**Collecting and describing data**Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1**Experimental Probability**FreeExperimental probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on an experiment being performed multiple times. Probability word problems worksheets. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1**Mathematical processes**Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1**Numbers and percents**Numbers and percents refer to the relationship between fractions, decimals, and percents. A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Fractions and decimals can easily be changed into percent. There are three cases of percent. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1**Perimeter and area**What Is Perimeter and Area? Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To find the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1**Plane figures**Plane figures refer to points, lines, angles, and planes in the coordinate plane. Lines can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles can be categorized as acute, obtuse or right. Angles can also be complementary or supplementary depending on how many degrees they add up to. Plane figures can also refer to shapes in the coordinate plane. Triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons can be shown in the coordinate plane. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1**Ratios, proportions and percents**Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1**Sequences**A sequence is an ordered list of numbers. Sequences are the result of a pattern or rule. A pattern or rule can be every other number or some formula such as y = 2x + 3. When a pattern or rule is given, a sequence can be found. When a sequence is given, the pattern or rule can be found. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1### VA.NNS.8. Number and Number Sense

#### 8.1. The student will compare and order real numbers.

**Rational and Irrational Numbers**A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. An irrational number is a number that cannot be made into a fraction. Decimals that do not repeat or end are irrational numbers. Pi is an irrational number. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.3. The student will

##### 8.3.b. Determine both the positive and negative square roots of a given perfect square.

**Rational and Irrational Numbers**A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. An irrational number is a number that cannot be made into a fraction. Decimals that do not repeat or end are irrational numbers. Pi is an irrational number. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**The Pythagorean Theorem**Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length
of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Real numbers**Real numbers are the set of rational and irrational numbers. The set of rational numbers includes integers, whole numbers, and natural numbers. A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. An irrational number is a number that cannot be made into a fraction. Decimals that do not repeat or end are irrational numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1### VA.CE.8. Computation and Estimation

#### 8.4. The student will solve practical problems involving consumer applications.

**Applications of percent**Percent increase or decrease can be found by using the formula: percent of change = actual change/original amount. The change is either an increase, if the amounts went up or a decrease if the amounts went down. If a number changes from 33 to 89, the percent of increase would be: Percent of increase = (89 -33) ÷ 33 = 56 ÷ 33 ≈ 1.6969 ≈ 170% Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1### VA.MG.8. Measurement and Geometry

#### 8.5. The student will use the relationships among pairs of angles that are vertical angles, adjacent angles, supplementary angles, and complementary angles to determine the measure of unknown angles.

**Plane Figures: Lines and Angles**Plane figures in regards to lines and angles refer to the coordinate plane and the various lines and angles within the coordinate plane. Lines in a coordinate plane can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles in a coordinate plane can be acute, obtuse, right or straight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.6. The student will

##### 8.6.a. Solve problems, including practical problems, involving volume and surface area of cones and square-based pyramids.

**Finding Volume**Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of cubed units and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = l · w · h, where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Three dimensional geometry/Measurement**Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1##### 8.6.b. Describe how changing one measured attribute of a rectangular prism affects the volume and surface area.

**Exploring Area and Surface Area**Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the
base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1#### 8.7. The student will

##### 8.7.a. Given a polygon, apply transformations, to include translations, reflections, and dilations, in the coordinate plane.

**Patterns in geometry**Patterns in geometry refer to shapes and their measures. Shapes can be congruent to one another. Shapes can also be manipulated to form similar shapes. The types of transformations are reflection, rotation, dilation and translation. With a reflection, a figure is reflected, or flipped, in a line so that the new figure is a mirror image on the other side of the line. A rotation rotates, or turns, a shape to make a new figure. A dilation shrinks or enlarges a figure. A translation shifts a figure to a new position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Similarity and scale**Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.9. The student will

##### 8.9.a. Verify the Pythagorean Theorem.

**The Pythagorean Theorem**Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length
of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1##### 8.9.b. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem.

**The Pythagorean Theorem**Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length
of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1#### 8.10. The student will solve area and perimeter problems, including practical problems, involving composite plane figures.

**Exploring Area and Surface Area**Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the
base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Three dimensional geometry/Measurement**Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1### VA.PS.8. Probability and Statistics

#### 8.11. The student will

##### 8.11.a. Compare and contrast the probability of independent and dependent events.

**Theoretical probability and counting**Probability word problems worksheets. Theoretical probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on all the possible outcomes. Sometimes, the number of ways that an event can happen depends on the order. A permutation is an arrangement of objects in which order matters. A combination is a set of objects in which order does not matter. Probability is also based on whether events are dependent or independent of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1##### 8.11.b. Determine probabilities for independent and dependent events.

**Using Probability**Probability is the possibility that a certain event will occur. Probability is the chance of an event occurring divided by the total number of possible outcomes. Probability is based on whether events are dependent or independent of each other. An independent event refers to the outcome of one event not affecting the outcome of another event. A dependent event is when the outcome of one event does affect the outcome of the other event. Probability word problems. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Theoretical probability and counting**Probability word problems worksheets. Theoretical probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on all the possible outcomes. Sometimes, the number of ways that an event can happen depends on the order. A permutation is an arrangement of objects in which order matters. A combination is a set of objects in which order does not matter. Probability is also based on whether events are dependent or independent of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.12. The student will

##### 8.12.b. Make observations and inferences about data represented in boxplots.

**Organizing Data**The data can be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode, median and range are different ways to evaluate data. The mean is the average of the data. The mode refers to the number that occurs the most often in the data. The median is the middle number when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest. The range is the difference in numbers when the lowest number is subtracted from the highest number. Data can be organized into a table, such as a frequency table. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data**There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Using graphs to analyze data**There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.13. The student will

##### 8.13.b. Make observations about data represented in scatterplots.

**Organizing Data**The data can be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode, median and range are different ways to evaluate data. The mean is the average of the data. The mode refers to the number that occurs the most often in the data. The median is the middle number when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest. The range is the difference in numbers when the lowest number is subtracted from the highest number. Data can be organized into a table, such as a frequency table. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data**There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Using graphs to analyze data**There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Displaying data**Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1##### 8.13.c. Use a drawing to estimate the line of best fit for data represented in a scatterplot.

**Linear relationships**Linear relationships refer to two quantities that are related with a linear equation. Since a linear equation is a line, a linear relationship refers to two quantities on a line and their relationship to one another. This relationship can be direct or inverse. If y varies directly as x, it means if y is doubled, then x is doubled. The formula for a direct variation is y = kx, where k is the constant of variation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1### VA.PFA.8. Patterns, Functions, and Algebra

#### 8.14. The student will

##### 8.14.b. Simplify algebraic expressions in one variable.

**Introduction to Algebra**Algebra is the practice of using expressions with letters or variables that represent numbers. Words can be changed into a mathematical expression by using the words, plus, exceeds, diminished, less, times, the product, divided, the quotient and many more. Algebra uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Equations and inequalities**An equation is mathematical statement that shows that two expressions are equal to each other. The expressions used in an equation can contain variables or numbers. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Inequalities are also solved by using inverse operations. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Polynomials and Exponents**FreeA polynomial is an expression which is in the form of ax<sup>n</sup>, where a is any real number and n is a whole number. If a polynomial has only one term, it is called a monomial. If it has two terms, it is a binomial and if it has three terms, it is a trinomial. The standard form of a polynomial is when the powers of the variables are decreasing from left to right. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1#### 8.15. The student will

##### 8.15.a. Determine whether a given relation is a function.

**Introduction to Functions**A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Functions**FreeA function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1#### 8.16. The student will

##### 8.16.a. Recognize and describe the graph of a linear function with a slope that is positive, negative, or zero.

**Introduction to Functions**A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Linear equations**Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1##### 8.16.b. Identify the slope and y-intercept of a linear function, given a table of values, a graph, or an equation in y = mx + b form.

**Introduction to Functions**A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Linear equations**Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1##### 8.16.d. Graph a linear function given the equation in y = mx + b form.

**Introduction to Functions**A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Linear equations**Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.17. The student will solve multistep linear equations in one variable with the variable on one or both sides of the equation, including practical problems that require the solution of a multistep linear equation in one variable.

**Introduction to Algebra**Algebra is the practice of using expressions with letters or variables that represent numbers. Words can be changed into a mathematical expression by using the words, plus, exceeds, diminished, less, times, the product, divided, the quotient and many more. Algebra uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Equations and Inequalities**Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. The inverse operation of addition is subtraction and the inverse operation of subtraction is addition. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Using Integers**Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. To compare integers, a number line can be used. On a number line, negative integers are on the left side of zero with the larger a negative number, the farther to the left it is. Positive
integers are on the right side of zero on the number line. If a number is to the left of another number it is said to be less than that number. In the coordinate plane, the x-axis is a horizontal line with negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Decimal Operations**Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Fraction Operations**Fraction operations are the processes of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions and mixed numbers. A mixed number is a fraction with a whole number. Adding fractions is common in many everyday events, such as making a recipe and measuring wood. In order to add and subtract fractions, the fractions must have the same denominator. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Introduction to Percent**What Is Percent? A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Percents can be greater than 100% or smaller than 1%. A markup from the cost of making an item to the actual sales price is usually greater than 100%. A salesperson's commission might be 1/2% depending on the item sold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Algebraic Equations**What are algebraic equations? Algebraic equations are mathematical quations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. When algebraic equations are written in words, the words must be changed into the appropriate numbers and variable in order to solve. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Equations and inequalities**An equation is mathematical statement that shows that two expressions are equal to each other. The expressions used in an equation can contain variables or numbers. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Inequalities are also solved by using inverse operations. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Integer operations**Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Rational numbers and operations**A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Solving linear equations**When graphed, a linear equation is a straight line. Although the standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept, linear equations often have both of the variables on the same side of the equal sign. Linear equations can be solved for one variable when the other variable is given. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Solving equations and inequalities**Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. Algebraic inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to, ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. When multiplying or dividing by a negative number occurs, the inequality sign is reversed from the original inequality sign in order for the inequality to be correct. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1#### 8.18. The student will solve multistep linear inequalities in one variable with the variable on one or both sides of the inequality symbol, including practical problems, and graph the solution on a number line.

**Equations and Inequalities**Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. The inverse operation of addition is subtraction and the inverse operation of subtraction is addition. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1**Algebraic Inequalities**FreeAlgebraic inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using these criteria: greater than, less than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to. The only rule of inequalities that must be remembered is that when a variable is multiplied or divided by a negative number the sign is reversed. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Equations and inequalities**An equation is mathematical statement that shows that two expressions are equal to each other. The expressions used in an equation can contain variables or numbers. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Inequalities are also solved by using inverse operations. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1**Integer operations**Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1**Rational numbers and operations**A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Standards

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