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Washington DC Standards for High School Science

DC.B.1. Biology: Scientific Investigation and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:

B.1.1. Know the elements of scientific methodology (identification of a problem, hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, falsification, developing conclusions, reporting results) and be able to use a sequence of those elements to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. Also understand the limitations of any single scientific method (sequence of elements) in solving problems.

B.1.10. Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. (The focus is on manual graphing, interpreting graphs, and mastery of metric measurements and units, with supplementary use of computers and electronic data gathering when appropriate.)

B.1.11. Formulate and revise explanations using logic and evidence.

B.1.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying these concepts.

B.1.13. Apply mathematical relationships involving linear and quadratic equations, simple trigonometric relationships, exponential growth and decay laws, and logarithmic relationships to scientific situations.

B.1.14. Observe natural phenomena and analyze their location, sequence, or time intervals (e.g., relative ages of rocks and succession of species in an ecosystem).

B.1.4. Recognize the use and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

B.1.5. Distinguish between a conjecture (guess), a hypothesis, and a theory as these terms are used in science.

B.1.7. and what additional data to seek, and to guide the interpretation of the data.

DC.B.2. Biology: Chemistry of Living Things: Broad Concept: Living things are made of atoms bonded together to form molecules, some of the most important of which are large and contain carbon (i.e., 'organic' compounds). As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.2.1. Using simplified Bohr diagrams, describe basic atomic structure in order to understand the basis of chemical bonding in covalent and ionic bonds.

B.2.3. Describe the central role of carbon in the chemistry of living things because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements.

B.2.4. Know that living things are made of molecules largely consisting of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur.

B.2.5. Know that living things have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones such as water, medium-sized ones such as sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides, and large ones such as starches, proteins, and DNA.

B.2.6. Observe and explain the role of enzymatic catalysis in biochemical processes.

B.2.7. Explain the hierarchical organization of living things from least complex to most complex (subatomic, atomic, molecular, cellular, tissue, organs, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere).

DC.B.3. Biology: Cell Biology: Broad Concept: All living things are composed of cells. All the fundamental life processes of a cell are either chemical reactions or molecular interactions. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.3.1. Compare and contrast the general anatomy and constituents of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their distinguishing features: Prokaryotic cells do not have a nucleus and eukaryotic cells do. Know prokaryotic organisms are classified in the Monera Kingdom and that organisms in the other four kingdoms have eukaryotic cells.

B.3.10. Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division.

B.3.12. Explain how cell activity in a multicellular plant or animal can be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism.

B.3.13. Explain why communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities.

B.3.14. Recognize and describe that cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP, which is the basic energy source for cell metabolism.

B.3.15. Differentiate between the functions of mitosis and meiosis: Mitosis is a process by which a cell divides into each of two daughter cells, each of which has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell. Meiosis is a process of cell division in organisms that reproduce sexually, during which the nucleus divides eventually into four nuclei, each of which contains half the usual number of chromosomes.

B.3.16. Explain how zygotes are produced in the fertilization process.

B.3.2. Understand the function of cellular organelles and how the organelles work together in cellular activities (e.g., enzyme secretion from the pancreas).

B.3.3. Observe and describe that within the cell are specialized parts for the transport of materials, energy capture and release, waste disposal, and motion of the whole cell or of its parts.

B.3.4. Describe the organelles that plant and animal cells have in common (e.g., ribosomes, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum) and some that differ (e.g., only plant cells have chloroplasts and cell walls).

B.3.5. Demonstrate and explain that cell membranes act as highly selective permeable barriers to penetration of substances by diffusion or active transport.

B.3.6. Explain that some structures in the eukaryotic cell, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts, have apparently evolved by endosymbiosis (one organism living inside another, to the advantage of both) with early prokaryotes.

B.3.7. Describe that the work of the cell is carried out by structures made up of many different types of large (macro) molecules that it assembles, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.

B.3.9. Explain that a complex network of proteins provides organization and shape to cells.

DC.B.4. Biology: Genetics: Broad Concept: Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.4.10. Explain how the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a vast variety of potential allele combinations in the offspring of any two parents.

B.4.11. Explain that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.

B.4.12. Explain how the actions of genes, patterns of inheritance, and the reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.

B.4.13. Investigate and describe how a biological classification system that implies degrees of kinship between organisms or species can be deduced from the similarity of their nucleotide (DNA) or amino acids (protein) sequences. Know that such systems often match the completely independent classification systems based on anatomical similarities.

B.4.2. Describe how the discovery of the structure of DNA by James D. Watson, Francis Crick made it possible to interpret the genetic code on the basis of a nucleotide sequence. Know the important contribution of Rosalind Franklin's data to this discovery, i.e., the careful X-ray crystallography on DNA that provided Watson and Crick the clue they needed to build the correct structure.

B.4.3. Explain how hereditary information is passed from parents to offspring in the form of 'genes' which are long stretches of DNA consisting of sequences of nucleotides. Explain that in eukaryotes, the genes are contained in chromosomes, which are bodies made up of DNA and various proteins.

B.4.4. Know every species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.

B.4.5. Explain the flow of information is usually from DNA to RNA, and then to protein.

B.4.6. Explain how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides the basic form of instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this mechanism is the same for all life forms.

B.4.7. Understand that and describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting short stretches of DNA alters a gene. Recognize that changes (mutations) in the DNA sequence in or near a specific gene may (or may not) affect the sequence of amino acids in the encoded protein or the expression of the gene.

B.4.8. Explain the mechanisms of genetic mutations and chromosomal recombinations, and when and how they are passed on to offspring.

DC.B.5. Biology: Biological Evolution: Broad Concept: Evolution and biodiversity are the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.5.1. Investigate and explain how molecular evidence reinforces and confirms the fossil, anatomical, and other evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched off from one another.

B.5.10. Explain that evolution builds on what already exists, so the more variety there is, the more there can be in the future.

B.5.2. Explain how a large diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living things will survive in the face of large or even catastrophic changes in the environment.

B.5.3. Research and explain how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution and leads to organisms that are optimally suited for survival in particular environments.

B.5.5. Describe how life on Earth is thought to have begun as one or a few simple one-celled organisms about 3.5 billion years ago, and that during the first 2 billion years, only single-cell microorganisms existed. Know that, once cells with nuclei developed about a billion years ago, increasingly complex multicellular organisms could evolve.

B.5.6. Explain that prior to the theory first offered by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace, the universal belief was that all known species had been created de novo at about the same time and had remained unchanged.

B.5.7. Research and explain that Darwin argued that only biologically inherited characteristics could be passed on to offspring, some of these characteristics would be different from the average and advantageous in surviving and reproducing, and over generations, accumulation of these inherited advantages would lead to a new species.

B.5.8. Explain Gregor Mendel's identification of what we now call 'genes' and how they are sorted in reproduction led to an understanding of the mechanism of heredity. Understand how the integration of his concept of heredity and the concept of natural selection has led to the modern model of speciation and evolution.

B.5.9. Explain how biological evolution is also supported by the discovery that the genetic code found in DNA is the same for almost all organisms.

DC.B.6. Biology: Plant Biology: Broad Concept: Plants are essential to animal life on Earth. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.6.1. Describe the structure and function of roots, leaves, flowers, and stems of plants.

B.6.2. Identify the roles of plants in the ecosystem: Plants make food and oxygen, provide habitats for animals, make and preserve soil, and provide thousands of useful products for people (e.g., energy, medicines, paper, resins).

B.6.3. Know that about 250,000 species of flowering plants have been identified.

B.6.4. Explain the photosynthesis process: Plants make food in their leaves and chlorophyll found in the leaves can make food the plant can use from carbon dioxide, water, nutrients, and energy from sunlight.

B.6.5. Explain that during the process of photosynthesis, plants release oxygen into the air.

B.6.6. Describe that plants have broad patterns of behavior that have evolved to ensure reproductive success, including co-evolution with animals that distribute a plant's pollen and seeds.

DC.B.7. Biology: Mammalian Body: Broad Concept: As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the internal environment of the mammalian body remains relatively stable (homeostatic), despite changes in the outside environment. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.7.1. Explain the major systems of the mammalian body (digestive, respiratory, reproductive, circulatory, excretory, nervous, endocrine, integumentary, immune, skeletal, and muscular) and how they interact with each other.

B.7.2. Analyze the complementary activity of major body systems, such as how the respiratory and circulatory systems provide cells with oxygen and nutrients, and remove toxic waste products such as carbon dioxide.

B.7.3. Explain how the nervous system mediates communication between different parts of the body and the environment.

B.7.4. Describe that the nervous and endocrine systems maintain overall regulation of optimal conditions within the body by chemical communication.

B.7.5. Investigate and cite specific examples of how the mammalian immune system is designed to protect against microscopic organisms and foreign (or non-self) substances from outside the body and against some aberrant (e.g., cancer) cells that arise within.

DC.B.8. Biology: Ecosystems: Broad Concept: Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

B.8.1. Illustrate and describe the cycles of biotic and abiotic factors (matter, nutrients, energy) in an ecosystem.

B.8.5. Describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years.

B.8.6. Explain that ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium, and change results from shifts in climate, natural causes, human activity, or when a new species or non-native species appears.

B.8.7. Explain how layers of energy-rich organic material, mostly of plant origin, have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying Earth and its internal heat.

DC.C.1. Chemistry: Scientific Investigation and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:

C.1.1. Know the elements of scientific methodology (identification of a problem, hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, falsification, developing conclusions, reporting results) and be able to use a sequence of those elements to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. Also understand the limitations of any single scientific method (sequence of elements) in solving problems.

C.1.11. Formulate and revise explanations using logic and evidence.

C.1.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying these concepts.

C.1.13. Apply mathematical relationships involving linear and quadratic equations, exponential growth and decay laws, and logarithmic relationships to scientific situations.

C.1.4. Recognize the use and limitations of models and theories as scientific representations of reality.

DC.C.10. Chemistry: Chemical Equilibrium: Broad Concept: Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process at the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.10.1. Explain how equilibrium is established when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal.

C.10.2. Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction (temperature, concentration) and the factors that can cause a shift in equilibrium (concentration, pressure, volume, temperature).

C.10.3. Explain why rates of reaction are dependent on the frequency of collision, energy of collisions, and orientation of colliding molecules.

C.10.4. Observe and describe the role of activation energy and catalysts in a chemical reaction.

C.10.6. Write the equilibrium expression for a given reaction and calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction from given concentration data.

DC.C.11. Chemistry: Solutions: Broad Concept: Solutions are mixtures of two or more substances that are homogeneous on the molecular level. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.11.1. Define solute and solvent.

C.11.6. Calculate the theoretical freezing-point depression and boiling-point elevation of an ideal solution as a function of solute concentration.

DC.C.12. Chemistry: Chemical Thermodynamics: Broad Concept: Energy is exchanged or transformed in all chemical reactions and physical changes of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.12.1. Describe the concepts of temperature and heat flow in terms of the motion and energy of molecules (or atoms).

C.12.2. Determine and explain that chemical processes release (exothermic) or absorb (endothermic) thermal energy.

C.12.3. Explain how energy is released when a material condenses or freezes and is absorbed when a material evaporates or melts.

C.12.4. Solve problems involving heat flow and temperature changes, using given values of specific heat and latent heat of phase change.

C.12.5. Use Hess's law to determine the heat of a reaction and to calculate enthalpy change in a reaction.

DC.C.13. Chemistry: Organic and Biochemistry: Broad Concept: The bonding characteristics of carbon lead to the possibility of many different molecules of many sizes, shapes, and chemical properties. This provides the biochemical basis of life. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.13.1. Explain how the bonding characteristics of carbon lead to a large variety of structures ranging from simple hydrocarbons to complex polymers and biological molecules.

C.13.2. Describe how large molecules (polymers) such as proteins, nucleic acids, and starch are formed by repetitive combinations of simple subunits (monomers).

C.13.3. Explain that amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

C.13.4. Convert between chemical formulas, structural formulas, and names of simple common organic compounds (hydrocarbons, proteins, fats, carbohydrates).

DC.C.2. Chemistry: Properties of Matter: Broad Concept: Physical and chemical properties can be used to classify and describe matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.2.1. Investigate and classify properties of matter, including density, melting point, boiling point, and solubility.

C.2.2. Determine the definitions of and use properties such as mass, volume, temperature, density, melting point, boiling point, conductivity, solubility, and color to differentiate between types of matter.

C.2.3. Know the concept of a mole in terms of number of particles, mass, and the volume of an ideal gas at specified conditions of temperature and pressure.

C.2.4. Distinguish between the three familiar states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions and describe what a plasma is.

C.2.5. Infer and explain that physical properties of substances, such as melting points, boiling points, and solubility are due to the strength of their various types (interatomic, intermolecular, or ionic) of bonds.

C.2.6. Write equations that describe chemical changes and reactions.

C.2.7. Classify substances as metal or non-metal, ionic or molecular, acid or base, and organic or inorganic, using formulas and laboratory investigations.

DC.C.3. Chemistry: Acids and Bases: Broad Concept: Acids, bases, and salts are three classes of compounds that form ions in water solutions. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.3.1. Explain that strong acids (and bases) fully dissociate and weak acids (and bases) partially dissociate.

C.3.4. Describe the observable properties of acids, bases, and salt solutions.

C.3.5. Explain the Arrhenius theory of acids and bases: An acid donates hydrogen ions (hydronium) and a base donates hydroxide ions to a water solution.

C.3.6. Explain the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases: An acid is a hydrogen ion (proton) donor and a base is a hydrogen ion (proton) acceptor.

DC.C.4. Chemistry: The Atom: Broad Concept: An atom is a discrete unit. The atomic model can help us to understand the interaction of elements and compounds observed on a macroscopic scale. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.4.1. Detail the development of atomic theory from the ancient Greeks to the present (Democritus, Dalton, Rutherford, Bohr, quantum theory).

C.4.2. Explain Dalton's atomic theory in terms of the laws of conservation of matter, definite composition, and multiple proportions.

C.4.3. Demonstrate and explain how chemical properties depend almost entirely on the configuration of the outer electron shell, which in turn depends on the proton number.

C.4.4. Explain the historical importance of the Bohr model of the atom.

C.4.5. Construct a diagram and describe the number and arrangement of subatomic particles within an atom or ion.

DC.C.5. Chemistry: The Atom: Broad Concept: Periodicity of physical and chemical properties relates to atomic structure and led to the development of the periodic table. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.5.1. Relate an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number (number of protons).

C.5.2. Relate the position of an element in the periodic table and its reactivity with other elements to its quantum electron configuration.

C.5.4. Use an element's location in the periodic table to determine its number of valence electrons, and predict what stable ion or ions an element is likely to form in reacting with other specified elements.

DC.C.6. Chemistry: Nuclear Processes: Broad Concept: Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes; they include radioactive decay of naturally occurring and man-made isotopes and nuclear fission and fusion processes. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.6.2. Describe that the energy release per gram of material is roughly six orders of magnitude larger in nuclear fusion or fission reactions than in chemical reactions. Know a small decrease in mass produces a large amount of energy in nuclear reactions as well as in chemical reactions, but the mass change in chemical reactions is negligibly small.

C.6.3. Know many naturally occurring isotopes of elements are radioactive, as are isotopes formed in nuclear reactions.

DC.C.7. Chemistry: Chemical Bonds: Broad Concept: The enormous variety of physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter depends upon the ability of atoms to form bonds. This ability results from the electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.7.1. Explain how Arrhenius' discovery of the nature of ionic solutions contributed to the understanding of a broad class of chemical reactions.

C.7.10. Predict formulas of ionic compounds based on charges on ions.

C.7.2. Predict and explain how atoms combine to form molecules by sharing electrons to form covalent or metallic bonds, or by transferring electrons to form ionic bonds.

C.7.3. Recognize names and chemical formulas for simple molecular compounds (such as nitrous oxide), ionic compounds, including those with polyatomic ions, simple organic compounds, and acids, including oxyacids.

C.7.5. Demonstrate and explain that chemical bonds between identical atoms in molecules and many large biological molecules tend to be covalent; some of these molecules may have hydrogen bonds between them. In addition, molecules have other forms of intermolecular bonds, such as London dispersion forces and/or dipole bonding.

C.7.6. Explain that in solids, particles can only vibrate around fixed positions, but in liquids, they can slide randomly past one another, and in gases, they are free to move between collisions with one another.

C.7.9. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons.

DC.C.8. Chemistry: Conservation of Matter: Broad Concept: The microscopic conservation of atoms in chemical reactions implies the macroscopic principle of conservation of matter and the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.8.1. Name substances and describe their reactions based on Lavoisier's system and explain how this system contributed to the rapid growth of chemistry by enabling scientists everywhere to share their findings about chemical reactions with one another without ambiguity.

C.8.10. Use changes in oxidation states to recognize electron transfer reactions, and identify the substance(s) losing and gaining electrons in an electron transfer reaction.

C.8.11. Describe the effect of changes in reactant concentration, changes in temperature, the surface area of solids, and the presence of catalysts on reaction rates.

C.8.2. Describe chemical reactions by writing balanced chemical equations and balancing redox equations.

C.8.3. Classify reactions of various types such as single and double replacement, synthesis, decomposition, and acid/base neutralization.

C.8.7. Convert the mass of a molecular substance to moles, number of particles, or volume of gas at standard temperature and pressure.

C.8.9. Define oxidation and reduction and oxidizing and reducing agents.

DC.C.9. Chemistry: Gases and Their Properties: Broad Concept: The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

C.9.1. Explain the kinetic molecular theory and use it to explain changes in gas volumes, pressure, and temperature.

C.9.2. Apply the relationship between pressure and volume at constant temperature (Boyle's law, inversely related), and between volume and temperature (Charles' law or Gay-Lussac's law, directly related) and the relationship between pressure and temperature that follows from them.

C.9.3. Solve problems using the Ideal Gas law, pV = nRT, and the combined gas law.

DC.CC.11-12.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

11-12.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Ecology IWorksheets :4Vocabularies :2Ecology IIWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical Formulas and BondingWorksheets :3Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Measurements and CalculationsWorksheets :3Protection, Reproduction and CooperationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Moving and Controlling the BodyWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Providing Fuel and TransportationWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Food Chains and Food WebsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Six Kingdoms of LifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Plate TectonicsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Cell TransportWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Work, Power & Simple MachinesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2EarthquakesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Pond MicrolifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Chromosomes, Genes and DNAWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MitosisWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2The Study of HeredityWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Our Solar SystemWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Earth`s SurfaceWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Properties and States of MatterWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Earth`s ClimateWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Photosynthesis and RespirationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2RocksWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2VolcanoesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MeiosisWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Forces and MotionWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Energy: Forms and ChangesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3SoundWorksheets :3Vocabularies :4Light and OpticsWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Elements and the periodic tableWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Atoms and Chemical BondingWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

11-12.RST.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
11-12.RST.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

DC.CC.11-12.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

11-12.WHST.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

11-12.WHST.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

11-12.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
11-12.WHST.2.d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
11-12.WHST.2.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

DC.CC.9-10.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

9-10.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
The Digestive and nutritionWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :4Ecosystems, food chains and food websWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :5Chemical bondingFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Chemical reactionsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Ecology IWorksheets :4Vocabularies :2Ecology IIWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical Formulas and BondingWorksheets :3Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Measurements and CalculationsWorksheets :3Protection, Reproduction and CooperationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Moving and Controlling the BodyWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Providing Fuel and TransportationWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Food Chains and Food WebsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Six Kingdoms of LifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Plate TectonicsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Cell TransportWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Work, Power & Simple MachinesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2EarthquakesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Pond MicrolifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Chromosomes, Genes and DNAWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MitosisWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2The Study of HeredityWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Our Solar SystemWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Earth`s SurfaceWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Properties and States of MatterWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Earth`s ClimateWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Photosynthesis and RespirationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2RocksWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2VolcanoesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MeiosisWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Forces and MotionWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Energy: Forms and ChangesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3SoundWorksheets :3Vocabularies :4Light and OpticsWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Elements and the periodic tableWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Atoms and Chemical BondingWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2
9-10.RST.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

9-10.RST.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
9-10.RST.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.

DC.CC.9-10.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

9-10.WHST.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

9-10.WHST.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

9-10.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
9-10.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

DC.E.1. Environmental Science: Scientific Investigation and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:

E.1.1. Know the elements of scientific methodology (identification of a problem, hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, falsification, developing conclusions, reporting results) and be able to use a sequence of those elements to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. Also understand the limitations of any single scientific method (sequence of elements) in solving problems.

E.1.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying these concepts.

E.1.14. Observe natural phenomena and analyze their location, sequence, or time intervals (e.g., relative ages of rocks and succession of species in an ecosystem).

DC.E.2. Environmental Science: Environmental Systems: Broad Concept: The environment is a system of interdependent components affected by natural phenomena and human activity. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.2.1. Understand and explain that human beings are part of Earth's ecosystems, and that human activities can, deliberately or inadvertently, alter ecosystems.

E.2.3. Describe how the global environment is affected by national policies and practices relating to energy use, waste disposal, ecological management, manufacturing, and population growth.

E.2.4. Recognize and explain that in evolutionary change, the present arises from the materials of the past and in ways that can be explained (e.g., formation of soil from rocks and dead organic matter).

DC.E.3. Environmental Science: Ecosystems: Broad Concept: Stability in an ecosystem is a balance between competing effects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.3.1. Explain that biodiversity is the sum total of different kinds of organisms in a given ecological community or system, and is affected by alterations of habitats.

E.3.11. Describe how adaptations in physical structure or behavior may improve an organism's chance for survival and impact an ecosystem.

E.3.2. Know and describe how ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years.

E.3.4. Understand and explain that ecosystems tend to have cyclic fluctuations around a state of rough equilibrium, and change results from shifts in climate, natural causes, human activity, or when a new species or non-native species appears.

E.3.5. Know that organisms may interact in a competitive or cooperative relationship, such as producer/consumer, predator/prey, parasite/hosts, or as symbionts and explain how these interactions contribute to the stability of an ecosystem.

E.3.6. Recognize and describe the difference between systems in equilibrium and systems in disequilibrium.

E.3.7. Explain how water, carbon, phosphorus and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in an ecosystem and how oxygen cycles via photosynthesis and respiration. Diagram the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and water in an ecosystem.

E.3.8. Describe the role of nitrogen and carbon cycles in the improvement of soils for agriculture.

E.3.9. Locate, identify, and explain the role of the major Earth biomes (e.g., grasslands, rainforests, arctic tundra, deserts) and discuss how the abiotic and biotic factors interact within these ecosystems.

DC.E.4. Environmental Science: Populations: Broad Concept: The amount of life any environment can support is limited by the available energy, water, oxygen, and minerals, and by the ability of ecosystems to recycle organic materials from the remains of dead organisms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.4.4. Describe the effect of overpopulation (i.e., resource depletion and potential elimination of species), the role of predators in maintaining ecosystem stability, and methods of population management.

DC.E.5. Environmental Science: Natural Resources: Broad Concept: Numerous Earth resources are used to sustain human affairs. The abundance and accessibility of these resources can influence their use. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.5.1. Recognize that the Earth's resources for humans, such as fresh water, air, arable soil, and trees, are finite. Explain how these resources can be conserved through reduction, recycling, and reuse.

E.5.2. Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources (including sources of energy), and compare and contrast the pros and cons of using non-renewable resources.

E.5.3. Give examples of the various forms and uses of fossil fuels and nuclear energy in our society and describe alternative sources of energy provided by water, the atmosphere, and the sun.

E.5.4. Demonstrate knowledge of the distribution of natural resources in the U.S. and the world, and explain how natural resources influence relationships among nations.

E.5.6. Analyze the trade-offs among different fuels, such as how energy use contributes to the rising standard of living in the industrially developing nations, yet also leads to more rapid depletion of Earth's energy resources and to increased environmental risks associated with the use of fossil and nuclear fuels.

DC.E.6. Environmental Science: Watersheds and Wetlands: Broad Concept: Water is continually being recycled by the hydrologic cycle through the watersheds, oceans, and the atmosphere by processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation runoff, and infiltration. This life-giving cycle is continually and increasingly impacted by human affairs. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.6.1. Compare and contrast the processes of the hydrologic cycle, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater percolation, infiltration, and transpiration.

E.6.2. Describe the physical characteristics of wetlands and watersheds and explain how water flows into and through a watershed (e.g., precipitation, aquifers, wells, porosity, permeability, water table, capillary water, and run off).

E.6.5. Describe the causes of, and the efforts to control, erosion in the Chesapeake Bay.

E.6.6. Investigate and describe how point and non-point source pollution can affect the health of a bay's watershed and wetlands.

E.6.8. Explain the dynamics of oceanic currents, including upwelling, density, and deep water currents, the local Labrador Current and the Gulf Stream, and their relationship to global circulation within the marine environment and climate.

DC.E.7. Environmental Science: Energy in the Earth System: Broad Concept: Energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.7.2. Explain the meaning of radiation, convection, and conduction (three mechanisms by which heat is transferred to, through, and out of the Earth's system).

E.7.3. Understand and describe how layers of energy-rich organic material have been gradually turned into great coal beds and oil pools by the pressure of the overlying earth. Recognize that by burning these fossil fuels, people are passing stored energy back into the environment as heat and releasing large amounts of carbon dioxide.

E.7.4. Describe how energy derived from the sun is used by green plants to produce chemical energy in the form of sugars (photosynthesis), and this energy is transferred along a food chain from producers (plants) to consumers to decomposers.

E.7.5. Illustrate the flow of energy through various trophic levels of food chains and food webs within an ecosystem. Describe how each link in a food web stores some energy in newly made structures and how much of the energy is dissipated into the environment as heat. Understand that a continual input of energy from sunlight is needed to keep the process going.

E.7.6. Describe how the chemical elements that make up the molecules of living things pass through food webs and are combined and recombined in different ways.

DC.E.8. Environmental Science: Environmental Quality: Broad Concept: Environmental quality is linked to natural and human-induced hazards, and the ability of science and technology to meet local, national, and global challenges. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

E.8.1. Differentiate between natural pollution and pollution caused by humans and give examples of each.

E.8.2. Describe sources of air and water pollution and explain how air and water quality impact wildlife, vegetation, and human health.

E.8.3. Describe the historical and current methods of water management and recycling, including the waste treatment practices of landfills, incineration, reuse/recycle and source reduction.

E.8.5. Compare and contrast the beneficial and harmful effects of an environmental stressor, such as herbicides and pesticides, on plants and animals. Give examples of secondary effects on other environmental components such as humans, water quality and wildlife.

E.8.6. Identify natural Earth hazards, such as earthquakes and hurricanes, and identify the regions in which they occur as well as the short-term and long-term effects on the environment and on people.

DC.ES.1. Earth Science: Scientific Investigation and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:

ES.1.1. Know the elements of scientific methodology (identification of a problem, hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, falsification, developing conclusions, reporting results) and be able to use a sequence of those elements to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. Also understand the limitations of any single scientific method (sequence of elements) in solving problems.

ES.1.10. Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. (The focus is on manual graphing, interpreting graphs, and mastery of metric measurements and units, with supplementary use of computers and electronic data gathering when appropriate.)

ES.1.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying these concepts.

ES.1.15. Observe natural phenomena and analyze their location, sequence, or time intervals (e.g., relative ages of rocks, locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an ecosystem).

ES.1.16. Read a topographic map and a geologic map for information provided on the maps.

ES.1.17. Construct and interpret a simple scale map and topographic cross-section.

ES.1.18. Describe the contributions of key scientists throughout history, including Claudius Ptolemy, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Galileo Galilei, Nicholas Steno, Sir Charles Lyell, James Hutton, Henrietta Leavitt, Alfred Wegener, and Edwin Powell Hubble.

DC.ES.2. Earth Science: The Universe: Broad Concept: Galaxies are made of billions of stars and form most of the visible mass of the universe. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.2.1. Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and each galaxy contains many billions of stars.

ES.2.2. Describe various instrumentation used to study deep space and the solar system (e.g., telescopes which record in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, including visible, infrared, and radio, refracting telescope, reflecting telescope, spectrophotometer.)

ES.2.3. Describe Hubble's law, and understand the big-bang theory, and the evidence that supports it (background radiation, relativistic Doppler effect).

ES.2.4. Explain the basics of the fusion processes that are the source of energy of stars.

ES.2.5. Explain that the mass of a star and the balance between collapse and fusion determine the color, brightness, lifetime, and evolution of a star.

ES.2.6. Analyze the life histories of stars and different types of stars found on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, including the three outcomes of stellar evolution based on mass (black hole, neutron star, white dwarf).

ES.2.8. Explain that the redshift from distant galaxies and the cosmic background radiation provide evidence for the big bang model that the universe has been expanding for 10 to 20 billion years.

ES.2.9. Construct a model and explain the relationships among planetary systems, stars, multiple-star systems, star clusters, galaxies, and galactic groups in the universe.

DC.ES.3. Earth Science: Solar System: Broad Concept: Our solar system is composed of a star, planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and residual material left from the evolution of the solar system over time. The sun is one of billions of stars residing in one of billions of galaxies in a universe that has been changing and evolving over vast amounts of time. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.3.1. Describe the location of the solar system in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years.

ES.3.2. Compare and contrast the differences in size, temperature, and age between our sun and other stars.

ES.3.3. Understand and describe the nebular theory concerning the formation of solar systems, including the roles of planetesimals and protoplanets.

ES.3.4. Observe and describe the characteristics and motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system, including planets, satellites, comets, and asteroids, and the influence of gravity and inertia on these motions.

ES.3.5. Explain how Kepler's laws predict the orbits of the planets.

DC.ES.4. Earth Science: The Earth System: Broad Concept: Interactions among the solid Earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere have resulted in ongoing evolution of the earth system over geologic time. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.4.1. Examine and describe the structure, composition, and function of Earth's atmosphere, including the role of living organisms in the cycling of atmospheric gases.

ES.4.11. Explain that the oceans store carbon dioxide mostly as dissolved carbonates in solution, as precipitate or biogenic carbonate deposits.

ES.4.12. Use weather maps and other tools to forecast weather conditions.

ES.4.14. Read and interpret space weather data (solar flares, geomagnetic storms, solar wind).

ES.4.3. Describe the main agents of erosion are water, waves, wind, ice, plants, and gravity.

ES.4.4. Explain the effects on climate of latitude, elevation, and topography, as well as proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean currents.

ES.4.5. Explain the possible mechanisms and effects of atmospheric changes brought on by things such as acid rain, smoke, volcanic dust, greenhouse gases, and ozone depletion.

ES.4.6. Determine the origins, life cycles, behavior, and prediction of weather systems.

ES.4.7. Investigate and identify the causes and effects of severe weather.

ES.4.8. Explain special properties of water (e.g., high specific and latent heats) and the influence of large bodies of water and the water cycle on heat transport and therefore weather and climate.

ES.4.9. Describe the development and dynamics of climatic changes over time corresponding to changes in the Earth's geography (continental drift), orbital parameters (the Milankovitch cycles), and atmospheric composition.

DC.ES.5. Earth Science: Hydrologic Cycle: Broad Concept: Water is continually being recycled by the hydrologic cycle through the watersheds, oceans, and the atmosphere by processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation runoff, and infiltration. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.5.1. Explain how water flows into and through a watershed (e.g. properly use terms precipitation, aquifers, wells, porosity, permeability, water table, capillary water, and run off).

ES.5.2. Describe the processes of the hydrologic cycle, including evaporation, condensation, precipitation, surface runoff and groundwater percolation, infiltration, and transpiration.

ES.5.3. Identify and explain the mechanisms that cause and modify the production of tides, such as the gravitational attraction of the moon, the sun, and coastal topography.

DC.ES.6. Earth Science: Rock Cycle: Broad Concept: Rocks and minerals are continually being modified within the rock cycle. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.6.1. Differentiate among the processes of weathering, erosion, transportation of materials, deposition, and soil formation.

ES.6.2. Illustrate the various processes and rock types that are involved in the rock cycle, and describe how the total amount of material stays the same throughout formation, weathering, sedimentation, and reformation.

ES.6.3. Explain the absolute and relative dating methods used to measure geologic time.

ES.6.5. Trace the evolution of the solid Earth in terms of the major geologic eras.

DC.ES.7. Earth Science: Plate Tectonics: Broad Concept: Plate tectonics operating over geologic time have altered the features of land, sea, and mountains on the Earth's surface. As the basis for understanding this concept, students:

ES.7.1. Explain the work of Alfred Wegener, including reintroduction of the idea of moving continents, and the skepticism with which his theories were first received and why.

ES.7.2. Analyze the evidence that supports the hypothesis of movement of the plates (from paleomagnetism, paleontology, paleoclimate, and the continuity of geological structure and stratigraphy across ocean basins).

ES.7.3. Trace the development of a lithospheric plate from its growing margin at a divergent boundary (mid-ocean ridge) to its destructive margin at a convergent boundary (subduction zone).

ES.7.4. Explain the relationship between convection currents and the motion of the lithospheric plates.

ES.7.5. Explain why, how, and where earthquakes occur, how they are located and measured, and the ways that they can cause damage (directly by shaking and secondarily by fire, tsunami, landsliding, or liquefaction).

ES.7.6. Observe and explain how rivers and streams are dynamic systems that erode and transport sediment, change their course, and flood their banks in natural and recurring patterns.

DC.P.1. Physics: Scientific Investigation and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:

P.1.1. Know the elements of scientific methodology (identification of a problem, hypothesis formulation and prediction, performance of experimental tests, analysis of data, falsification, developing conclusions, reporting results) and be able to use a sequence of those elements to solve a problem or test a hypothesis. Also understand the limitations of any single scientific method (sequence of elements) in solving problems.

P.1.10. Select and use appropriate tools and technology to perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display data. (The focus is on manual graphing, interpreting graphs, and mastery of metric measurements and units, with supplementary use of computers and electronic data gathering when appropriate.)

P.1.11. Formulate and revise explanations using logic and evidence.

P.1.12. Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining concepts from more than one topic area of science and applying those concepts.

P.1.13. Apply mathematical relationships involving linear and quadratic equations, simple trigonometric relationships, exponential growth and decay laws, and logarithmic relationships to scientific situations.

DC.P.2. Physics: Motion and Forces: Broad Concept: Newton's laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion of a vast variety of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.2.1. Explain Newton's first law: When the net force on an object is zero, no acceleration occurs, and thus a moving object continues to move at a constant speed in the same direction, or, if at rest, it remains at rest.

P.2.10. Apply the law F = ma to solve one-dimensional motion problems involving constant forces (Newton's second law).

P.2.11. Use and mathematically manipulate appropriate scalar and vector quantities to solve kinematics and dynamics problems in one and two dimensions.

P.2.12. Solve problems in circular motion, using the formula for centripetal acceleration in the following form: a = vv/r.

P.2.13. Create and interpret graphs of speed versus time and the position and speed of an object undergoing constant acceleration.

P.2.2. Explain that only when a net force is applied to an object will its motion change; that is, it will accelerate according to Newton's second law, F = ma.

P.2.3. Predict and explain how when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object always exerts a force of equal magnitude but of opposite direction and force back on the first (Newton's third law).

P.2.4. Explain that Newton's laws of motion are not universally applicable, but they provide very good approximations unless an object is moving close to the speed of light or is small enough that quantum effects are important.

P.2.6. Investigate and explain how the Newtonian model - the three laws of motion plus the law of gravitation - makes it possible to account for such diverse phenomena as tides, the orbits of the planets and moons, the motion of falling objects, and Earth's equatorial bulge.

P.2.7. Explain how a force acting on an object perpendicular to the direction of its motion causes it to change direction but not speed.

P.2.8. Demonstrate that a motion at constant speed in a circle requires a force that is always directed toward the center of the circle.

P.2.9. Solve kinematics problems involving constant speed and average speed.

DC.P.3. Physics: Conservation of Energy and Momentum: Broad Concept: The laws of conservation of energy and momentum provide independent approaches to predicting and describing the motion of objects. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.3.1. Recognize that when a net force acts through a distance on an object of mass, which is initially at rest, work W=Fd, is done on the object; the object acquires a velocity and a kinetic energy, K.E. = .5mvv = W = Fd.

P.3.10. Solve problems involving conservation of energy in simple systems such as that of falling objects.

P.3.11. Apply the law of conservation of mechanical energy to simple systems.

P.3.12. Calculate the momentum of an object as the product p = mv.

P.3.13. Solve problems involving perfectly inelastic collisions in one dimension using the principle of conservation of momentum.

P.3.14. Calculate the changes in motion of two bodies in one-dimensional elastic collisions in which both energy and momentum are conserved.

P.3.2. Describe how an unbalanced force, acting on an object over time, results in a change in the object's momentum (p = Ft).

P.3.3. Describe how kinetic energy can be transformed into potential energy and vice versa (e.g., a bouncing ball).

P.3.4. Explain that momentum is a separately conserved quantity that is defined in one dimension as p = mv. Know the momentum of a system can be changed only by application of an external impulse, J = Ft. Know the total momentum of a closed system cannot change, regardless of the interchange of momentum within it.

P.3.5. Define power as the rate at which work is done: P = W/t.

P.3.6. Identify the joule (J) as the SI unit for work and energy); the unit for power is the watt (W); and the unit for impulse and momentum is the kg m/s.

P.3.7. Describe the conditions under which each conservation law applies.

P.3.8. Calculate kinetic energy using the formula K.E. = .5 mvv.

DC.P.4. Physics: Mechanics of Fluids: Broad Concept: All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.4.1. Explain that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid it has displaced.

P.4.2. Recognize that a change in the pressure at any point in a fluid is accompanied by an equal change at all other points (Pascal's principle).

P.4.3. Identify that the pressure in an incompressible fluid (e.g., water) is a function of density; depth; and gravitational acceleration.

P.4.5. Understand Bernoulli's principle, p + .5 pvv = constant is a consequence of conservation of mechanical energy applied to a moving, incompressible fluid, and apply it accurately.

DC.P.5. Physics: Heat and Thermodynamics: Broad Concept: Energy cannot be created or destroyed; however, in many processes energy is transformed into the microscopic form called heat energy, that is, the energy of the disordered motion of atoms. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.5.1. Recognize that heat flow and work are two forms of energy transfer between a system and its surroundings.

P.5.10. Explain the process of convection: Because the density of fluids varies with temperature, the warmer parts of a fluid tend to move into and mix with the cooler parts, resulting in a transfer of heat energy from place to place.

P.5.11. Explain that all objects emit electromagnetic radiation at a rate that rises very rapidly with their temperature. As a result, know that a warmer body that is in the line of sight with a cooler one will transfer net energy to it, cooling down while the cooler object warms up.

P.5.12. Demonstrate that in all internal energy transfers, the overall effect is that the energy is spread out uniformly.

P.5.13. Recognize that entropy is a quantity that measures the order or disorder of a system and that it is larger for a more disordered system.

P.5.14. Explain the law, 'the entropy of a closed system will always either increase or remain the same,' based on the statistics of the behavior of immense numbers of atoms or molecules that governs all closed systems (second law of thermodynamics).

P.5.15. Use a p-V diagram to graph simple thermodynamic processes for an ideal gas (for which pV = nRT); for example, an isothermal process is described by a hyperbola, an isobaric process by a horizontal straight line, and an isochoric process by a vertical straight line.

P.5.16. Use the second-law-based Carnot efficiency formula, efficiency = (T(in) - T(out)) / T(in), to calculate the maximum possible efficiency for a heat engine.

P.5.17. Given heat input and work output data, calculate the efficiency of a real heat engine or human being (e.g., a well-trained athlete working out for eight hours may consume 7,000 kcal of food (20 MJ) a day and do work at the rate of 1/4 HP (187 W) over an eight hour period during that day. What is his thermodynamic efficiency?).

P.5.18. Describe a refrigerator as a heat engine operated 'in reverse.'

P.5.2. Describe and measure the change, U, in the internal energy of a system is equal to the sum of the heat flow, Q, into the system and the work, W, done on the system: U = Q + W (first law of thermodynamics).

P.5.3. Describe and measure the work, W, done by a heat engine is the difference between the heat flow, Q(in), into the engine at high temperature and the heat flow, Q(out), out at a lower temperature: W = Q(in) - Q(out) .

P.5.4. Explain that thermal energy (commonly called heat) consists of random motion and the vibrations and rotations of atoms, molecules, or ions.

P.5.6. Investigate and describe how the absolute temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of the thermal motion of its microscopic parts.

P.5.9. Describe that when two objects at different temperatures are in contact, heat energy always flows from the object at a higher temperature to the object at a lower temperature by the process of conduction until the two are at the same (intermediate) temperature.

DC.P.6. Physics: Waves: Broad Concept: Waves carry energy from place to place without the transfer of matter. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.6.1. Explain that waves carry energy from one place to another.

P.6.11. Explain that when a light ray passes from air into a transparent substance, such as glass, having index of refraction n, it is refracted through an angle given by Snell's law, n sinA = n sinB, where A is the angle of incidence of the ray and B is the angle of refraction.

P.6.12. Describe waves in terms of their fundamental characteristics of speed; wavelength; frequency; or period; and amplitude, and the relationships among them. Solve problems involving wavelength, frequency, and wave speed.

P.6.13. Identify transverse and longitudinal waves in mechanical media such as springs, ropes, and the Earth (seismic waves).

P.6.14. Identify the phenomena of interference (beats), diffraction, refraction, the Doppler effect, and polarization, and that these are characteristic wave properties.

P.6.15. Use Snell's law to calculate refraction angles and analyze the properties of simple optical systems.

P.6.16. Identify electromagnetic radiation as a wave phenomenon after observing interference, diffraction, and polarization of such radiation.

P.6.2. Observe and describe that a mechanical wave is a disturbance in a medium. For example, a sound wave in air is a slight variation in the pressure of the air surrounding a vibrating object, such as a bell.

P.6.3. Explain that waves conform to the superposition principle: Any number of waves can pass through the same point at the same time, and the amplitude, A, of the resulting wave at that point at any time is the sum of the amplitudes of the superposed waves. Use the principle of superposition to describe the interference effects arising from propagation of several waves through the same medium.

P.6.4. Demonstrate how standing waves on a stretched string are the result of the superposition of the wave moving away from the source and the wave reflected back from the other end of the string.

P.6.5. Explain that longitudinal waves can propagate in any medium, but transverse waves can propagate only in solids.

P.6.6. Describe that sound in a fluid medium is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the medium in which it propagates.

P.6.7. Differentiate electromagnetic waves from mechanical waves (i.e., Electromagnetic waves are not disturbances in a medium. Rather, such waves are a combination of a varying electric field and a varying magnetic field, each of which, in varying, gives rise to the other. Electromagnetic waves can therefore propagate in empty space.)

P.6.8. Know that radio waves, light, and X-rays are different wavelength bands in the spectrum of electromagnetic waves whose speed, c, in a vacuum is approximately 300 million m/s (186,000 miles/second).

DC.P.7. Physics: Electromagnetism: Broad Concept: The phenomena that fall into the categories known as electrostatics and electromagnetism are due respectively to the behavior of stationary and moving charged particles. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.7.10. Explain that magnetic materials and electric currents (moving electric charges) are sources of magnetic fields, and they experience forces due to magnetic fields of other sources.

P.7.12. Explain how electric and magnetic fields are vector fields that contain energy.

P.7.13. Investigate and explain how various wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum have many useful applications such as radio, television, microwave radars and ovens, cellular telephones, infrared detectors, optical cables, and X-ray machines.

P.7.16. Calculate the power dissipated in any resistive circuit element by using Joule's law in the appropriate form.

P.7.17. Predict the current in simple direct current electric circuits constructed from batteries, wires, and resistors.

P.7.18. Solve problems involving Ohm's law in series and parallel circuits.

P.7.3. Calculate electric potential (voltage): When a charge, q, is pulled through a field, E, over a distance, d, work, W = qd, is done. The work done per unit charge, W/q, is the electric potential, V. Thus V = Ed. The unit of electric potential is the volt (V); 1 V = 1 Nm/C.

P.7.4. Know that most materials fall into one of two categories: electrical conductors, through which electric charge can flow easily under the influence of an electric field, and electrical insulators (or dielectrics), through which charge cannot flow easily.

P.7.5. Explain that a source of electromotive force (emf) is any device (such as a battery) that furnishes a steady potential between two terminals. Know that if a conducting loop is supplied between the two terminals, an electric current, I, will flow. Know too, that current is measured in the number of coulombs per second that flow past a given point in the conductor: I = q/t and that the unit of electric current is the ampere (A); 1 A = 1 C/s.

P.7.6. Give evidence that metals are almost all good electrical conductors, nevertheless they do offer some resistance (friction) to the flow of current. Know that the greater the potential difference between the ends of the conductor, the greater the current; the greater the resistance, the less the current. Know too, that for most metals and many other conductors, the current is determined by Ohm's law, V = IR. A conductor that conforms to this rule is called an ohmic conductor.

P.7.7. Explain that any resistive element in a dc circuit transforms electrical energy into thermal energy at a rate (power) given by Joule's law, P = IV, which in an ohmic element has the special form P = IIR = VV/R.

DC.P.8. Physics: Nuclear Processes: Broad Concept: Nuclear processes are those in which an atomic nucleus changes; they include radioactive decay of naturally occurring and man-made isotopes and nuclear fission and fusion processes. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:

P.8.1. Explain the research of Marie Curie, later in collaboration with her husband, Pierre, spurred the study of radioactivity and led to the realization that one kind of atom may change into another kind, and so atoms must be made up of smaller parts. Rutherford, Geiger, and Marsden found these parts to be small, dense nuclei surrounded by much larger clouds of electrons.

P.8.2. Recognize that the nucleus, although it contains nearly all of the mass of the atom, occupies less of the atom than the proportion of the solar system occupied by the sun.

P.8.3. Explain how the mass of a neutron or a proton is about 2,000 times greater than the mass of an electron.

P.8.4. Describe Niels Bohr's model of the atom, its electron arrangement, and the correlation with the hydrogen spectrum.

P.8.9. Demonstrate how the mass of a stable nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the protons and neutrons comprising it. Know this is especially true of the elements in the region of the periodic table around iron (26 protons, 30 neutrons) and generally less so of elements with greater or lesser atomic numbers than this.

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