What's New: Science Worksheets and Study Guides

Me and My Family Kindergarten Science
Our Earth Kindergarten Science
Weather Kindergarten Science
All About Me Kindergarten Science
Matter Kindergarten Science
All About Animals Kindergarten Science
All About Animals Kindergarten Science

New Jersey Standards for Fourth Grade Science

NJ.5.1.4. Science Practices: Science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science.

5.1.4.A. Understand Scientific Explanations: Students understand core concepts and principles of science and use measurement and observation tools to assist in categorizing, representing, and interpreting the natural and designed world.

Connections developed between fundamental concepts are used to explain, interpret, build, and refine explanations, models, and theories.
5.1.4.A.2. Use outcomes of investigations to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
Outcomes of investigations are used to build and refine questions, models, and explanations.
5.1.4.A.3. Use scientific facts, measurements, observations, and patterns in nature to build and critique scientific arguments.

5.1.4.B. Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations: Students master the conceptual, mathematical, physical, and computational tools that need to be applied when constructing and evaluating claims.

Evidence is used to construct and defend arguments.
5.1.4.B.3. Formulate explanations from evidence.
Tools and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results.
5.1.4.B.2. Measure, gather, evaluate, and share evidence using tools and technologies.

5.1.4.C. Reflect on Scientific Knowledge: Scientific knowledge builds on itself over time.

Revisions of predictions and explanations occur when new arguments emerge that account more completely for available evidence.
5.1.4.C.2. Revise predictions or explanations on the basis of learning new information.
Scientific knowledge is a particular kind of knowledge with its own sources, justifications, and uncertainties.
5.1.4.C.3. Present evidence to interpret and/or predict cause-and-effect outcomes of investigations.
Scientific understanding changes over time as new evidence and updated arguments emerge.
5.1.4.C.1. Monitor and reflect on one's own knowledge regarding how ideas change over time.

5.1.4.D. Participate Productively in Science: The growth of scientific knowledge involves critique and communication, which are social practices that are governed by a core set of values and norms.

Instruments of measurement can be used to safely gather accurate information for making scientific comparisons of objects and events.
5.1.4.D.3. Demonstrate how to safely use tools, instruments, and supplies.

NJ.5.2.4. Physical Science: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.4.A. Properties of Matter: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

Each state of matter has unique properties (e.g., gases can be compressed, while solids and liquids cannot; the shape of a solid is independent of its container; liquids and gases take the shape of their containers).
5.2.4.A.2. Plan and carry out an investigation to distinguish among solids, liquids, and gasses.
Objects and substances have properties, such as weight and volume, that can be measured using appropriate tools. Unknown substances can sometimes be identified by their properties.
5.2.4.A.3. Determine the weight and volume of common objects using appropriate tools.
Objects vary in the extent to which they absorb and reflect light and conduct heat (thermal energy) and electricity.
5.2.4.A.4. Categorize objects based on the ability to absorb or reflect light and conduct heat or electricity.
Some objects are composed of a single substance; others are composed of more than one substance.
5.2.4.A.1. Identify objects that are composed of a single substance and those that are composed of more than one substance using simple tools found in the classroom.

5.2.4.B. Changes in Matter: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

Many substances can be changed from one state to another by heating or cooling.
5.2.4.B.1. Predict and explain what happens when a common substance, such as shortening or candle wax, is heated to melting and then cooled to a solid.

5.2.4.C. Forms of Energy: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

Energy can be transferred from one place to another. Heat energy is transferred from warmer things to colder things.
5.2.4.C.3. Draw and label diagrams showing several ways that energy can be transferred from one place to another.
Heat (thermal energy) results when substances burn, when certain kinds of materials rub against each other, and when electricity flows though wires. Metals are good conductors of heat (thermal energy) and electricity. Increasing the temperature of any substance requires the addition of energy.
5.2.4.C.2. Compare the flow of heat through metals and nonmetals by taking and analyzing measurements.
Light travels in straight lines. When light travels from one substance to another (air and water), it changes direction.
5.2.4.C.4. Illustrate and explain what happens when light travels from air into water.

5.2.4.D. Energy Transfer and Conservation: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

Electrical circuits require a complete loop through conducting materials in which an electrical current can pass.
5.2.4.D.1. Repair an electric circuit by completing a closed loop that includes wires, a battery (or batteries), and at least one other electrical component to produce observable change.

5.2.4.E. Forces and Motion: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

Earth pulls down on all objects with a force called gravity. Weight is a measure of how strongly an object is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. With a few exceptions, objects fall to the ground no matter where they are on Earth.
5.2.4.E.4. Investigate, construct, and generalize rules for the effect that force of gravity has on balls of different sizes and weights.
Motion can be described as a change in position over a period of time.
5.2.4.E.1. Demonstrate through modeling that motion is a change in position over a period of time.
There is always a force involved when something starts moving or changes its speed or direction of motion. A greater force can make an object move faster and farther.
5.2.4.E.2. Identify the force that starts something moving or changes its speed or direction of motion.

NJ.5.3.4. Life Science: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.4.A. Organization and Development: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

Essential functions of the human body are carried out by specialized systems: Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Nervous, Skeletal, Muscular, Reproductive.
5.3.4.A.3. Describe the interactions of systems involved in carrying out everyday life activities.

5.3.4.B. Matter and Energy Transformations: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

Almost all energy (food) and matter can be traced to the Sun.
5.3.4.B.1. Identify sources of energy (food) in a variety of settings (farm, zoo, ocean, forest).

5.3.4.C. Interdependence: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

Organisms can only survive in environments in which their needs are met. Within ecosystems, organisms interact with and are dependent on their physical and living environment.
5.3.4.C.1. Predict the biotic and abiotic characteristics of an unfamiliar organism's habitat.
Some changes in ecosystems occur slowly, while others occur rapidly. Changes can affect life forms, including humans.
5.3.4.C.2. Explain the consequences of rapid ecosystem change (e.g., flooding, wind storms, snowfall, volcanic eruptions), and compare them to consequences of gradual ecosystem change (e.g., gradual increase or decrease in daily temperatures, change in yearly rainfall).

5.3.4.D. Heredity and Reproduction: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

Plants and animals have life cycles (they begin life, develop into adults, reproduce, and eventually die). The characteristics of each stage of life vary by species.
5.3.4.D.1. Compare the physical characteristics of the different stages of the life cycle of an individual organism, and compare the characteristics of life stages among species.

5.3.4.E. Evolution and Diversity: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

In any ecosystem, some populations of organisms thrive and grow, some decline, and others do not survive at all.
5.3.4.E.2. Evaluate similar populations in an ecosystem with regard to their ability to thrive and grow.

NJ.5.4.4. Earth Systems Science: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.4.A. Objects in the Universe: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

Earth is approximately spherical in shape. Objects fall towards the center of the Earth because of the pull of the force of gravity.
5.4.4.A.3. Generate a model with explanatory value that explains both why objects roll down ramps as well as why the Moon orbits Earth.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun in our solar system, which includes seven other planets.
5.4.4.A.4. Analyze and evaluate evidence in the form of data tables and photographs to categorize and relate solar system objects (e.g., planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, and comets).
The observable shape of the Moon changes from day to day in a cycle that lasts 29.5 days.
5.4.4.A.2. Identify patterns of the Moon's appearance and make predictions about its future appearance based observational data.

5.4.4.B. History of Earth: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes.

Fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago, including whether they lived on the land or in the sea as well as ways species changed over time.
5.4.4.B.1. Use data gathered from observations of fossils to argue whether a given fossil is terrestrial or marine in origin.

5.4.4.C. Properties of Earth Materials: Earth's composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life.

Earth materials in nature include rocks, minerals, soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. Attributes of rocks and minerals assist in their identification.
5.4.4.C.2. Categorize unknown samples as either rocks or minerals.
Rocks can be broken down to make soil.
5.4.4.C.1. Create a model to represent how soil is formed.

5.4.4.F. Climate and Weather: Earth's weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

Weather changes that occur from day to day and across the seasons can be measured and documented using basic instruments such as a thermometer, wind vane, anemometer, and rain gauge.
5.4.4.F.1. Identify patterns in data collected from basic weather instruments.

5.4.4.G. Biogeochemical Cycles: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

Clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water and, at times, tiny particles of ice.
5.4.4.G.1. Explain how clouds form.
Most of Earth’s surface is covered by water. Water circulates through the crust, oceans, and atmosphere in what is known as the water cycle.
5.4.4.G.3. Trace a path a drop of water might follow through the water cycle.
Properties of water depend on where the water is located (oceans, rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers).
5.4.4.G.4. Model how the properties of water can change as water moves through the water cycle.
Rain, snow, and other forms of precipitation come from clouds; not all clouds produce precipitation.
5.4.4.G.2. Observe daily cloud patterns, types of precipitation, and temperature, and categorize the clouds by the conditions that form precipitation.