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## Next Generation Science Standards for High School Science

### NGSS.HS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

#### HS-ESS1. Earth’s Place in the Universe - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-ESS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-ESS1.CC.3. Energy and Matter
HS-ESS1.CC.3.2. In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved.
##### HS-ESS1.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science
###### HS-ESS1.CNS.2. Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
HS-ESS1.CNS.2.1. Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.
##### HS-ESS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars
ESS1.A:1. The star called the sun is changing and will burn out over a lifespan of approximately 10 billion years. (HS-ESS1-1)ESS1.A:3. The Big Bang theory is supported by observations of distant galaxies receding from our own, of the measured composition of stars and non-stellar gases, and of the maps of spectra of the primordial radiation (cosmic microwave background) that still fills the universe. (HS-ESS1-2)
###### ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1.B:1. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the sun. Orbits may change due to the gravitational effects from, or collisions with, other objects in the solar system. (HS-ESS1-4)
###### ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth
ESS1.C:2. Although active geologic processes, such as plate tectonics and erosion, have destroyed or altered most of the very early rock record on Earth, other objects in the solar system, such as lunar rocks, asteroids, and meteorites, have changed little over billions of years. Studying these objects can provide information about Earth’s formation and early history. (HS-ESS1-6)
###### ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
ESS2.B:1. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. (secondary to HS-ESS1-5)
###### PS1.C: Nuclear Processes
PS1.C:1. Spontaneous radioactive decays follow a characteristic exponential decay law. Nuclear lifetimes allow radiometric dating to be used to determine the ages of rocks and other materials. (secondary to HS-ESS1-5), (secondary to HS-ESS1-6)
###### PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
PS3.D:1. Nuclear Fusion processes in the center of the sun release the energy that ultimately reaches Earth as radiation. (secondary to HS-ESS1-1)

#### HS-ESS2. Earth’s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-ESS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-ESS2.CC.2. Energy and Matter
HS-ESS2.CC.2.2. Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems.
##### HS-ESS2.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science
###### HS-ESS2.CNS.1. Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
HS-ESS2.CNS.1.1. Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. HS-ESS2.CNS.1.2. Science disciplines share common rules of evidence used to evaluate explanations about natural systems.
##### HS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1.B:1. Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS-ESS2-4)
###### ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems
ESS2.A:2. Evidence from deep probes and seismic waves, reconstructions of historical changes in Earth’s surface and its magnetic field, and an understanding of physical and chemical processes lead to a model of Earth with a hot but solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid mantle and crust. Motions of the mantle and its plates occur primarily through thermal convection, which involves the cycling of matter due to the outward flow of energy from Earth’s interior and gravitational movement of denser materials toward the interior. (HS-ESS2-3)ESS2.A:3. The geological record shows that changes to global and regional climate can be caused by interactions among changes in the sun’s energy output or Earth’s orbit, tectonic events, ocean circulation, volcanic activity, glaciers, vegetation, and human activities. These changes can occur on a variety of time scales from sudden (e.g., volcanic ash clouds) to intermediate (ice ages) to very long-term tectonic cycles. (HS-ESS2-4)
###### ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
ESS2.B:1. The radioactive decay of unstable isotopes continually generates new energy within Earth’s crust and mantle, providing the primary source of the heat that drives mantle convection. Plate tectonics can be viewed as the surface expression of mantle convection. (HS-ESS2-3)ESS2.B:2. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a framework for understanding its geologic history. Plate movements are responsible for most continental and ocean-floor features and for the distribution of most rocks and minerals within Earth’s crust. (HS-ESS2-1)
###### ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
ESS2.C:1. The abundance of liquid water on Earth’s surface and its unique combination of physical and chemical properties are central to the planet’s dynamics. These properties include water’s exceptional capacity to absorb, store, and release large amounts of energy, transmit sunlight, expand upon freezing, dissolve and transport materials, and lower the viscosities and melting points of rocks. (HS-ESS2-5)
###### ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ESS2.D:1. The foundation for Earth’s global climate systems is the electromagnetic radiation from the sun, as well as its reflection, absorption, storage, and redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and land systems, and this energy’s re-radiation into space. (HS-ESS2-4)ESS2.D:3. Changes in the atmosphere due to human activity have increased carbon dioxide concentrations and thus affect climate. (HS-ESS2-6), (HS-ESS2-4)
###### ESS2.E: Biogeology
ESS2.E:1. The many dynamic and delicate feedbacks between the biosphere and other Earth systems cause a continual co-evolution of Earth’s surface and the life that exists on it. (HS-ESS2-7)
###### PS4.A: Wave Properties
PS4.A:1. Geologists use seismic waves and their reflection at interfaces between layers to probe structures deep in the planet. (secondary to HS-ESS2-3)

#### HS-ESS3. Earth and Human Activity - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-ESS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-ESS3.CC.3. Stability and Change
HS-ESS3.CC.3.2. Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.
##### HS-ESS3.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science
###### HS-ESS3.CNS.1. Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods
HS-ESS3.CNS.1.1. Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data.
###### HS-ESS3.CNS.2. Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
HS-ESS3.CNS.2.1. Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence.
##### HS-ESS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ESS2.D:1. Current models predict that, although future regional climate changes will be complex and varied, average global temperatures will continue to rise. The outcomes predicted by global climate models strongly depend on the amounts of human-generated greenhouse gases added to the atmosphere each year and by the ways in which these gases are absorbed by the ocean and biosphere. (secondary to HS-ESS3-6)
###### ESS3.A: Natural Resources
ESS3.A:2. All forms of energy production and other resource extraction have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs and risks as well as benefits. New technologies and social regulations can change the balance of these factors. (HS-ESS3-2)
###### ESS3.B: Natural Hazards
ESS3.B:1. Natural hazards and other geologic events have shaped the course of human history; have significantly altered the sizes of human populations and have driven human migrations. (HS-ESS3-1)
###### ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3.C:2. Scientists and engineers can make major contributions by developing technologies that produce less pollution and waste and that preclude ecosystem degradation. (HS-ESS3-4)
###### ESS3.D: Global Climate Change
ESS3.D:2. Through computer simulations and other studies, important discoveries are still being made about how the ocean, the atmosphere, and the biosphere interact and are modified in response to human activities. (HS-ESS3-6)
##### HS-ESS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
###### HS-ESS3.SEP.1. Analyzing and Interpreting Data - Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
HS-ESS3.SEP.1.1. Analyze data using computational models in order to make valid and reliable scientific claims.

### NGSS.HS-LS. LIFE SCIENCE

#### HS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-LS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-LS1.CC.2. Energy and Matter
HS-LS1.CC.2.1. Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system. ,
###### HS-LS1.CC.3. Structure and Function
HS-LS1.CC.3.1. Investigating or designing new systems or structures requires a detailed examination of the properties of different materials, the structures of different components, and connections of components to reveal its function and/or solve a problem.
###### HS-LS1.CC.4. Stability and Change
HS-LS1.CC.4.1. Feedback (negative or positive) can stabilize or destabilize a system.
##### HS-LS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### LS1.A: Structure and Function
LS1.A:1. Systems of specialized cells within organisms help them perform the essential functions of life. (HS-LS1-1)LS1.A:2. All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins, which carry out most of the work of cells. (HS-LS1-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS3-1.)LS1.A:3. Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)LS1.A:4. Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)
###### LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
LS1.B:1. In multicellular organisms individual cells grow and then divide via a process called mitosis, thereby allowing the organism to grow. The organism begins as a single cell (fertilized egg) that divides successively to produce many cells, with each parent cell passing identical genetic material (two variants of each chromosome pair) to both daughter cells. Cellular division and differentiation produce and maintain a complex organism, composed of systems of tissues and organs that work together to meet the needs of the whole organism. (HS-LS1-4)
###### LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
LS1.C:1. The process of photosynthesis converts light energy to stored chemical energy by converting carbon dioxide plus water into sugars plus released oxygen. (HS-LS1-5)LS1.C:2. The sugar molecules thus formed contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen: their hydrocarbon backbones are used to make amino acids and other carbon-based molecules that can be assembled into larger molecules (such as proteins or DNA), used for example to form new cells. (HS-LS1-6)LS1.C:3. As matter and energy flow through different organizational levels of living systems, chemical elements are recombined in different ways to form different products. (HS-LS1-6), (HS-LS1-7)LS1.C:4. As a result of these chemical reactions, energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another and release energy to the surrounding environment and to maintain body temperature. Cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and new compounds are formed that can transport energy to muscles. (HS-LS1-7)

#### HS-LS2. Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-LS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-LS2.CC.4. Energy and Matter
HS-LS2.CC.4.2. Energy drives the cycling of matter within and between systems.
###### HS-LS2.CC.5. Stability and Change
HS-LS2.CC.5.1. Much of science deals with constructing explanations of how things change and how they remain stable. ,
##### HS-LS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2.A:1. Ecosystems have carrying capacities, which are limits to the numbers of organisms and populations they can support. These limits result from such factors as the availability of living and nonliving resources and from such challenges such as predation, competition, and disease. Organisms would have the capacity to produce populations of great size were it not for the fact that environments and resources are finite. This fundamental tension affects the abundance (number of individuals) of species in any given ecosystem. (HS-LS2-1), (HS-LS2-2)
###### LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2.B:1. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration (including anaerobic processes) provide most of the energy for life processes. (HS-LS2-3)LS2.B:2. Plants or algae form the lowest level of the food web. At each link upward in a food web, only a small fraction of the matter consumed at the lower level is transferred upward, to produce growth and release energy in cellular respiration at the higher level. Given this inefficiency, there are generally fewer organisms at higher levels of a food web. Some matter reacts to release energy for life functions, some matter is stored in newly made structures, and much is discarded. The chemical elements that make up the molecules of organisms pass through food webs and into and out of the atmosphere and soil, and they are combined and recombined in different ways. At each link in an ecosystem, matter and energy are conserved. (HS-LS2-4)LS2.B:3. Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. (HS-LS2-5)
###### LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2.C:1. A complex set of interactions within an ecosystem can keep its numbers and types of organisms relatively constant over long periods of time under stable conditions. If a modest biological or physical disturbance to an ecosystem occurs, it may return to its more or less original status (i.e., the ecosystem is resilient), as opposed to becoming a very different ecosystem. Extreme fluctuations in conditions or the size of any population, however, can challenge the functioning of ecosystems in terms of resources and habitat availability. (HS-LS2-2), (HS-LS2-6)LS2.C:2. Moreover, anthropogenic changes (induced by human activity) in the environment—including habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, overexploitation, and climate change—can disrupt an ecosystem and threaten the survival of some species. (HS-LS2-7)
###### LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior
LS2.D:1. Group behavior has evolved because membership can increase the chances of survival for individuals and their genetic relatives. (HS-LS2-8)
###### LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans
LS4.D:2. Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (secondary to HS-LS2-7) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS4-6.)
###### PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes
PS3.D:1. The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary to HS-LS2-5)

#### HS-LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-LS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### LS1.A: Structure and Function
LS1.A:1. All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins. (secondary to HS-LS3-1) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS1-1.)
###### LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
LS3.A:1. Each chromosome consists of a single very long DNA molecule, and each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of that DNA. The instructions for forming species’ characteristics are carried in DNA. All cells in an organism have the same genetic content, but the genes used (expressed) by the cell may be regulated in different ways. Not all DNA codes for a protein; some segments of DNA are involved in regulatory or structural functions, and some have no as-yet known function. (HS-LS3-1)
###### LS3.B: Variation of Traits
LS3.B:1. In sexual reproduction, chromosomes can sometimes swap sections during the process of meiosis (cell division), thereby creating new genetic combinations and thus more genetic variation. Although DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, errors do occur and result in mutations, which are also a source of genetic variation. Environmental factors can also cause mutations in genes, and viable mutations are inherited. (HS-LS3-2)LS3.B:2. Environmental factors also affect expression of traits, and hence affect the probability of occurrences of traits in a population. Thus the variation and distribution of traits observed depends on both genetic and environmental factors. (HS-LS3-2), (HS-LS3-3)
##### HS-LS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
###### HS-LS3.SEP.2. Analyzing and Interpreting Data - Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
HS-LS3.SEP.2.1. Apply concepts of statistics and probability (including determining function fits to data, slope, intercept, and correlation coefficient for linear fits) to scientific and engineering questions and problems, using digital tools when feasible.

#### HS-LS4. Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-LS4.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
LS4.A:1. Genetic information, like the fossil record, provides evidence of evolution. DNA sequences vary among species, but there are many overlaps; in fact, the ongoing branching that produces multiple lines of descent can be inferred by comparing the DNA sequences of different organisms. Such information is also derivable from the similarities and differences in amino acid sequences and from anatomical and embryological evidence. (HS-LS4-1)
###### LS4.B: Natural Selection
LS4.B:1. Natural selection occurs only if there is both (1) variation in the genetic information between organisms in a population and (2) variation in the expression of that genetic information—that is, trait variation—that leads to differences in performance among individuals. (HS-LS4-2), (HS-LS4-3)LS4.B:2. The traits that positively affect survival are more likely to be reproduced, and thus are more common in the population. (HS-LS4-3)
LS4.C:1. Evolution is a consequence of the interaction of four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for an environment’s limited supply of the resources that individuals need in order to survive and reproduce, and (4) the ensuing proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in that environment. (HS-LS4-2)LS4.C:2. Natural selection leads to adaptation, that is, to a population dominated by organisms that are anatomically, behaviorally, and physiologically well suited to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. That is, the differential survival and reproduction of organisms in a population that have an advantageous heritable trait leads to an increase in the proportion of individuals in future generations that have the trait and to a decrease in the proportion of individuals that do not. (HS-LS4-3), (HS-LS4-4)LS4.C:3. Adaptation also means that the distribution of traits in a population can change when conditions change. (HS-LS4-3)
###### LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans
LS4.D:1. Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (HS-LS4-6) (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)

### NGSS.HS-PS. PHYSICAL SCIENCE

#### HS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-PS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-PS1.CC.1. Patterns
HS-PS1.CC.1.1. Different patterns may be observed at each of the scales at which a system is studied and can provide evidence for causality in explanations of phenomena. , , ,
###### HS-PS1.CC.2. Energy and Matter
HS-PS1.CC.2.3. Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
##### HS-PS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A:1. Each atom has a charged substructure consisting of a nucleus, which is made of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. (HS-PS1-1)PS1.A:2. The periodic table orders elements horizontally by the number of protons in the atom’s nucleus and places those with similar chemical properties in columns. The repeating patterns of this table reflect patterns of outer electron states. (HS-PS1-1), (HS-PS1-2)PS1.A:3. The structure and interactions of matter at the bulk scale are determined by electrical forces within and between atoms. (HS-PS1-3), (secondary to HS-PS2-6)PS1.A:4. Stable forms of matter are those in which the electric and magnetic field energy is minimized. A stable molecule has less energy than the same set of atoms separated; one must provide at least this energy in order to take the molecule apart. (HS-PS1-4)
###### PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1.B:1. Chemical processes, their rates, and whether or not energy is stored or released can be understood in terms of the collisions of molecules and the rearrangements of atoms into new molecules, with consequent changes in the sum of all bond energies in the set of molecules that are matched by changes in kinetic energy. (HS-PS1-4), (HS-PS1-5)PS1.B:2. In many situations, a dynamic and condition-dependent balance between a reaction and the reverse reaction determines the numbers of all types of molecules present. (HS-PS1-6)PS1.B:3. The fact that atoms are conserved, together with knowledge of the chemical properties of the elements involved, can be used to describe and predict chemical reactions. (HS-PS1-2), (HS-PS1-7)
##### HS-PS1.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
###### HS-PS1.SEP.1. Developing and Using Models - Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.
HS-PS1.SEP.1.1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system. , HS-PS1.SEP.1.2. Use a model to predict the relationships between systems or between components of a system.
###### HS-PS1.SEP.4. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions - Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
HS-PS1.SEP.4.2. Construct and revise an explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from a variety of sources (including students’ own investigations, models, theories, simulations, peer review) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future.

#### HS-PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-PS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### PS2.A: Forces and Motion
PS2.A:1. Newton’s second law accurately predicts changes in the motion of macroscopic objects. (HS-PS2-1)PS2.A:2. Momentum is defined for a particular frame of reference; it is the mass times the velocity of the object. In any system, total momentum is always conserved. (HS-PS2-2)PS2.A:3. If a system interacts with objects outside itself, the total momentum of the system can change; however, any such change is balanced by changes in the momentum of objects outside the system. (HS-PS2-2), (HS-PS2-3)
###### PS2.B: Types of Interactions
PS2.B:2. Forces at a distance are explained by fields (gravitational, electric, and magnetic) permeating space that can transfer energy through space. Magnets or electric currents cause magnetic fields; electric charges or changing magnetic fields cause electric fields. (HS-PS2-4), (HS-PS2-5)PS2.B:3. Attraction and repulsion between electric charges at the atomic scale explain the structure, properties, and transformations of matter, as well as the contact forces between material objects. (HS-PS2-6), (secondary to HS-PS1-1), (secondary to HS-PS1-3)
###### PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS3.A:1. …and “electrical energy” may mean energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by electric currents. (secondary to HS-PS2-5)
##### HS-PS2.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
###### HS-PS2.SEP.1. or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.
HS-PS2.SEP.1.1. Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

#### HS-PS3. Energy - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-PS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-PS3.CC.3. Energy and Matter
HS-PS3.CC.3.1. Changes of energy and matter in a system can be described in terms of energy and matter flows into, out of, and within that system.
##### HS-PS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS3.A:1. Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system’s total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms. (HS-PS3-1), (HS-PS3-2)PS3.A:2. At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy. (HS-PS3-2) (HS-PS3-3)PS3.A:3. These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space. (HS-PS3-2)
###### PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS3.B:1. Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system. (HS-PS3-1)PS3.B:2. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems. (HS-PS3-1), (HS-PS3-4)PS3.B:3. Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior. (HS-PS3-1)PS3.B:4. The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system. (HS-PS3-1)PS3.B:5. Uncontrolled systems always evolve toward more stable states—that is, toward more uniform energy distribution (e.g., water flows downhill, objects hotter than their surrounding environment cool down). (HS-PS3-4)
###### PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces
PS3.C:1. When two objects interacting through a field change relative position, the energy stored in the field is changed. (HS-PS3-5)
###### PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes
PS3.D:1. Although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be converted to less useful forms—for example, to thermal energy in the surrounding environment. (HS-PS3-3), (HS-PS3-4)
##### HS-PS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
###### HS-PS3.SEP.2. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations - Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.
HS-PS3.SEP.2.1. Plan and conduct an investigation individually and collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, and in the design: decide on types, how much, and accuracy of data needed to produce reliable measurements and consider limitations on the precision of the data (e.g., number of trials, cost, risk, time), and refine the design accordingly.

#### HS-PS4. Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

##### HS-PS4.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
###### HS-PS4.CC.1. Cause and Effect
HS-PS4.CC.1.1. Empirical evidence is required to differentiate between cause and correlation and make claims about specific causes and effects. HS-PS4.CC.1.2. Cause and effect relationships can be suggested and predicted for complex natural and human designed systems by examining what is known about smaller scale mechanisms within the system.
##### HS-PS4.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
###### PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes
PS3.D:1. Solar cells are human-made devices that likewise capture the sun’s energy and produce electrical energy. (secondary to HS-PS4-5)
###### PS4.A: Wave Properties
PS4.A:1. The wavelength and frequency of a wave are related to one another by the speed of travel of the wave, which depends on the type of wave and the medium through which it is passing. (HS-PS4-1)PS4.A:2. Information can be digitized (e.g., a picture stored as the values of an array of pixels); in this form, it can be stored reliably in computer memory and sent over long distances as a series of wave pulses. (HS-PS4-2), (HS-PS4-5)PS4.A:3. [From the 3–5 grade band endpoints] Waves can add or cancel one another as they cross, depending on their relative phase (i.e., relative position of peaks and troughs of the waves), but they emerge unaffected by each other. (Boundary: The discussion at this grade level is qualitative only; it can be based on the fact that two different sounds can pass a location in different directions without getting mixed up.) (HS-PS4-3)