## National STEM Standards for Eighth Grade Math

##### Real numbers
Real numbers are the set of rational and irrational numbers. The set of rational numbers includes integers, whole numbers, and natural numbers. A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. An irrational number is a number that cannot be made into a fraction. Decimals that do not repeat or end are irrational numbers. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
##### Theoretical probability and counting
Probability word problems worksheets. Theoretical probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on all the possible outcomes. Sometimes, the number of ways that an event can happen depends on the order. A permutation is an arrangement of objects in which order matters. A combination is a set of objects in which order does not matter. Probability is also based on whether events are dependent or independent of each other. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
##### Three dimensional geometry/Measurement
Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
##### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1

### STEM.M. MATHEMATICS: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)

#### NCTM.1. Number and Operations

##### 1.1. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
###### Decimal Operations
Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Introduction to Percent
What Is Percent? A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Percents can be greater than 100% or smaller than 1%. A markup from the cost of making an item to the actual sales price is usually greater than 100%. A salesperson's commission might be 1/2% depending on the item sold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Applying Percents
Applying percents is a term that refers to the different ways that percents can be used. The percent of change refers to the percent an amount either increases or decreases based on the previous amounts or numbers. Applying percents also means to calculate simple interest using the interest equation, I = P · r · t, where P is the principal; r is the rate and t is the time. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Rational numbers and operations
A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Numbers and percents
Numbers and percents refer to the relationship between fractions, decimals, and percents. A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Fractions and decimals can easily be changed into percent. There are three cases of percent. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Applications of percent
Percent increase or decrease can be found by using the formula: percent of change = actual change/original amount. The change is either an increase, if the amounts went up or a decrease if the amounts went down. If a number changes from 33 to 89, the percent of increase would be: Percent of increase = (89 -33) ÷ 33 = 56 ÷ 33 ≈ 1.6969 ≈ 170% Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Exponents, Factors and Fractions
In a mathematical expression where the same number is multiplied many times, it is often useful to write the number as a base with an exponent. Exponents are also used to evaluate numbers. Any number to a zero exponent is 1 and any number to a negative exponent is a number less than 1. Exponents are used in scientific notation to make very large or very small numbers easier to write. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Introduction to Percent
What Is Percent? A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Percents can be greater than 100% or smaller than 1%. A markup from the cost of making an item to the actual sales price is usually greater than 100%. A salesperson's commission might be 1/2% depending on the item sold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Numerical Proportions
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. The numbers can have the same units such as a ratio or the numbers can have different units such as rates. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. Ratios are used to compare objects, wins and losses, sides of a figure to its area and many more. Rates are used to compare miles per hour, words per minute, and many others. A unit rate is when the denominator of a proportion is one. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Numbers and percents
Numbers and percents refer to the relationship between fractions, decimals, and percents. A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Fractions and decimals can easily be changed into percent. There are three cases of percent. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Exponents, Factors and Fractions
In a mathematical expression where the same number is multiplied many times, it is often useful to write the number as a base with an exponent. Exponents are also used to evaluate numbers. Any number to a zero exponent is 1 and any number to a negative exponent is a number less than 1. Exponents are used in scientific notation to make very large or very small numbers easier to write. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Polynomials and Exponents
A polynomial is an expression which is in the form of axn, where a is any real number and n is a whole number. If a polynomial has only one term, it is called a monomial. If it has two terms, it is a binomial and if it has three terms, it is a trinomial. The standard form of a polynomial is when the powers of the variables are decreasing from left to right. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Exponents, Factors and Fractions
In a mathematical expression where the same number is multiplied many times, it is often useful to write the number as a base with an exponent. Exponents are also used to evaluate numbers. Any number to a zero exponent is 1 and any number to a negative exponent is a number less than 1. Exponents are used in scientific notation to make very large or very small numbers easier to write. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Using Integers
Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. To compare integers, a number line can be used. On a number line, negative integers are on the left side of zero with the larger a negative number, the farther to the left it is. Positive integers are on the right side of zero on the number line. If a number is to the left of another number it is said to be less than that number. In the coordinate plane, the x-axis is a horizontal line with negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Decimal Operations
Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Integer operations
Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 1.2. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.
###### Decimal Operations
Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Integer operations
Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Rational numbers and operations
A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using Integers
Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. To compare integers, a number line can be used. On a number line, negative integers are on the left side of zero with the larger a negative number, the farther to the left it is. Positive integers are on the right side of zero on the number line. If a number is to the left of another number it is said to be less than that number. In the coordinate plane, the x-axis is a horizontal line with negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 1.3. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
###### Decimal Operations
Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Rational numbers and operations
A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using Integers
Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. To compare integers, a number line can be used. On a number line, negative integers are on the left side of zero with the larger a negative number, the farther to the left it is. Positive integers are on the right side of zero on the number line. If a number is to the left of another number it is said to be less than that number. In the coordinate plane, the x-axis is a horizontal line with negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Decimal Operations
Decimal operations refer to the mathematical operations that can be performed with decimals: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. The process for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing decimals must be followed in order to achieve the correct answer. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Fraction Operations
Fraction operations are the processes of adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing fractions and mixed numbers. A mixed number is a fraction with a whole number. Adding fractions is common in many everyday events, such as making a recipe and measuring wood. In order to add and subtract fractions, the fractions must have the same denominator. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Integer operations
Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Rational numbers and operations
A rational number is a number that can be made into a fraction. Decimals that repeat or terminate are rational because they can be changed into fractions. A square root of a number is a number that when multiplied by itself will result in the original number. The square root of 4 is 2 because 2 · 2 = 4. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Numerical Proportions
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. The numbers can have the same units such as a ratio or the numbers can have different units such as rates. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. Ratios are used to compare objects, wins and losses, sides of a figure to its area and many more. Rates are used to compare miles per hour, words per minute, and many others. A unit rate is when the denominator of a proportion is one. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Geometric Proportions
Geometric proportions compare two similar polygons. Similar polygons have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Numbers and percents
Numbers and percents refer to the relationship between fractions, decimals, and percents. A percent is a term that describes a decimal in terms of one hundred. Percent means per hundred. Percents, fractions and decimals all can equal each other, as in the case of 10%, 0.1 and 1/10. Fractions and decimals can easily be changed into percent. There are three cases of percent. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.2. Algebra

##### 2.1. Understand patterns, relations, and functions.
###### Introduction to Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Sequences
A sequence is an ordered list of numbers. Sequences are the result of a pattern or rule. A pattern or rule can be every other number or some formula such as y = 2x + 3. When a pattern or rule is given, a sequence can be found. When a sequence is given, the pattern or rule can be found. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 2.2. Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
###### Introduction to Algebra
Algebra is the practice of using expressions with letters or variables that represent numbers. Words can be changed into a mathematical expression by using the words, plus, exceeds, diminished, less, times, the product, divided, the quotient and many more. Algebra uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Solving equations and inequalities
Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. Algebraic inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to, ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. When multiplying or dividing by a negative number occurs, the inequality sign is reversed from the original inequality sign in order for the inequality to be correct. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Introduction to Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Nonlinear Functions and Set Theory
A function can be in the form of y = mx + b. This is an equation of a line, so it is said to be a linear function. Nonlinear functions are functions that are not straight lines. Some examples of nonlinear functions are exponential functions and parabolic functions. An exponential function, y = aˆx, is a curved line that gets closer to but does not touch the x-axis. A parabolic function, y = ax² + bx +c, is a U-shaped line that can either be facing up or facing down. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Linear equations
Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Introduction to Algebra
Algebra is the practice of using expressions with letters or variables that represent numbers. Words can be changed into a mathematical expression by using the words, plus, exceeds, diminished, less, times, the product, divided, the quotient and many more. Algebra uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Equations and Inequalities
Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. The inverse operation of addition is subtraction and the inverse operation of subtraction is addition. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Algebraic Inequalities
FreeAlgebraic inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using these criteria: greater than, less than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to. The only rule of inequalities that must be remembered is that when a variable is multiplied or divided by a negative number the sign is reversed. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Equations and inequalities
An equation is mathematical statement that shows that two expressions are equal to each other. The expressions used in an equation can contain variables or numbers. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Inequalities are also solved by using inverse operations. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Solving linear equations
When graphed, a linear equation is a straight line. Although the standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept, linear equations often have both of the variables on the same side of the equal sign. Linear equations can be solved for one variable when the other variable is given. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Introduction to Algebra
Algebra is the practice of using expressions with letters or variables that represent numbers. Words can be changed into a mathematical expression by using the words, plus, exceeds, diminished, less, times, the product, divided, the quotient and many more. Algebra uses variables to represent a value that is not yet known. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Equations and Inequalities
Algebraic equations are mathematical equations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. To solve an algebraic equation, inverse operations are used. The inverse operation of addition is subtraction and the inverse operation of subtraction is addition. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Equations and inequalities
An equation is mathematical statement that shows that two expressions are equal to each other. The expressions used in an equation can contain variables or numbers. Inequalities are mathematical equations that compare two quantities using greater than, >; greater than or equal to ≥; less than, <; and less than or equal to, ≤. Inequalities are also solved by using inverse operations. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Integer operations
Integer operations are the mathematical operations that involve integers. Integers are negative numbers, zero and positive numbers. Adding and subtracting integers are useful in everyday life because there are many situations that involved negative numbers such as calculating sea level or temperatures. Equations with integers are solved using inverse operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, and multiplication and division are inverse operations of each other. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 2.3. Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
###### Algebraic Equations
What are algebraic equations? Algebraic equations are mathematical quations that contain a letter or variable, which represents a number. When algebraic equations are written in words, the words must be changed into the appropriate numbers and variable in order to solve. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 2.4. Analyze change in various contexts.
###### Nonlinear Functions and Set Theory
A function can be in the form of y = mx + b. This is an equation of a line, so it is said to be a linear function. Nonlinear functions are functions that are not straight lines. Some examples of nonlinear functions are exponential functions and parabolic functions. An exponential function, y = aˆx, is a curved line that gets closer to but does not touch the x-axis. A parabolic function, y = ax² + bx +c, is a U-shaped line that can either be facing up or facing down. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.3. Geometry

##### 3.1. Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop mathematical arguments about geometric relationships.
###### Plane Figures: Lines and Angles
Plane figures in regards to lines and angles refer to the coordinate plane and the various lines and angles within the coordinate plane. Lines in a coordinate plane can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles in a coordinate plane can be acute, obtuse, right or straight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Plane Figures: Closed Figure Relationships
Plane figures in regards to closed figure relationships refer to the coordinate plane and congruent figures, circles, circle graphs, transformations and symmetry. Congruent figures have the same size and shape. Transformations are made up of translations, rotations and reflections. A translation of a figure keeps the size and shape of a figure, but moves it to a different location. A rotation turns a figure about a point on the figure. A reflection of a figure produces a mirror image of the figure when it is reflected in a given line. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Exploring Area and Surface Area
Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Finding Volume
Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of cubed units and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = l · w · h, where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Plane figures
Plane figures refer to points, lines, angles, and planes in the coordinate plane. Lines can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles can be categorized as acute, obtuse or right. Angles can also be complementary or supplementary depending on how many degrees they add up to. Plane figures can also refer to shapes in the coordinate plane. Triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons can be shown in the coordinate plane. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Perimeter and area
What Is Perimeter and Area? Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To find the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Three dimensional geometry/Measurement
Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Geometric Proportions
Geometric proportions compare two similar polygons. Similar polygons have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Geometric Proportions
Geometric proportions compare two similar polygons. Similar polygons have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Plane Figures: Lines and Angles
Plane figures in regards to lines and angles refer to the coordinate plane and the various lines and angles within the coordinate plane. Lines in a coordinate plane can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles in a coordinate plane can be acute, obtuse, right or straight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Plane Figures: Closed Figure Relationships
Plane figures in regards to closed figure relationships refer to the coordinate plane and congruent figures, circles, circle graphs, transformations and symmetry. Congruent figures have the same size and shape. Transformations are made up of translations, rotations and reflections. A translation of a figure keeps the size and shape of a figure, but moves it to a different location. A rotation turns a figure about a point on the figure. A reflection of a figure produces a mirror image of the figure when it is reflected in a given line. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### The Pythagorean Theorem
Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Patterns in geometry
Patterns in geometry refer to shapes and their measures. Shapes can be congruent to one another. Shapes can also be manipulated to form similar shapes. The types of transformations are reflection, rotation, dilation and translation. With a reflection, a figure is reflected, or flipped, in a line so that the new figure is a mirror image on the other side of the line. A rotation rotates, or turns, a shape to make a new figure. A dilation shrinks or enlarges a figure. A translation shifts a figure to a new position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 3.2. Specify locations and describe spatial relationships using coordinate geometry and other representational systems.
###### Plane figures
Plane figures refer to points, lines, angles, and planes in the coordinate plane. Lines can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles can be categorized as acute, obtuse or right. Angles can also be complementary or supplementary depending on how many degrees they add up to. Plane figures can also refer to shapes in the coordinate plane. Triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons can be shown in the coordinate plane. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Plane figures
Plane figures refer to points, lines, angles, and planes in the coordinate plane. Lines can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles can be categorized as acute, obtuse or right. Angles can also be complementary or supplementary depending on how many degrees they add up to. Plane figures can also refer to shapes in the coordinate plane. Triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons can be shown in the coordinate plane. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 3.3. Apply transformations and use symmetry to analyze mathematical situations.
###### Patterns in geometry
Patterns in geometry refer to shapes and their measures. Shapes can be congruent to one another. Shapes can also be manipulated to form similar shapes. The types of transformations are reflection, rotation, dilation and translation. With a reflection, a figure is reflected, or flipped, in a line so that the new figure is a mirror image on the other side of the line. A rotation rotates, or turns, a shape to make a new figure. A dilation shrinks or enlarges a figure. A translation shifts a figure to a new position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Patterns in geometry
Patterns in geometry refer to shapes and their measures. Shapes can be congruent to one another. Shapes can also be manipulated to form similar shapes. The types of transformations are reflection, rotation, dilation and translation. With a reflection, a figure is reflected, or flipped, in a line so that the new figure is a mirror image on the other side of the line. A rotation rotates, or turns, a shape to make a new figure. A dilation shrinks or enlarges a figure. A translation shifts a figure to a new position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 3.4. Use visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
###### Measurement, Perimeter, and Circumference
There are two systems used to measure objects, the U.S. Customary system and the metric system. The U.S. Customary system measures length in inches, feet, yards and miles. The metric system is a base ten system and measures length in kilometers, meters, and millimeters. Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To get the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Exploring Area and Surface Area
Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Finding Volume
Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of cubed units and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = l · w · h, where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Perimeter and area
What Is Perimeter and Area? Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To find the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Three dimensional geometry/Measurement
Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.4. Measurement

##### 4.1. Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units, systems, and processes of measurement.
###### Plane Figures: Lines and Angles
Plane figures in regards to lines and angles refer to the coordinate plane and the various lines and angles within the coordinate plane. Lines in a coordinate plane can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles in a coordinate plane can be acute, obtuse, right or straight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 4.2. Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements.
###### Plane Figures: Lines and Angles
Plane figures in regards to lines and angles refer to the coordinate plane and the various lines and angles within the coordinate plane. Lines in a coordinate plane can be parallel or perpendicular. Angles in a coordinate plane can be acute, obtuse, right or straight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Measurement, Perimeter, and Circumference
There are two systems used to measure objects, the U.S. Customary system and the metric system. The U.S. Customary system measures length in inches, feet, yards and miles. The metric system is a base ten system and measures length in kilometers, meters, and millimeters. Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To get the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Exploring Area and Surface Area
Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Finding Volume
Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of cubed units and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = l · w · h, where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Perimeter and area
What Is Perimeter and Area? Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To find the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Three dimensional geometry/Measurement
Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Measurement, Perimeter, and Circumference
There are two systems used to measure objects, the U.S. Customary system and the metric system. The U.S. Customary system measures length in inches, feet, yards and miles. The metric system is a base ten system and measures length in kilometers, meters, and millimeters. Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To get the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Exploring Area and Surface Area
Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Perimeter and area
What Is Perimeter and Area? Perimeter is the measurement of the distance around a figure. It is measured in units and can be measured by inches, feet, blocks, meters, centimeters or millimeters. To find the perimeter of any figure, simply add up the measures of the sides of the figure. Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Exploring Area and Surface Area
Area is the amount of surface a shape covers. Area is measured in square units, whether the units are inches, feet, meters or centimeters. The area formula for a triangle is: A = 1/2 · b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. The area formula for a circle is: A = π · r², where π is usually 3.14 and r is the radius of the circle. The area formula for a parallelogram is: A = b · h, where b is the base and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Finding Volume
Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of cubed units and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. The formula for the volume of a rectangular prism is V = l · w · h, where l is the length, w is the width, and h is the height. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Three dimensional geometry/Measurement
Three-dimensional geometry/measurement refers to three-dimensional (3D) shapes and the measurement of their shapes concerning volume and surface area. The figures of prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones and spheres are all 3D figures. Volume measures the amount a solid figure can hold. Volume is measured in terms of units³ and can be measured in inches, feet, meters, centimeters, and millimeters. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Geometric Proportions
Geometric proportions compare two similar polygons. Similar polygons have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Numerical Proportions
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. The numbers can have the same units such as a ratio or the numbers can have different units such as rates. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. Ratios are used to compare objects, wins and losses, sides of a figure to its area and many more. Rates are used to compare miles per hour, words per minute, and many others. A unit rate is when the denominator of a proportion is one. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.5. Data Analysis and Probability

##### 5.1. Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.
###### Collecting and describing data
Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Experimental Probability
FreeExperimental probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on an experiment being performed multiple times. Probability word problems worksheets. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data
There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Displaying data
Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 5.2. Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.
###### Organizing Data
The data can be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode, median and range are different ways to evaluate data. The mean is the average of the data. The mode refers to the number that occurs the most often in the data. The median is the middle number when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest. The range is the difference in numbers when the lowest number is subtracted from the highest number. Data can be organized into a table, such as a frequency table. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Collecting and describing data
Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data
There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Displaying data
Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
##### 5.3. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.
###### Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data
There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Displaying data
Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Linear relationships
Linear relationships refer to two quantities that are related with a linear equation. Since a linear equation is a line, a linear relationship refers to two quantities on a line and their relationship to one another. This relationship can be direct or inverse. If y varies directly as x, it means if y is doubled, then x is doubled. The formula for a direct variation is y = kx, where k is the constant of variation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Collecting and describing data
Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Experimental Probability
FreeExperimental probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on an experiment being performed multiple times. Probability word problems worksheets. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 5.4. Understand and apply basic concepts of probability
###### Introduction to Probability
Probability is the possibility that a certain event will occur. An event that is certain to occur has a probability of 1. An event that cannot occur has a probability of 0. Therefore, the probability of an event occurring is always between 0 and 1. Probability word problems worksheets. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Experimental Probability
FreeExperimental probability is the probability that a certain outcome will occur based on an experiment being performed multiple times. Probability word problems worksheets. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using Probability
Probability is the possibility that a certain event will occur. Probability is the chance of an event occurring divided by the total number of possible outcomes. Probability is based on whether events are dependent or independent of each other. An independent event refers to the outcome of one event not affecting the outcome of another event. A dependent event is when the outcome of one event does affect the outcome of the other event. Probability word problems. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.6. Problem Solving

##### 6.1. Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 6.2. Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 6.3. Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.7. Reasoning and Proof

##### 7.1. Recognize reasoning and proof as fundamental aspects of mathematics.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 7.2. Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 7.3. Develop and evaluate mathematical arguments and proofs.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 7.4. Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.9. Connections

##### 9.2. Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.
###### Mathematical processes
Mathematical processes refer to the skills and strategies needed in order to solve mathematical problems. If one strategy does not help to find the solution to a problem, using another strategy may help to solve it. Problem solving skills refer to the math techniques that must be used to solve a problem. If a problem were to determine the perimeter of a square, a needed skill would be the knowledge of what perimeter means and the ability to add the numbers. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.11. Grade 8 Curriculum Focal Points

##### 11.1. Algebra: Analyzing and representing linear functions and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations
###### Introduction to Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Linear equations
Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Linear relationships
Linear relationships refer to two quantities that are related with a linear equation. Since a linear equation is a line, a linear relationship refers to two quantities on a line and their relationship to one another. This relationship can be direct or inverse. If y varies directly as x, it means if y is doubled, then x is doubled. The formula for a direct variation is y = kx, where k is the constant of variation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 11.2. Geometry and Measurement: Analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures by using distance and angle
###### The Pythagorean Theorem
Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Ratios, proportions and percents
Numerical proportions compare two numbers. A proportion is usually in the form of a:b or a/b. There are 4 parts to a proportion and it can be solved when 3 of the 4 parts are known. Proportions can be solved using the Cross Product Property, which states that the cross products of a proportion are equal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Similarity and scale
Similarity refers to similar figures and the ability to compare them using proportions. Similar figures have equal corresponding angles and corresponding sides that are in proportion. A proportion equation can be used to prove two figures to be similar. If two figures are similar, the proportion equation can be used to find a missing side of one of the figures. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 11.3. Data Analysis and Number and Operations and Algebra: Analyzing and summarizing data sets
###### Organizing Data
The data can be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode, median and range are different ways to evaluate data. The mean is the average of the data. The mode refers to the number that occurs the most often in the data. The median is the middle number when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest. The range is the difference in numbers when the lowest number is subtracted from the highest number. Data can be organized into a table, such as a frequency table. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Collecting and describing data
Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Displaying data
Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

#### NCTM.12. Connections to the Grade 8 Focal Points

##### 12.1. Algebra: Students encounter some nonlinear functions (such as the inverse proportions that they studied in grade 7 as well as basic quadratic and exponential functions) whose rates of change contrast with the constant rate of change of linear functions. They view arithmetic sequences, including those arising from patterns or problems, as linear functions whose inputs are counting numbers. They apply ideas about linear functions to solve problems involving rates such as motion at a constant speed.
###### Nonlinear Functions and Set Theory
A function can be in the form of y = mx + b. This is an equation of a line, so it is said to be a linear function. Nonlinear functions are functions that are not straight lines. Some examples of nonlinear functions are exponential functions and parabolic functions. An exponential function, y = aˆx, is a curved line that gets closer to but does not touch the x-axis. A parabolic function, y = ax² + bx +c, is a U-shaped line that can either be facing up or facing down. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Sequences
A sequence is an ordered list of numbers. Sequences are the result of a pattern or rule. A pattern or rule can be every other number or some formula such as y = 2x + 3. When a pattern or rule is given, a sequence can be found. When a sequence is given, the pattern or rule can be found. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 12.2. Geometry: Given a line in a coordinate plane, students understand that all ''slope triangles'' - triangles created by a vertical ''rise'' line segment (showing the change in y), a horizontal ''run'' line segment (showing the change in x), and a segment of the line itself - are similar. They also understand the relationship of these similar triangles to the constant slope of a line.
###### Introduction to Functions
A function is a rule that is performed on a number, called an input, to produce a result called an output. The rule consists of one or more mathematical operations that are performed on the input. An example of a function is y = 2x + 3, where x is the input and y is the output. The operations of multiplication and addition are performed on the input, x, to produce the output, y. By substituting a number for x, an output can be determined. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
###### Linear equations
Linear equations are equations that have two variables and when graphed are a straight line. Linear equation can be graphed based on their slope and y-intercept. The standard equation for a line is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. Slope can be found with the formula m = (y2 - y1)/(x2 - x1), which represents the change in y over the change in x. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 12.3. Data Analysis: Building on their work in previous grades to organize and display data to pose and answer questions, students now see numerical data as an aggregate, which they can often summarize with one or several numbers. In addition to the median, students determine the 25th and 75th percentiles (1st and 3rd quartiles) to obtain information about the spread of data. They may use box-and-whisker plots to convey this information. Students make scatterplots to display bivariate data, and they informally estimate lines of best fit to make and test conjectures.
###### Organizing Data
The data can be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode, median and range are different ways to evaluate data. The mean is the average of the data. The mode refers to the number that occurs the most often in the data. The median is the middle number when the data is arranged in order from lowest to highest. The range is the difference in numbers when the lowest number is subtracted from the highest number. Data can be organized into a table, such as a frequency table. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Analyzing, Graphing and Displaying Data
There are many types of graphs such as, bar graphs, histograms and line graphs. A bar graph compares data in categories and uses bars, either vertical or horizontal. A histogram is similar to a bar graph, but with histograms the bars touch each other where with bar graphs the bars do not touch each other. A line graph is useful for graphing how data changes over time. With a line graph, data is plotted as points and lines are drawn to connect the points to show how the data changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Using graphs to analyze data
There are different types of graphs and ways that data can be analyzed using the graphs. Graphs are based on the coordinate plane. Data are the points on the plane. If collecting data about the ages of people living on one street, the data is all the ages. The data can then be organized into groups, and evaluated. Mean, mode and median are different ways to evaluate data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Collecting and describing data
Collecting and describing data refers to the different ways to gather data and the different ways to arrange data whether it is in a table, graph, or pie chart. Data can be collected by either taking a sample of a population or by conducting a survey. Describing data looks at data after it has been organized and makes conclusions about the data. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
###### Displaying data
Displaying data refers to the many ways that data can be displayed whether it is on a bar graph, line graph, circle graph, pictograph, line plot, scatter plot or another way. Certain data is better displayed with different graphs as opposed to other graphs. E.g. if data representing the cost of a movie over the past 5 years were to be displayed, a line graph would be best. A circle graph would not be appropriate to use because a circle graph represents data that can add up to one or 100%. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Linear relationships
Linear relationships refer to two quantities that are related with a linear equation. Since a linear equation is a line, a linear relationship refers to two quantities on a line and their relationship to one another. This relationship can be direct or inverse. If y varies directly as x, it means if y is doubled, then x is doubled. The formula for a direct variation is y = kx, where k is the constant of variation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
##### 12.4. Number and Operations: Students use exponents and scientific notation to describe very large and very small numbers. They use square roots when they apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
###### Exponents, Factors and Fractions
In a mathematical expression where the same number is multiplied many times, it is often useful to write the number as a base with an exponent. Exponents are also used to evaluate numbers. Any number to a zero exponent is 1 and any number to a negative exponent is a number less than 1. Exponents are used in scientific notation to make very large or very small numbers easier to write. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### The Pythagorean Theorem
Pythagorean Theorem is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry. It states the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle equals the square of the length of the hypotenuse. Determine the distance between two points using the Pythagorean Theorem. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
###### Polynomials and Exponents
A polynomial is an expression which is in the form of axn, where a is any real number and n is a whole number. If a polynomial has only one term, it is called a monomial. If it has two terms, it is a binomial and if it has three terms, it is a trinomial. The standard form of a polynomial is when the powers of the variables are decreasing from left to right. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1