Pennsylvania Core and Academic Standards for Fifth Grade Science

Earth's oceans
Oceans are a natural resource for salt and the fish and other sea animals we eat. Ocean Currents. Ocean Tides, Trenches, Mid-Ocean Ridges, Seamounts, The Flat Abyssal Plains, The Continental Shelf. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Elements, mixtures and compounds
Elements are a basic (simple) kind of matter. They can’t be broken down into simpler parts and still keep their properties because they are in the simplest form. A solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent. Solubility refers to the ability of one substance to dissolve into another substance. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Flowers and seeds
The flower is the seed factory of the plant – where the flower produces seeds. A flower’s sepals cover a developing flower bud in order to protect the bud while it grows. The petals of a flower are often bright and colorful. The stamen is the male part of a flower. The pistil of a flower includes the stigma, style, and ovary. The ovary of a flower contains seeds. The ovule is the part of the plant that becomes a fruit. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Properties of matter and Energy
What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Kinetic energy is energy that is happening now; it is energy in motion. Potential energy is energy that is waiting to happen; it is stored energy. How does heat get transferred: By conduction, by convection and by radiation. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Roots, Stems and Leaves
Plants have two different root systems: a Taproot and a Fibrous Root system. Leaves of a plant are made of plant organs and tissues. The top layer of leaf, which protects the leaf, is called its epidermis. Leaves have tiny openings underneath them called the stomata which let air and water in and out of the leaf. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Science Worksheets: Acids and bases
An Acid is a type of sour substance. Examples of acids are lemon juice and vinegar. A base is a type of bitter substance. A base dissolved in water is called a basic solution. Examples of a base substance are soap and baking soda. Scientists use a variety of pH indicators to determine which substances are bases and which are acids. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Science Worksheets: Chemical and physical changes of matter
A chemical change is a change in which one kind of substance is changed into a different kind of substance. Chemical changes produce substances that were not there when you started. You can’t reverse or undo a chemical change. The substance or object involved in physical change is the same before and after the change (unlike a chemical change). The change is not permanent and can be undone. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
The 6-Kingdoms of life
Scientists classify plants and animals according to the structures and characteristics of each organism. They compare and contrast organisms, and those with similar structures and characteristics are grouped together. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4

PA.SI. Science as Inquiry

SI.4. Describe relationships using inference and prediction.

Hands-on Lab Skills/Science Inquiry
When you conduct an investigation, you may make predictions, interpret your findings, draw conclusions, and justify your conclusions. When you conduct an experiment, you should collect data to help justify your conclusions. During an investigation, you may formulate and justify your predictions based on cause and effect relationships. A cause makes something else happen. An effect is what happens because of the cause. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The nature of science
Science process skills include observing, classifying, estimating, measuring, inferring, predicting, creating graphs, and developing models. Identify Dependent and Controlled Variables: A dependent variable is the variable that is being observed during an experiment. A control variable is the part of an experiment that you do not make any changes to which you can use to compare the other parts of your experiment to. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SI.5. Use appropriate tools and technologies to gather, analyze, and interpret data and understand that it enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.

Hands-on Lab Skills/Science Inquiry
When you conduct an investigation, you may make predictions, interpret your findings, draw conclusions, and justify your conclusions. When you conduct an experiment, you should collect data to help justify your conclusions. During an investigation, you may formulate and justify your predictions based on cause and effect relationships. A cause makes something else happen. An effect is what happens because of the cause. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The nature of science
Science process skills include observing, classifying, estimating, measuring, inferring, predicting, creating graphs, and developing models. Identify Dependent and Controlled Variables: A dependent variable is the variable that is being observed during an experiment. A control variable is the part of an experiment that you do not make any changes to which you can use to compare the other parts of your experiment to. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SI.6. Develop descriptions, explanations, and models using evidence and understand that these emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and are based on scientific principles, models, and theories.

Hands-on Lab Skills/Science Inquiry
When you conduct an investigation, you may make predictions, interpret your findings, draw conclusions, and justify your conclusions. When you conduct an experiment, you should collect data to help justify your conclusions. During an investigation, you may formulate and justify your predictions based on cause and effect relationships. A cause makes something else happen. An effect is what happens because of the cause. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The nature of science
Science process skills include observing, classifying, estimating, measuring, inferring, predicting, creating graphs, and developing models. Identify Dependent and Controlled Variables: A dependent variable is the variable that is being observed during an experiment. A control variable is the part of an experiment that you do not make any changes to which you can use to compare the other parts of your experiment to. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SI.7. Analyze alternative explanations and understanding that science advances through legitimate skepticism.

Science in our world
Have you ever seen a meteor shower? Meteors are small fragments of debris from space that enter the Earth's atmosphere at extremely high speed. They then turn into a vapor r leaving a streak of light that disappears quickly. You hear on the radio that a high air pressure system will be moving in tomorrow, which means there is a very good chance of clear skies. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1

SI.8. Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry.

Math in Science
Whether you are measuring, calculating, creating graphs and charts, or using numbers in any way… that’s using your math skills. During many science investigations you may have to measure the length, width, height, or weight of different objects. You also may need to measure the temperature of the air or different liquids when completing a scientific investigation as well. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SI.9. Understand that scientific investigations may result in new ideas for study, new methods, or procedures for an investigation or new technologies to improve data collection.

Hands-on Lab Skills/Science Inquiry
When you conduct an investigation, you may make predictions, interpret your findings, draw conclusions, and justify your conclusions. When you conduct an experiment, you should collect data to help justify your conclusions. During an investigation, you may formulate and justify your predictions based on cause and effect relationships. A cause makes something else happen. An effect is what happens because of the cause. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The nature of science
Science process skills include observing, classifying, estimating, measuring, inferring, predicting, creating graphs, and developing models. Identify Dependent and Controlled Variables: A dependent variable is the variable that is being observed during an experiment. A control variable is the part of an experiment that you do not make any changes to which you can use to compare the other parts of your experiment to. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

PA.3. Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.1. Biological Sciences

3.1.A. Organisms and Cells
3.1.5.A2. Describe how life on earth depends on energy from the sun.
Food webs/food chains
We all need energy. Every living organism on Earth needs energy to live, including plants, animals and us! The main energy source for all living things on Earth is the Sun. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
3.1.5.A3. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences in life cycles of different organisms.
Plant growth and reproduction
Process of Reproduction. Fertilization, Seeds. Lesson Checkpoints: What is one reason a plant has nectar? What do mosses and ferns produce instead of seeds? What is the female organ of a flower called? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Animal Growth and Reproduction
A life cycle is the stages of development an organism goes through starting from an egg to growing into an adult. Living organisms each have their own unique way of reproducing, giving birth, growing, and developing. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Plants with and without seeds
There are many plants in the world. Some are plants that you know of and many you have never heard of before! The Fern’s Life Cycle. The Life Cycle of Moss. Monocots vs. Dicots….what are these? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
3.1.5.A5a. Explain the concept of a cell as the basic unit of life.
Did you Know... 4th grade
Did you know? There are over 600 named muscles in the human body. Your HEART is considered a muscle, a cardiac muscle. The largest bone in your body is your femur, which is your thigh bone. If you make a mark on the trunk of a tree, it will remain the same distance from the ground! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
3.1.5.A5b. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
Cells- The building blocks of living things
FreeCells are building blocks of life. All living things are made of cells. A unicellular organism is made up of only one cell while multicellular organisms are made up of only cells. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Cells, tissues and organs
FreeCells need ENERGY to do all this work. Cellular respiration is the process where cells turn food into usable energy. When similar cells group together and work together for the same purpose, they form tissues. For example, skin tissues protect our bodies from dirt and germs getting inside our bodies. Nerve tissue helps us feel things, such as if something is hot or cold. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :6
3.1.C. Evolution
3.1.5.C1. Describe how organisms meet some of their needs in an environment by using behaviors (patterns of activities) in response to information (stimuli) received from the environment.
Introduction to animals
Animals have particular body parts and structures to help them survive in their Earth environment. For instance, animals have certain body parts such as legs or wings that help them move, and mouths or trunks or beaks that help them drink water. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Plant Responses and Adaptations
A plant can respond to the conditions of its environment. A plant can change its position and grow in a certain direction or manner to meet its survival needs and adapt to a varying environment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Animal Diversity and Adaptations
FreeHere are some examples of the systems that animals and humans have in common: Integumentary system, Muscular system, Endocrine system, Nervous system, Circulatory system, Respiratory system, Digestive system, Excretory System, Reproductive system, Immune system, Skeletal System. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5

3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics

3.2.A. Chemistry
3.2.5.A1. Describe how water can be changed from one state to another by adding or taking away heat.
Science worksheets: Solids, liquids and gases.
Solid, liquid, and gas are all states of matter. The molecules in solids are tightly packed together. The molecules in liquids are not as close as those in solids; they have a little more room to move around. The molecules in gases are far apart. Gases can fill any size room or any size container. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
3.2.B. Physics
3.2.5.B1. Explain how mass of an object resists change to motion.
Force, motion and energy
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. A force is a push or pull upon an object. Speed refers to the rate an object changes position. To accelerate means to go faster; decelerate means to slow down. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Newton's Laws of motion
What is motion? Motion is the process of an object changing its place or its position. Motion is not speed. Speed is the rate an object changes position. Newton's law of motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
3.2.5.B4b. Demonstrate how electromagnets can be made and used.
Electricity and magnetism
Electricity is the flow of electrical charge. Atoms are made of three different particles, of which some have a positive charge, some have a negative charge, and some have no charge at all. Static Electricity is the imbalance of positive or negative charges between objects. If two objects have opposite charges, they’ll pull toward each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
3.2.5.B5b. Relate the rate of vibration to the pitch of the sound.
Sound and light energy
Sound is a type of energy that travels in waves which are caused by vibrations. Characteristics of Sound. Vibrations: movements made rapidly back and forth. Sound Waves: an invisible transfer of sound energy as it travels away from the energy source. Wavelength: the distance between a point on one sound wave and a similar point on another sound wave. Frequency: The number of vibrations in a period of time is called the frequency of a vibration. Volume: The loudness or quietness of a sound is its volume. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.5.A1. Describe how landforms are the result of a combination of destructive forces such as erosion and constructive erosion, deposition of sediment, etc.
Earth - Inside and Out
Let's look at the Earth from the inside out...
The Earth is made up three main layers called crust, mantle, and core. Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :9
Landforms, Rocks and soil
Landsforms are features that make up the Earth's surface. They include mountains, plateaus, canyons, deltas, hills, valleys, and more... The Rock cycle, Volcanoes. How do Earthquakes happen? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Minerals of Earth's crust
Minerals are solid elements formed naturally in the Earth’s surface. Every mineral has a unique chemical composition – a mix of the chemicals that formed it. Rocks are made up of minerals, sometimes more than one kind of mineral! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
3.3.5.A4. Explain the basic components of the water cycle.
Earth's Waters
Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
3.3.5.A5a. Differentiate between weather and climate.
Weather and Climate
Many factors affect the weather such as the sun, atmosphere, temperature, water, and air pressure. When air moves from an area of high pressure to a place with low pressure, WIND is created. The movement and interaction of air masses cause most weather conditions. Climate: The word climate refers to the typical weather throughout the year in the same area. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Weather, Weather patterns and climate
How do clouds form? Main types of clouds. Precipitation. Air Pressure. What are the Four Most Influential Air Masses that Affect the Weather in North America? What is needed for a thunderstorm to occur? Thunderstorm key ingredients: Moisture, Instability and Uplift. What is a hurricane? What is a tornado? What is climate? Climate Zones: Polar zone, Temperate zone, Tropical zone. The location of the zone determines its climate. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
3.3.5.A5b. Explain how the cycling of water, both in and out of the atmosphere, has an effect on climate.
Earth's Waters
Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.5.B1. Provide evidence that the earth revolves around (orbits) the sun in a year's time and that the earth rotates on its axis once approximately every 24 hours.
Our Solar system and beyond
What Can Be Found in the Solar System? A planet is a large body that revolves around the Sun. Asteroids, comets and meteors are made of pieces of rock and ice. Asteroids are small pieces of rock which orbit around the Sun. Comets are made of ice and rock. The “tail” of a comet is made of vaporized gases and dust that flow behind them as they fly through space at a VERY fast pace! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
The solar system
All planets in our solar system rotate and they all revolve around the Sun. Inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth. Outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Comets are made of ice and rock. They have four parts: a nucleus which is the solid portion of the comet and is made of dust and ice, a coma which is a cloud of dust and evaporated gases, an ion tail and a dust tail. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3

3.4. Technology and Engineering Education

3.4.E. The Designed World
3.4.5.E3. Explain how tools, machines, products, and systems use energy in order to do work.
Light and Sound
Light is a form of energy that travels in waves. A reflection occurs when light rays bounce off a surface, such as when you see your reflection in a mirror. Absorption is when an object takes in light wave. Refraction is when light bends moving from one medium to another. Sound is a type of energy that travels in waves that is caused by vibrations. Vibrations are movements made rapidly back and forth. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Energy resources
A renewable resource is a resource that can be naturally restored or at least replenished as it is needed: The power of WIND, the power of WATER, the power of the SUN, Geothermal energy (heat from the earth), the Energy of TRASH. Fossil fuels - Crude Oil, Coal, Natural Gas - are nonrenewable resources. These types of resources take much longer to replace than most societies can wait. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

PA.4. Environment and Ecology

4.1. Ecology

4.1.5.A. Describe the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers within a local ecosystem.
Food webs/food chains
We all need energy. Every living organism on Earth needs energy to live, including plants, animals and us! The main energy source for all living things on Earth is the Sun. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Cycles of life and Biomes
The Nitrogen Cycle Process: Nitrogen is taken in by plants through their roots, animals eat plants, and the nitrogen is passed along the food chain to animals. Herbivores get nitrogen by eating plants. Carnivores get nitrogen by eating herbivores. Nitrogen is returned to the soil when an organism dies – decomposers break down the dead organisms and change the nitrogen compounds in the dead organism’s body into the kind plants can use. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
4.1.5.C. Describe different food webs including a food web containing humans.
Food webs/food chains
We all need energy. Every living organism on Earth needs energy to live, including plants, animals and us! The main energy source for all living things on Earth is the Sun. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
4.1.5.D. Explain the differences between threatened, endangered, and extinct organisms.
Energy and ecosystems
An ecosystem includes all the living and non-living things in an area. This includes populations and communities of many different animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3

4.2. Watersheds and Wetlands

4.2.5.A. Explain the water cycle.
Earth's Waters
Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
4.2.5.B. Identify important wetlands in the United States
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
4.2.5.C. Identify physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect water quality.
Earth's Waters
Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3

4.4. Agriculture and Society

4.4.5.A. Explain why animal production is dependent upon plant production.
Food webs/food chains
We all need energy. Every living organism on Earth needs energy to live, including plants, animals and us! The main energy source for all living things on Earth is the Sun. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

4.5. Humans and the Environment

4.5.5.C. Explain the difference between point and non-point source pollution.
Earth's Waters
Did you know that three quarters (3/4) of Earth is covered by water? Freshwater is water containing only a very little amount of salt. Oceans are made of salt water. Ninety-seven percent (97%) of the Earth’s water is saltwater. Throughout the water cycle, water can be solid, liquid, and a gas. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
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