STM-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will gather information including temperature, magnetism, hardness and mass using appropriate tools to identify physical properties of matter
SC-4-STM-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and describe how the physical properties of water change as heat energy is added or removed
SC-4-STM-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will conduct tests, compare data and draw conclusions about physical properties of matter including states of matter, conduction and buoyancy
SC-4-STM-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will predict and describe patterns of properties in matter, such as how materials will interact with each other and how they can be changed
SC-4-STM-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate student-generated questions about the properties of matter and uses of matter with particular properties. Students will design and build objects that require different properties of materials
SC-4-STM-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that things can be done to materials to change some of their properties, but not all materials respond the same way to what is done to them.
SC-4-STM-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that when a new material is made by combining two or more materials the new material often has properties that are different from the original materials.
SC-4-STM-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that properties of materials may change if the materials become hotter or colder.

SC-4-UD. Big Idea: Unity and Diversity (Biological Science) - All matter is comprised of the same basic elements, goes through the same kinds of energy transformations, and uses the same kinds of forces to move. Living organisms are no exception. Elementary students begin to observe the macroscopic features of organisms in order to make comparisons and classifications based upon likenesses and differences. Looking for patterns in the appearance and behavior of an organism leads to the notion that offspring are much like the parents, but not exactly alike. Emphasis at every level should be placed upon the understanding that while every living thing is composed of similar small constituents that combine in predictable ways, it is the subtle variations within these small building blocks that account for both the likenesses and differences in form and function that create the diversity of life. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

SC-4-UD-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze the structures and related functions of a variety of plants and animals in order to establish classification schemes
SC-4-UD-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate and compare life cycles, especially reproductive characteristics (e.g., gestational periods, germination rates, number of offspring) and life expectancies of plants and animals to make inferences and/or draw conclusions about their populations
SC-4-UD-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will answer student-generated questions about the diversity of living things using information from a variety of print and non-print sources
SC-4-UD-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that characteristics of living things can be used to sort them into various groups: the characteristics chosen to establish the grouping depend on the reason for the grouping.
SC-4-UD-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that organisms have different structures that are used for different functions. Observations of the structures of a certain organism can be used to predict how that organism functions or where it might live.
SC-4-UD-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that all living things are produced from other living things. They grow and then eventually die. Before they die most living things create offspring, allowing their kind to continue.