Perimeter and area Eighth Grade Math Sequences Eighth Grade Math Applications of percent Eighth Grade Math Plane figures Eighth Grade Math Equations and Inequalities Seventh Grade Math Displaying data Eighth Grade Math Algebraic Equations Seventh Grade Math
PA.CC.8.EE. Expressions and Equations
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
8.EE.7. Solve linear equations in one variable.
8.EE.7(a) Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
8.EE.7(b) Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
8.EE.5. Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.
8.EE.6. Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
Work with radicals and integer exponents.
8.EE.1. Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3^2 x 3^-5 = 3^-3 = 1/3^3 = 1/27.
8.EE.2. Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that square root of 2 is irrational.
8.EE.3. Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times a whole-number power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10^8 and the population of the world as 7 times 10^9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.
8.EE.4. Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
8.F.1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.
8.F.3. Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities.
8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.
8.G.9. Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
8.G.7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
8.G.1. Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations:
8.G.1(a) Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.
8.G.1(b) Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.
8.G.1(c) Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.
8.G.2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
PA.CC.8.NS. The Number System
Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
8.NS.1. Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
PA.CC.8.SP. Statistics and Probability
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
8.SP.2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
PA.CC.MP. Mathematical Practices
MP.1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
MP.2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
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