## What's New: Worksheets and Study Guides

Living and Nonliving Kindergarten Science
Living and Nonliving Kindergarten Science
Whole Numbers Kindergarten Math
Whole Numbers Kindergarten Math

## New York Standards for High School Science

### NY.C. PHYSICAL SETTING / CHEMISTRY

#### C.1. Analysis, Inquiry, and Design: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

##### C.1.M1. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Abstraction and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically.
###### 1.M1.1. Use algebraic and geometric representations to describe and compare data.
1.M1.1.i. Organize, graph, and analyze data gathered from laboratory activities or other sources: identify independent and dependent variables.1.M1.1.ii. Organize, graph, and analyze data gathered from laboratory activities or other sources: create appropriate axes with labels and scale.1.M1.1.iii. Organize, graph, and analyze data gathered from laboratory activities or other sources: identify graph points clearly.1.M1.1.iv. Measure and record experimental data and use data in calculations: choose appropriate measurement scales and use units in recording.1.M1.1.v. Measure and record experimental data and use data in calculations: show mathematical work, stating formula and steps for solution.1.M1.1.vii. Measure and record experimental data and use data in calculations: use appropriate equations and significant digits.1.M1.1.xii. Recognize and convert various scales of measurement: Length - kilometers (km); meters (m); centimeters (cm); millimeters (mm).1.M1.1.xiii. Recognize and convert various scales of measurement: Mass - grams (g); kilograms (kg).1.M1.1.xiv. Recognize and convert various scales of measurement: Pressure - kilopascal (kPa); atmosphere (atm).1.M1.1.xv. Use knowledge of geometric arrangements to predict particle properties or behavior.
##### C.1.M2. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions.
###### 1.M2.1. Use deductive reasoning to construct and evaluate conjectures and arguments, recognizing that patterns and relationships in mathematics assist them in arriving at these conjectures and arguments.
1.M2.1.i. Interpret a graph constructed from experimentally obtained data: identify relationships - direct; inverse.1.M2.1.ii. Interpret a graph constructed from experimentally obtained data: apply data showing trends to predict information.
##### C.1.M3. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical problems.
###### 1.M3.1. Apply algebraic and geometric concepts and skills to the solution of problems.
1.M3.1.i. State assumptions which apply to the use of a particular mathematical equation and evaluate these assumptions to see if they have been met.
##### C.1.S1. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.
###### 1.S1.1. Elaborate on basic scientific and personal explanations of natural phenomena, and develop extended visual models and mathematical formulations to represent thinking.
1.S1.1.i. Use theories and/or models to represent and explain observations.1.S1.1.ii. Use theories and/or principles to make predictions about natural phenomena.
###### 1.S1.3. Work towards reconciling competing explanations, clarifying points of agreement and disagreement.
1.S1.3.i. Evaluate the merits of various scientific theories and indicate why one theory was accepted over another.
##### C.1.S2. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.
###### 1.S2.1. Devise ways of making observations to test proposed explanations.
1.S2.1.i. Design and/or carry out experiments, using scientific methodology to test proposed calculations.
###### 1.S2.4. Carry out a research plan for testing explanations, including selecting and developing techniques, acquiring and building apparatus, and recording observations as necessary.
1.S2.4.i. Determine safety procedures to accompany a research plan
##### C.1.S3. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.
###### 1.S3.1. Use various means of representing and organizing observations (e.g., diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, equations, and matrices) and insightfully interpret the organized data.
1.S3.1.i. Organize observations in a data table, analyze the data for trends or patterns, and interpret the trends or patterns, using scientific concepts.
###### 1.S3.3. Assess correspondence between the predicted result contained in the hypothesis and the actual result, and reach a conclusion as to whether or not the explanation on which the prediction is supported.
1.S3.3.ii. Compare the experimental result to the expected result; calculate the percent error as appropriate.

#### C.4. The Physical Setting: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

##### C.4.3. Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.
###### 4.3.1. Explain the properties of materials in terms of the arrangement and properties of the atoms that compose them.
4.3.1.i. Use models to describe the structure of an atom.4.3.1.ii. Relate experimental evidence (given in the introduction of Key Idea 3) to models of the atom.4.3.1.iii. Determine the number of protons or electrons in an atom or ion when given one of these values.4.3.1.iv. Calculate the mass of an atom, the number of neutrons or the number of protons, given the other two values.4.3.1.v. Distinguish between ground state and excited state electron configurations, e.g., 2-8-2 vs. 2-7-3.4.3.1.vii. Distinguish between valence and non-valence electrons, given an electron configuration, e.g., 2-8-2.4.3.1.x. Interpret and write isotopic notation.4.3.1.xi. Given an atomic mass, determine the most abundant isotope.4.3.1.xii. Calculate the atomic mass of an element, given the masses and ratios of naturally occurring isotopes.4.3.1.xiii. Classify elements as metals, nonmetals, metalloids, or noble gases by their properties.4.3.1.xiv. Compare and contrast properties of elements within a group or a period for Groups 1, 2, 13-18 on the Periodic Table.4.3.1.xix. Distinguish among ionic, molecular, and metallic substances, given their properties.4.3.1.xv. Determine the group of an element, given the chemical formula of a compound, e.g., XCl or XCl2.4.3.1.xvi. Explain the placement of an unknown element on the Periodic Table based on its properties.4.3.1.xvii. Classify an organic compound based on its structural or condensed structural formula.4.3.1.xviii. Describe the states of the elements at STP.4.3.1.xxii. Use a simple particle model to differentiate among properties of solids, liquids, and gases.4.3.1.xxiii. Compare the entropy of phases of matter.4.3.1.xxix. Calculate solution concentration in molarity (M), percent mass, and parts per million (ppm).4.3.1.xxvi. Apply the adage ''like dissolves like'' to real-world situations.4.3.1.xxvii. Interpret solution concentration data.4.3.1.xxx. Describe the preparation of a solution, given the molarity.4.3.1.xxxi. Given properties, identify substances as Arrhenius acids or Arrhenius bases.4.3.1.xxxiv. Write simple neutralization reactions when given the reactants.
###### 4.3.2. Use atomic and molecular models to explain common chemical reactions.
4.3.2.i. Distinguish between chemical and physical changes.4.3.2.ii. Identify types of chemical reactions.4.3.2.iii. Determine a missing reactant or product in a balanced equation.4.3.2.ix. Compare and contrast voltaic and electrolytic cells.4.3.2.v. Balance equations, given the formulas of reactants and products.4.3.2.viii. Identify and label the parts of an electrolytic cell (cathode, anode) and direction of electron flow, given the reaction equation.
###### 4.3.3. Apply the principle of conservation of mass to chemical reactions.
4.3.3.i. Balance equations, given the formulas for reactants and products.4.3.3.iii. Create and use models of particles to demonstrate balanced equations.
###### 4.3.4. Use kinetic molecular theory (KMT) to explain rates of reactions and the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a substance.
4.3.4.i. Explain the gas laws in terms of KMT.4.3.4.ii. Solve problems, using the combined gas laws.4.3.4.iv. Describe the concentration of particles and rates of opposing reactions in an equilibrium system.4.3.4.vi. Use collision theory to explain how various factors, such as temperature, surface area, and concentration, influence the rate of reaction.4.3.4.vii. Identify examples of physical equilibria as solution equilibrium and phase equilibrium, including the concept that a saturated solution is at equilibrium.
##### C.4.4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change, energy is conserved.
###### 4.4.1. Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.4.1.i. Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions, using energy terms in a reaction equation, delta H, potential energy diagrams, or experimental data.4.4.1.ii. Read and interpret potential energy diagrams: PE reactants, PE products, activation energy (with or without a catalyst), heat of reaction.
###### 4.4.2. Explain heat in terms of kinetic molecular theory.
4.4.2.i. Distinguish between heat energy and temperature in terms of molecular motion and amount of matter.4.4.2.ii. Explain phase change in terms of the changes in energy and intermolecular distances.4.4.2.iii. Qualitatively interpret heating and cooling curves in terms of changes in kinetic and potential energy, heat of vaporization, heat of fusion, and phase changes.
##### C.4.5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.
###### 4.5.2. Students will explain chemical bonding in terms of the behavior of electrons.
4.5.2.i. Demonstrate bonding concepts, using Lewis dot structures representing valence electrons: transferred (ionic bonding); shared (covalent bonding); in a stable octet.4.5.2.ii. Compare the physical properties of substances based on chemical bonds and intermolecular forces, e.g., conductivity, malleability, solubility, hardness, melting point, and boiling point.4.5.2.iii. Explain vapor pressure, evaporation rate, and phase changes in terms of intermolecular forces.4.5.2.iv. Determine the noble gas configuration an atom will achieve by bonding.4.5.2.v. Distinguish between nonpolar covalent bonds (two of the same nonmetals) and polar covalent bonds.

#### C.6. Interconnectedness: Common Themes: Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

##### C.6.2. Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems used in analysis, explanation, interpretation, or design.
###### 6.2.1. Revise a model to create a more complete or improved representation of the system.
6.2.1.i. Show how models are revised in response to experimental evidence, e.g., atomic theory, Periodic Table.
###### 6.2.2. Collect information about the behavior of a system and use modeling tools to represent the operation of the system.
6.2.2.i. Show how information about a system is used to create a model, e.g., kinetic molecular theory (KMT).
###### 6.2.3. Find and use mathematical models that behave in the same manner as the processes under investigation.
6.2.3.i. Show how mathematical models (equations) describe a process, e.g., combined gas law.
##### C.6.3. The grouping of magnitudes of size, time, frequency, and pressures or other units of measurement into a series of relative order provides a useful way to deal with the immense range and the changes in scale that affect the behavior and design of systems.
###### 6.3.1. Describe the effects of changes in scale on the functioning of physical, biological, or designed information systems.
6.3.1.i. Show how microscale processes can resemble or differ from real-world processes, e.g., microscale chemistry.
##### C.6.4. Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of change (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).
###### 6.4.1. Describe specific instances of how disturbances might affect a system's equilibrium, from small disturbances that do not upset the equilibrium to larger disturbances (threshold level) that cause the system to become unstable.
6.4.1.i. Explain how a small change might not affect a system, e.g., activation energy.

#### C.7. Interdisciplinary Problem Solving: Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

##### C.7.1. The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena.
###### 7.1.2. Analyze and quantify consumer product data, understand environmental and economic impacts, develop a method for judging the value and efficacy of competing products, and discuss cost-benefit and risk-benefit trade-offs made in arriving at the optimal choice.
7.1.2.i. Compare and analyze specific consumer products, e.g., antacids, vitamin C.

### NY.P. PHYSICAL SETTING / PHYSICS

#### P.1. Analysis, Inquiry, and Design: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

##### P.1.M1. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Abstraction and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically.
###### 1.M1.1. Use algebraic and geometric representations to describe and compare data.
1.M1.1.ii. Represent physical quantities in graphical form.1.M1.1.iii. Construct graphs of real-world data (scatter plots, line or curve of best fit).1.M1.1.iv. Manipulate equations to solve for unknowns.
##### P.1.M2. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions.
###### 1.M2.1. Use deductive reasoning to construct and evaluate conjectures and arguments, recognizing that patterns and relationships in mathematics assist them in arriving at these conjectures and arguments.
1.M2.1.i. Interpret graphs to determine the mathematical relationship between the variables.
##### P.1.M3. MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical problems.
###### 1.M3.1. Apply algebraic and geometric concepts and skills to the solution of problems.
1.M3.1.i. Explain the physical relevance of properties of a graphical representation of real-world data, e.g., slope, intercepts, area under the curve.
##### P.1.S3. SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.
###### 1.S3.2. Apply statistical analysis techniques when appropriate to test if chance alone explains the result.
1.S3.2.i. Examine collected data to evaluate the reliability of experimental results, including percent error, range, standard deviation, line of best fit, and the use of the correct number of significant digits

#### P.2. Information Systems: Students will access, generate, process, and transfer information, using appropriate technologies.

##### P.2.1. Information technology is used to retrieve, process, and communicate information as a tool to enhance learning.
###### 2.1.2. Prepare multimedia presentations demonstrating a clear sense of audience and purpose. (Note: Multimedia may include posters, slides, images, presentation software, etc.)
2.1.2.ii. Use appropriate technology to gather experimental data, develop models, and present results.

#### P.4. The Physical Setting: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

##### P.4.4. Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.
###### 4.4.1. Observe and describe transmission of various forms of energy.
4.4.1.i. Describe and explain the exchange among potential energy, kinetic energy, and internal energy for simple mechanical systems, such as a pendulum, a roller coaster, a spring, a freely falling object.4.4.1.ii. Predict velocities, heights, and spring compressions based on energy conservation.4.4.1.iii. Determine the energy stored in a spring.4.4.1.ix. Use measurements to determine the resistance of a circuit element.4.4.1.v. Observe and explain energy conversions in real-world situations.4.4.1.vi. Recognize and describe conversions among different forms of energy in real or hypothetical devices such as a motor, a generator, a photocell, a battery.4.4.1.vii. Compare the power developed when the same work is done at different rates.4.4.1.viii. Measure current and voltage in a circuit.4.4.1.x. Interpret graphs of voltage versus current.4.4.1.xi. Measure and compare the resistance of conductors of various lengths and cross-sectional areas.4.4.1.xii. Construct simple series and parallel circuits.4.4.1.xiii. Draw and interpret circuit diagrams which include voltmeters and ammeters.4.4.1.xiv. Predict the behavior of lightbulbs in series and parallel circuits.4.4.1.xv. Map the magnetic field of a permanent magnet, indicating the direction of the field between the N (north-seeking) and S (south-seeking) poles.
###### 4.4.3. Explain variations in wavelength and frequency in terms of the source of the vibrations that produce them, e.g., molecules, electrons, and nuclear particles.
4.4.3.i. Compare the characteristics of two transverse waves such as amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed, period, and phase.4.4.3.ii. Draw wave forms with various characteristics.4.4.3.iii. Identify nodes and antinodes in standing waves.4.4.3.iv. Differentiate between transverse and longitudinal waves.4.4.3.ix. Determine empirically the index of refraction of a transparent medium.4.4.3.v. Determine the speed of sound in air.4.4.3.vi. Predict the superposition of two waves interfering constructively and destructively (indicating nodes, antinodes, and standing waves).4.4.3.vii. Observe, sketch, and interpret the behavior of wave fronts as they reflect, refract, and diffract.4.4.3.viii. Draw ray diagrams to represent the reflection and refraction of waves.
##### P.4.5. Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.
###### 4.5.1. Explain and predict different patterns of motion of objects (e.g., linear and uniform circular motion, velocity and acceleration, momentum and inertia).
4.5.1.i. Construct and interpret graphs of position, velocity, or acceleration versus time.4.5.1.ii. Determine and interpret slopes and areas of motion graphs.4.5.1.ix. Verify Newton's Second Law for linear motion.4.5.1.viii. Use vector diagrams to analyze mechanical systems (equilibrium and nonequilibrium).4.5.1.xi. Verify Newton's Second Law for uniform circular motion.4.5.1.xii. Verify conservation of momentum.4.5.1.xiii. Determine a spring constant.
###### 4.5.3. Compare energy relationships within an atom's nucleus to those outside the nucleus.
4.5.3.i. Interpret energy-level diagrams.

#### P.6. Interconnectedness: Common Themes: Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

##### P.6.5. Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.
###### 6.5.1. Use sophisticated mathematical models, such as graphs and equations of various algebraic or trigonometric functions.
6.5.1.i. Predict the behavior of physical systems, using mathematical models such as graphs and equations.
###### 6.5.2. Search for multiple trends when analyzing data for patterns, and identify data that do not fit the trends.
6.5.2.i. Deduce patterns from the organization and presentation of data.6.5.2.ii. Identify and develop models, using patterns in data.

#### P.7. Interdisciplinary Problem Solving: Students will apply the knowledge and thinking skills of mathematics, science, and technology to address real-life problems and make informed decisions.

##### P.7.2. Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.
###### 7.2.2. If students participate in an extended, culminating mathematics, science, and technology project, then students should:
7.2.2.ii. Gather and process information7.2.2.iii. Generate and analyze ideas7.2.2.iv. Observe common themes7.2.2.v. Realize ideas