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How living things grow and change? Second Grade Science
How Does the Earth's Surface Change? Third Grade Science
The sun and earth Second Grade Science
Living and nonliving things First Grade Science
Cells, tissues and organs Fifth Grade Science
Force, motion and energy Fourth Grade Science

Missouri Standards for Fourth Grade Science

MO.1. Properties and Principals of Matter and Energy

1.1. Changes in properties and states of matter provide evidence of the atomic theory of matter

1.1.A. Objects, and the materials are made of, have properties that can be used to describe and classify them
1.1.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions: Describe and compare the masses (the amount of matter in an object) of objects to the nearest gram using balances
1.1.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions: Describe and compare the volumes (the amount of space an object occupies) of objects using a graduated cylinder
1.1.A.c. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions: Identify situations where no two objects can occupy the same space at the same time (e.g. water level rises when an object or substance such as a rock is placed in a quantity of water)
1.1.A.d. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions: Classify types of materials (e.g., water, salt, sugar, iron filings, salt water) into ''like'' substances (materials that have specific physical properties) or mixtures of substances by using their characteristic properties
1.1.B. Properties of mixtures depend upon the concentrations, properties, and interactions of particles
1.1.B.a. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions/ Changes on the Earth's Surface: Identify water as a solvent that dissolves materials (Do NOT assess the term solvent)
1.1.B.b. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions/ Changes on the Earth's Surface: Observe and describe how mixtures are made by combining solids or liquids, or a combination of these
1.1.B.c. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions/ Changes on the Earth's Surface: Distinguish between the components in a mixture/solution (e.g., trail mix, conglomerate rock, salad, soil, salt water)

1.2. Energy has a source, can be stored, and can be transferred but is conserved within a system

1.2.A. Forms of energy have a source, a means of transfer (work and heat), and a receiver
1.2.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Forms of Energy: Electrical Circuits: Construct and diagram a complete electric circuit by using a source (e.g., battery), means of transfer (e.g., wires), and receiver (e.g., resistance bulbs, motors, fans
1.2.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Forms of Energy: Electrical Circuits: Observe and describe the evidence of energy transfer in a closed series circuit (e.g., lit bulb, moving motor, fan)
1.2.F. Energy can be transferred within a system as the total amount of energy remains constant (i.e., Law of Conservation of Energy)
1.2.F.a. Scope and Sequence - Forms of Energy: Electrical Circuits: Identify the evidence of energy transformations (temperature change, light, sound, motion, and magnetic effects) that occur in electrical circuits

MO.2. Properties and Principals of Force and Motion

2.1. The motion of an object is described by its change in position relative to another object or point

2.1.A. The motion of an object is described as a change in position, direction, and speed relative to another object (frame of reference)
2.1.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Classify different types of motion
2.1.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Describe an object's motion in terms of distance and time

2.2. Forces affect motion

2.2.A. Forces are classified as either contact (pushes, pulls, friction, buoyancy) or non-contact forces (gravity, magnetism), that can be described in terms of direction and magnitude
2.2.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Identify the forces acting on the motion of objects traveling in a straight line (specify that forces should be acting in the same line as the motion, provide examples)
2.2.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Describe and compare forces(measured by a spring scale in Newton's) applied to objects in a single line
2.2.A.c. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Observe and identify friction as a force that slows down or stops a moving object that is touching another object or surface
2.2.A.d. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Compare the forces (measured by a spring scale in Newton's) required to overcome friction when an object moves over different surfaces (i.e., rough/smooth)
2.2.B. Every object exerts a gravitational force on every other object
2.2.B.a. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Determine the gravitational pull of the Earth on an object (weight) using a spring scale
2.2.D. Newton's Laws of Motion explain the interaction of mass and forces, and are used to predict changes in motion
2.2.D.a. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Recognize Observe that balanced forces do not affect an object's motion (need to clarify that balanced forces means no change in forces acting on an object)
2.2.D.b. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Describe how unbalanced forces acting on an object changes its speed (faster/slower), direction of motion, or both (need to clarify that unbalanced forces means any change in forces acting on an object)
2.2.D.c. Scope and Sequence - Laws of Motion: Predict how the change in speed of an object (i.e., faster/slower/remains the same) is affected by the amount of force applied to an object and the mass of the object
2.2.D.d. Scope and Sequence - Energy: Electrical Circuits: Predict the effects of an electrostatic force (static electricity) on the motion of objects (attract or repel)

MO.4. Changes in Ecosystems and Interactions of Organisms with Their Environments

4.1. Organisms are interdependent with one another with their environment

4.1.A. All populations living together within a community interact with one another and with their environment in order to survive and maintain a balanced ecosystem
4.1.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Identify the ways a specific organism may interact with other organisms or with the environment (e.g., pollination, shelter, seed dispersal, camouflage, migration, hibernation, defensive mechanism)
4.1.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Identify and describe different environments (i.e. pond, forest, prairie) support the life of different types of plants and animals

4.2. Matter and Energy flow through an ecosystem

4.2.A. As energy flows through the ecosystem, all organisms capture a portion of that energy and transform it to a form they can use
4.2.A.a. Classify populations of organisms as producers and consumers by the role they serve in the ecosystem
4.2.A.b. Differentiate between the types of consumers (herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detrivore/decomposer)
4.2.A.c. Categorize organisms as predator or prey in a given ecosystem

4.3. Genetic variation sorted by the natural selection process explains evidence of biological evolution

4.3.C. Natural selection is the process of sorting individuals based on their ability to survive and reproduce within their ecosystem
4.3.C.a. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Identify specialized structures and describe how they help plants survive in their environment (e.g., root, cactus needles, thorns, winged seed, waxy leaves)
4.3.C.b. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Identify specialized structures and senses and describe how they help animals survive in their environment (e.g., antennae, body covering, teeth, beaks, whiskers, appendages)
4.3.C.c. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Identify internal cues (e.g., hunger) and external cues (e.g., changes in the environment) that cause organisms to behave in certain ways (e.g., hunting, migration, hibernation)
4.3.C.d. Scope and Sequence - Interactions among Organisms and their Environment: Predict which plant or animal will be able to survive in a specific environment based on its special structures or behaviors.

MO.5. Processes and Interactions of the Earth's Systems (Geosphere, Atmosphere, and Hydrosphere)

5.1. Earth's systems (Geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) have common components and unique structures

5.1.A. The Earth's crust is composed of various materials, including soil, minerals, and rocks, with characteristic properties
5.1.A.a. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Identify and describe the components of soil (e.g., plant roots and debris, bacteria, fungi, worms, types of rock) and its properties (e.g., odor, color, resistance to erosion, texture, fertility, relative grain size, absorption rate)
5.1.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Compare the physical properties (i.e., size, shape, color, texture, layering, presence of fossils) of rocks (mixtures of different Earth materials, each with observable physical properties

5.2. Earth's systems (Geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) interact with one another as they undergo change by common processes

5.2.A. The Earth's materials and surface features are changed through a variety of external processes
5.2.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Identify the major landforms/bodies of water on Earth (i.e., mountains, plains, river valleys, coastlines, canyons)
5.2.A.c. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Describe how weathering agents (e.g., water, chemicals, temperature, wind, plants) cause surface changes that create and/or change Earth's surface materials and/or landforms/ bodies of water
5.2.A.d. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Describe how erosion processes (i.e., action of gravity, waves, wind, rivers, glaciers) cause surface changes that create and/or change Earth's surface materials and/or landforms/ bodies of water
5.2.A.e. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Relate the type of landform/water body to the process by which it was formed

5.3. Human activity is dependent upon and affects Earth's resources and systems

5.3.A. Earth's materials are limited natural resource's affected by human activity
5.3.A.b. Scope and Sequence - Changes in the Earth's Surface: Propose ways to solve simple environmental problems (e.g., recycling, composting, ways to decrease soil erosion) that result from human activity

MO.7. Scientific Inquiry

7.1. Science understanding is developed through the use of science process skills, scientific knowledge, scientific investigation, reasoning, and critical thinking

7.1.B. Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations
7.1.B.a. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Make qualitative observations using the five senses
7.1.B.b. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Make observations using simple tools and equipment (e.g., hand lenses, magnets, thermometers, metric rulers, balances, graduated cylinders, spring scale)
7.1.B.c. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Measure length to the nearest centimeter, mass using grams, temperature using degrees Celsius, volume to the nearest milliliter, force/weight to the nearest Newton
7.1.C. Scientific inquiry includes evaluation of explanations (laws/principles, theories/models) in light of evidence (data) and scientific principles (understandings)
7.1.C.a. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Use quantitative and qualitative data as support for reasonable explanations
7.1.C.b. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Use data as support for observed patterns and relationships, and to make predictions to be tested
7.1.C.c. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Evaluate the reasonableness of an explanation
7.1.C.d. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Analyze whether evidence supports proposed explanations
7.1.D. The nature of science relies upon communication of results and justification of explanations
7.1.D.a. Scope and Sequence - All Units: Communicate simple procedures and results of investigations and explanations through: oral presentations, drawings and maps, drawings and maps, data tables, graphs (bar, single line, pictograph), writings

MO.8. Impact of Science, Technology and Human Activity

8.1. The nature of technology can advance, and is advanced by, science as it seeks to apply scientific knowledge in ways that meet human needs

8.1.B. Advances in technology often result in improved data collection and an increase in scientific information
8.1.B.a. Scope and Sequence - Mixtures and Solutions/Forms of Energy: Electrical Circuits: Describe how new technologies have helped scientists make better observations and measurements for investigations (e.g., telescopes, magnifiers, balances, microscopes, computers, stethoscopes, thermometers)
8.1.C. Technological solutions to problems often have drawbacks as well as benefits
8.1.C.a. Scope and Sequence - Forms of Energy: Electrical Circuits/Laws of Motion/Interactions among Organisms and Their Environments: Identify how the effects of inventions or technological advances (e.g., different types of light bulbs, semiconductors/integrated circuits and electronics, satellite imagery, robotics, communication, transportation, generation of energy, renewable materials) may be helpful, harmful, or both (Assess Locally))

8.2. Historical and cultural perspectives of scientific explanations help to improve understanding of the nature of science and how science knowledge and technology evolve over time

8.2.A. People of different gender and ethnicity have contributed to scientific discoveries and the invention of technological innovations
8.2.A.a. Scope and Sequence - All units: Research biographical information about various scientists and inventors from different gender and ethnic backgrounds, and describe how their work contributed to science and technology (Assess Locally)