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MI.B1. Biology: Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation.
B1.1. Scientific Inquiry
B1.1C. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).
B1.1D. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
B1.1E. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
B1.1f. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
B1.1g. Use empirical evidence to explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.
B1.1h. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
B1.2. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
B1.2B. Identify and critique arguments about personal or societal issues based on scientific evidence.
B1.2f. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
B1.2g. Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.
B1.2h. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
B1.2i. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that leads to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
MI.B2. Biology: Organization and Development of Living Systems: Students describe the general structure and function of cells. They can explain that all living systems are composed of cells and that organisms may be unicellular or multicellular.
B2.1. Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells
B2.1A. Explain how cells transform energy (ultimately obtained from the sun) from one form to another through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration. Identify the reactants and products in the general reaction of photosynthesis.
B2.1B. Compare and contrast the transformation of matter and energy during photosynthesis and respiration.
B2.1C. Explain cell division, growth, and development as a consequence of an increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products.
B2.2. Organic Molecules
B2.2A. Explain how carbon can join to other carbon atoms in chains and rings to form large and complex molecules.
B2.2B. Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S).
B2.2C. Describe the composition of the four major categories of organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids).
B2.2D. Explain the general structure and primary functions of the major complex organic molecules that compose living organisms.
B2.2f. Explain the role of enzymes and other proteins in biochemical functions (e.g., the protein hemoglobin carries oxygen in some organisms, digestive enzymes, and hormones).
B2.3. Maintaining Environmental Stability
B2.3B. Describe how the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment is required for the continuation of life.
B2.3C. Explain how stability is challenged by changing physical, chemical, and environmental conditions as well as the presence of disease agents.
B2.3d. Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other.
B2.3e. Describe how human body systems maintain relatively constant internal conditions (temperature, acidity, and blood sugar).
B2.3f. Explain how human organ systems help maintain human health.
B2.3g. Compare the structure and function of a human body system or subsystem to a nonliving system (e.g., human joints to hinges, enzyme and substrate to interlocking puzzle pieces).
B2.4. Cell Specialization
B2.4A. Explain that living things can be classified based on structural, embryological, and molecular (relatedness of DNA sequence) evidence.
B2.4B. Describe how various organisms have developed different specializations to accomplish a particular function and yet the end result is the same (e.g., excreting nitrogenous wastes in animals, obtaining oxygen for respiration).
B2.4C. Explain how different organisms accomplish the same result using different structural specializations (gills vs. lungs vs. membranes).
B2.4d. Analyze the relationships among organisms based on their shared physical, biochemical, genetic, and cellular characteristics and functional processes.
B2.4e. Explain how cellular respiration is important for the production of ATP (build on aerobic vs. anaerobic).
B2.4g. Explain that some structures in the modern eukaryotic cell developed from early prokaryotes, such as mitochondria, and in plants, chloroplasts.
B2.4h. Describe the structures of viruses and bacteria.
B2.4i. Recognize that while viruses lack cellular structure, they have the genetic material to invade living cells.
B2.5. Living Organism Composition
B2.5A. Recognize and explain that macromolecules such as lipids contain high energy bonds.
B2.5B. Explain how major systems and processes work together in animals and plants, including relationships between organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. Relate these to molecular functions.
B2.5C. Describe how energy is transferred and transformed from the Sun to energy-rich molecules during photosynthesis.
B2.5D. Describe how individual cells break down energy-rich molecules to provide energy for cell functions.
B2.5x. Energy Transfer
B2.5e. Explain the interrelated nature of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of ATP synthesis and degradation.
B2.5f. Relate plant structures and functions to the process of photosynthesis and respiration.
B2.5g. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells.
B2.5h. Explain the role of cell membranes as a highly selective barrier (diffusion, osmosis, and active transport).
B2.5i. Relate cell parts/organelles to their function.
B2.6x. Internal/External Cell Regulation
B2.6a. Explain that the regulatory and behavioral responses of an organism to external stimuli occur in order to maintain both short- and long-term equilibrium.
B2.r6b. Explain that complex interactions among the different kinds of molecules in the cell cause distinct cycles of activities, such as growth and division. Note that cell behavior can also be affected by molecules from other parts of the organism, such as hormones. (recommended)
B2.r6c. Recognize and explain that communication and/or interaction are required between cells to coordinate their diverse activities. (recommended)
B2.r6d. Explain how higher levels of organization result from specific complex interactions of smaller units and that their maintenance requires a constant input of energy as well as new material. (recommended)
L2.p1. Cells (prerequisite)
L2.p1B. Explain the importance of both water and the element carbon to cells. (prerequisite)
L2.p1C. Describe growth and development in terms of increase in cell number, cell size, and/or cell products. (prerequisite)
L2.p1D. Explain how the systems in a multicellular organism work together to support the organism. (prerequisite)
L2.p1E. Compare and contrast how different organisms accomplish similar functions (e.g., obtain oxygen for respiration, and excrete waste). (prerequisite)
L2.p2. Cell Function (prerequisite)
L2.p2A. Describe how organisms sustain life by obtaining, transporting, transforming, releasing, and eliminating matter and energy. (prerequisite)
L2.p3. Plants as Producers (prerequisite)
L2.p3A. Explain the significance of carbon in organic molecules. (prerequisite)
L2.p3D. Explain how the roots of specific plants grow. (prerequisite)
L2.p4. Animals as Consumers (prerequisite)
L2.p4A. Classify different organisms based on how they obtain energy for growth and development. (prerequisite)
L2.p4B. Explain how an organism obtains energy from the food it consumes. (prerequisite)
L2.p5. Common Elements (prerequisite)
L2.p5A. Recognize the six most common elements in organic molecules (C, H, N, O, P, S). (prerequisite)
L2.p5B. Identify the most common complex molecules that make up living organisms. (prerequisite)
MI.B3. Biology: Interdependence of Living Systems and the Environment: Students describe the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and how energy is transferred through food webs. They recognize and analyze the consequences of the dependence of organisms on environmental resources and the interdependence of organisms in ecosystems.
B3.1. Photosynthesis and Respiration
B3.1A. Describe how organisms acquire energy directly or indirectly from sunlight.
B3.1B. Illustrate and describe the energy conversions that occur during photosynthesis and respiration.
B3.1C. Recognize the equations for photosynthesis and respiration and identify the reactants and products for both.
B3.1D. Explain how living organisms gain and use mass through the processes of photosynthesis and respiration.
B3.1e. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis and cellular respiration and explain in words what they mean.
B3.1f. Summarize the process of photosynthesis.
B3.2A. Identify how energy is stored in an ecosystem.
B3.2B. Describe energy transfer through an ecosystem, accounting for energy lost to the environment as heat.
B3.2C. Draw the flow of energy through an ecosystem. Predict changes in the food web when one or more organisms are removed.
B3.3. Element Recombination
B3.3A. Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels.
B3.3b. Describe environmental processes (e.g., the carbon and nitrogen cycles) and their role in processing matter crucial for sustaining life.
B3.4. Changes in Ecosystems
B3.4A. Describe ecosystem stability. Understand that if a disaster such as flood or fire occurs, the damaged ecosystem is likely to recover in stages of succession that eventually result in a system similar to the original one.
B3.4B. Recognize and describe that a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some living organisms will survive in the face of cataclysmic changes in the environment.
B3.4C. Examine the negative impact of human activities.
B3.4x. Human Impact
B3.4d. Describe the greenhouse effect and list possible causes.
B3.4e. List the possible causes and consequences of global warming.
B3.5x. Environmental Factors
B3.5d. Describe different reproductive strategies employed by various organisms and explain their advantages and disadvantages.
L3.p1. Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems (prerequisite)
L3.p1A. Provide examples of a population, community, and ecosystem. (prerequisite)
L3.p2. Relationships Among Organisms (prerequisite)
L3.p2A. Describe common relationships among organisms and provide examples of producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship. (prerequisite)
L3.p2B. Describe common ecological relationships between and among species and their environments (competition, territory, carrying capacity, natural balance, population, dependence, survival, and other biotic and abiotic factors). (prerequisite)
L3.p2C. Describe the role of decomposers in the transfer of energy in an ecosystem. (prerequisite)
L3.p2D. Explain how two organisms can be mutually beneficial and how that can lead to interdependency. (prerequisite)
L3.p3. Factors Influencing Ecosystems (prerequisite)
L3.p3C. Explain how biotic and abiotic factors cycle in an ecosystem (water, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen). (prerequisite)
L3.p3D. Predict how changes in one population might affect other populations based upon their relationships in a food web. (prerequisite)
L3.p4. Human Impact on Ecosystems (prerequisite)
L3.p4A. Recognize that, and describe how, human beings are part of Earth's ecosystems. Note that human activities can deliberately or inadvertently alter the equilibrium in ecosystems. (prerequisite)
MI.B4. Biology: Genetics: Students recognize that the specific genetic instructions for any organism are contained within genes composed of DNA molecules located in chromosomes. They explain the mechanism for the direct production of specific proteins based on inherited DNA. Students diagram how occasional modifications in genes and the random distribution of genes from each parent provide genetic variation and become the raw material for evolution. Content Statements, Performances, and Boundaries
B4.1. Genetics and Inherited Traits
B4.1A. Draw and label a homologous chromosome pair with heterozygous alleles highlighting a particular gene location.
B4.1B. Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes that are coded in DNA molecules. These genes contain the information for the production of proteins.
B4.1c. Differentiate between dominant, recessive, codominant, polygenic, and sex-linked traits.
B4.1e. Determine the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid crosses using a Punnett Square.
B4.2A. Show that when mutations occur in sex cells, they can be passed on to offspring (inherited mutations), but if they occur in other cells, they can be passed on to descendant cells only (noninherited mutations).
B4.2B. Recognize that every species has its own characteristic DNA sequence.
B4.2C. Describe the structure and function of DNA.
B4.2D. Predict the consequences that changes in the DNA composition of particular genes may have on an organism (e.g., sickle cell anemia, other).
B4.2x. DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis
B4.2f. Demonstrate how the genetic information in DNA molecules provides instructions for assembling protein molecules and that this is virtually the same mechanism for all life forms.
B4.2g. Describe the processes of replication, transcription, and translation and how they relate to each other in molecular biology.
B4.2h. Recognize that genetic engineering techniques provide great potential and responsibilities.
B4.3. Cell Division - Mitosis and Meiosis
B4.3A. Compare and contrast the processes of cell division (mitosis and meiosis), particularly as those processes relate to production of new cells and to passing on genetic information between generations.
B4.3B. Explain why only mutations occurring in gametes (sex cells) can be passed on to offspring.
B4.3d. Explain that the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations from the offspring of two parents.
B4.3e. Recognize that genetic variation can occur from such processes as crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes.
B4.3f. Predict how mutations may be transferred to progeny.
B4.3g. Explain that cellular differentiation results from gene expression and/or environmental influence (e.g., metamorphosis, nutrition).
B4.4x. Genetic Variation
B4.4a. Describe how inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter a gene. Recognize that an altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it and that the resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
B4.4b. Explain that gene mutation in a cell can result in uncontrolled cell division called cancer. Also know that exposure of cells to certain chemicals and radiation increases mutations and thus increases the chance of cancer.
B4.4c. Explain how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may be silent or result in phenotypic change in an organism and in its offspring.
B4.r5x. Recombinant DNA (recommended)
B4.r5b. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of human manipulation of DNA. (recommended)
L4.p1. Reproduction (prerequisite)
L4.p1A. Compare and contrast the differences between sexual and asexual reproduction. (prerequisite)
L4.p1B. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of sexual vs. asexual reproduction. (prerequisite)
L4.p2. Heredity and Environment (prerequisite)
L4.p2A. Explain that the traits of an individual are influenced by both the environment and the genetics of the individual. Acquired traits are not inherited; only genetic traits are inherited. (prerequisite)
MI.B5. Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity: Students recognize that evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. They can explain that modern evolution includes both the concepts of common descent and natural selection. They illustrate how the consequences of natural selection and differential reproduction have led to the great biodiversity on Earth.
B5.1. Theory of Evolution
B5.1A. Summarize the major concepts of natural selection (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending on environmental conditions).
B5.1B. Describe how natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution.
B5.1c. Summarize the relationships between present-day organisms and those that inhabited the Earth in the past (e.g., use fossil record, embryonic stages, homologous structures, chemical basis).
B5.1e. Explain how natural selection leads to organisms that are well suited for the environment (differential survival and reproduction of chance inherited variants, depending upon environmental conditions).
B5.1f. Explain, using examples, how the fossil record, comparative anatomy, and other evidence supports the theory of evolution.
B5.1g. Illustrate how genetic variation is preserved or eliminated from a population through natural selection (evolution) resulting in biodiversity.
B5.2. Molecular Evidence
B5.2b. Explain that the degree of kinship between organisms or species can be estimated from the similarity of their DNA and protein sequences.
B5.2c. Trace the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool, such as genetic drift and isolation of subpopulations.
B5.r2d. Interpret a cladogram or phylogenetic tree showing evolutionary relationships among organisms. (recommended)
B5.3. Natural Selection
B4.3C. Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms.
B5.3A. Explain how natural selection acts on individuals, but it is populations that evolve. Relate genetic mutations and genetic variety produced by sexual reproduction to diversity within a given population.
B5.3d. Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity.
B5.3e. Explain how changes at the gene level are the foundation for changes in populations and eventually the formation of new species.
B5.3f. Demonstrate and explain how biotechnology can improve a population and species.
L5.p1. Survival and Extinction (prerequisite)
L5.p1B. Define a population and identify local populations. (prerequisite)
L5.p2. Classification (prerequisite)
L5.p2A. Explain, with examples, that ecology studies the varieties and interactions of living things across space while evolution studies the varieties and interactions of living things across time. (prerequisite)
MI.C1. Chemistry: Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation.
C1.1. Scientific Inquiry
C1.1C. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).
C1.1D. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
C1.1E. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
C1.1f. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
C1.1g. Based on empirical evidence, explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation
C1.1h. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
C1.2. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
C1.2f. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
C1.2h. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
C1.2i. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that lead to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
C1.2k. Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.
MI.C2. Chemistry: Forms of Energy: Students recognize the many forms of energy and understand that energy is central to predicting and explaining how and why chemical reactions occur. The chemical topics of bonding, gas behavior, kinetics, enthalpy, entropy, free energy, and nuclear stability are addressed in this standard.
C2.1x. Chemical Potential Energy
C2.1a. Explain the changes in potential energy (due to electrostatic interactions) as a chemical bond forms and use this to explain why bond breaking always requires energy.
C2.1b. Describe energy changes associated with chemical reactions in terms of bonds broken and formed (including intermolecular forces).
C2.1c. Compare qualitatively the energy changes associated with melting various types of solids in terms of the types of forces between the particles in the solid.
C2.2. Molecules in Motion
C2.2A. Describe conduction in terms of molecules bumping into each other to transfer energy. Explain why there is better conduction in solids and liquids than gases.
C2.2B. Describe the various states of matter in terms of the motion and arrangement of the molecules (atoms) making up the substance.
C2.2x. Molecular Entropy:
C2.2c. Explain changes in pressure, volume, and temperature for gases using the kinetic molecular model.
C2.2d. Explain convection and the difference in transfer of thermal energy for solids, liquids, and gases using evidence that molecules are in constant motion.
C2.2e. Compare the entropy of solids, liquids, and gases.
C2.2f. Compare the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a metal object and a wood object at room temperature.
C2.3x. Breaking Chemical Bonds
C2.3a. Explain how the rate of a given chemical reaction is dependent on the temperature and the activation energy.
C2.3b. Draw and analyze a diagram to show the activation energy for an exothermic reaction that is very slow at room temperature.
C2.4x. Electron Movement
C2.4c. Explain why an atom can absorb only certain wavelengths of light.
C2.4d. Compare various wavelengths of light (visible and nonvisible) in terms of frequency and relative energy.
C2.5x. Nuclear Stability
C2.5a. Determine the age of materials using the ratio of stable and unstable isotopes of a particular type.
C2.r5d. Describe how and where all the elements on earth were formed. (recommended)
P2.p1. Potential Energy (prerequisite)
P2.p1A. Describe energy changes associated with changes of state in terms of the arrangement and order of the atoms (molecules) in each state. (prerequisite)
P2.p1B. Use the positions and arrangements of atoms and molecules in solid, liquid, and gas state to explain the need for an input of energy for melting and boiling and a release of energy in condensation and freezing. (prerequisite)
MI.C3. Chemistry: Energy Transfer and Conservation: Students apply the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics to explain and predict most chemical phenomena.
C3.1x. Hess's Law
C3.1a. Calculate the delta H for a given reaction using Hess's Law.
C3.1b. Draw enthalpy diagrams for exothermic and endothermic reactions.
C3.1c. Calculate the delta H for a chemical reaction using simple coffee cup calorimetry.
C3.1d. Calculate the amount of heat produced for a given mass of reactant from a balanced chemical equation.
C3.2a. Describe the energy changes in photosynthesis and in the combustion of sugar in terms of bond breaking and bond making.
C3.2b. Describe the relative strength of single, double, and triple covalent bonds between nitrogen atoms.
C3.3. Heating Impacts
C3.3A. Describe how heat is conducted in a solid.
C3.3B. Describe melting on a molecular level.
C3.3x. Bond Energy
C3.3c. Explain why it is necessary for a molecule to absorb energy in order to break a chemical bond.
C3.4. Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions
C3.4A. Use the terms endothermic and exothermic correctly to describe chemical reactions in the laboratory.
C3.4B. Explain why chemical reactions will either release or absorb energy.
C3.4x. Enthalpy and Entropy
C3.4c. Write chemical equations including the heat term as a part of equation or using delta H notation.
C3.4e. Predict if a chemical reaction is spontaneous given the enthalpy (delta H ) and entropy (delta S ) changes for the reaction using Gibb's Free Energy, delta G = delta H - T delta S (Note: mathematical computation of delta G is not required.)
C3.4f. Explain why some endothermic reactions are spontaneous at room temperature.
P3.p2. Energy Transfer (prerequisite)
P3.p2A. Trace (or diagram) energy transfers involving various types of energy including nuclear, chemical, electrical, sound, and light. (prerequisite)
MI.C4. Chemistry: Properties of Matter: Compounds, elements, and mixtures are categories used to organize matter. Students organize materials into these categories based on their chemical and physical behavior. Students understand the structure of the atom to make predictions about the physical and chemical properties of various elements and the types of compounds those elements will form. An understanding of the organization the Periodic Table in terms of the outer electron configuration is one of the most important tools for the chemist and student to use in prediction and explanation of the structure and behavior of atoms.
C4.10. Neutral Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes
C4.10A. List the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons for any given ion or isotope.
C4.10B. Recognize that an element always contains the same number of protons.
C4.10x. Average Atomic Mass
C4.10c. Calculate the average atomic mass of an element given the percent abundance and mass of the individual isotopes.
C4.10d. Average Atomic Mass: Predict which isotope will have the greatest abundance given the possible isotopes for an element and the average atomic mass in the periodic table.
C4.10e. Average Atomic Mass: Write the symbol for an isotope, zX, where z is the atomic number, A is the mass number, and X is the symbol for the element.
C4.2A. Name simple binary compounds using their formulae.
C4.2B. Given the name, write the formula of simple binary compounds.
C4.2c. Nomenclature: Given a formula, name the compound.
C4.2d. Nomenclature: Given the name, write the formula of ionic and molecular compounds.
C4.3. Properties of Substances
C4.3A. Recognize that substances that are solid at room temperature have stronger attractive forces than liquids at room temperature, which have stronger attractive forces than gases at room temperature.
C4.3B. Recognize that solids have a more ordered, regular arrangement of their particles than liquids and that liquids are more ordered than gases.
C4.3c. Compare the relative strengths of forces between molecules based on the melting point and boiling point of the substances.
C4.3d. Compare the strength of the forces of attraction between molecules of different elements. (For example, at room temperature, chlorine is a gas and iodine is a solid.)
C4.3e. Predict whether the forces of attraction in a solid are primarily metallic, covalent, network covalent, or ionic based upon the elements' location on the periodic table.
C4.3g. Given the structural formula of a compound, indicate all the intermolecular forces present (dispersion, dipolar, hydrogen bonding).
C4.3h. Explain properties of various solids such as malleability, conductivity, and melting point in terms of the solid's structure and bonding.
C4.3i. Explain why ionic solids have higher melting points than covalent solids. (For example, NaF has a melting point of 995 degrees C, while water has a melting point of 0 degrees C.)
C4.4x. Molecular Polarity
C4.4a. Explain why at room temperature different compounds can exist in different phases.
C4.4b. Identify if a molecule is polar or nonpolar given a structural formula for the compound.
C4.5x. Ideal Gas Law
C4.5a. Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the pressure-volume relationship in gases.
C4.5b. Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the pressure-temperature relationship in gases.
C4.5c. Provide macroscopic examples, atomic and molecular explanations, and mathematical representations (graphs and equations) for the temperature-volume relationship in gases.
C4.7a. Investigate the difference in the boiling point or freezing point of pure water and a salt solution.
C4.7b. Compare the density of pure water to that of a sugar solution.
C4.8. Atomic Structure
C4.8A. Identify the location, relative mass, and charge for electrons, protons, and neutrons.
C4.8B. Describe the atom as mostly empty space with an extremely small, dense nucleus consisting of the protons and neutrons and an electron cloud surrounding the nucleus.
C4.8D. Give the number of electrons and protons present if the fluoride ion has a -1 charge.
C4.8x. Electron Configuration
C4.8e. Write the complete electron configuration of elements in the first four rows of the periodic table.
C4.8g. Predict oxidation states and bonding capacity for main group elements using their electron structure.
C4.8i. Describe the fact that the electron location cannot be exactly determined at any given time.
C4.9. Periodic Table
C4.9A. Identify elements with similar chemical and physical properties using the periodic table.
C4.9x. Electron Energy Levels
C4.9b. Identify metals, non-metals, and metalloids using the periodic table.
P4.p1. Kinetic Molecular Theory (prerequisite)
P4.p1A. For a substance that can exist in all three phases, describe the relative motion of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)
P4.p1B. For a substance that can exist in all three phases, make a drawing that shows the arrangement and relative spacing of the particles in each of the phases. (prerequisite)
P4.p2. Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures (prerequisite)
P4.p2A. Distinguish between an element, compound, or mixture based on drawings or formulae. (prerequisite)
P4.p2B. Identify a pure substance (element or compound) based on unique chemical and physical properties. (prerequisite)
P4.p2D. Recognize that the properties of a compound differ from those of its individual elements. (prerequisite)
MI.C5. Chemistry: Changes in Matter: Students will analyze a chemical change phenomenon from the point of view of what is the same and what is not the same.
C5.2. Chemical Changes
C5.2A. Balance simple chemical equations applying the conservation of matter.
C5.2B. Distinguish between chemical and physical changes in terms of the properties of the reactants and products.
C5.2C. Draw pictures to distinguish the relationships between atoms in physical and chemical changes.
C5.3a. Describe equilibrium shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).
C5.3b. Predict shifts in a chemical system caused by changing conditions (Le Chatelier's Principle).
C5.3c. Predict the extent reactants are converted to products using the value of the equilibrium constant.
C5.4x. Changes of State
C5.4c. Explain why both the melting point and boiling points for water are significantly higher than other small molecules of comparable mass (e.g., ammonia and methane).
C5.4d. Explain why freezing is an exothermic change of state.
C5.4e. Compare the melting point of covalent compounds based on the strength of IMFs (intermolecular forces).
C5.5. Chemical Bonds - Trends
C5.4B. Predict the formula for binary compounds of main group elements.
C5.5A. Predict if the bonding between two atoms of different elements will be primarily ionic or covalent.
C5.5x. Chemical Bonds
C5.5d. Compare the relative melting point, electrical and thermal conductivity and hardness for ionic, metallic, and covalent compounds.
C5.5e. Relate the melting point, hardness, and electrical and thermal conductivity of a substance to its structure.
C5.6x. Reduction/Oxidation Reactions
C5.6a. Balance half-reactions and describe them as oxidations or reductions.
C5.6b. Predict single replacement reactions.
C5.6c. Explain oxidation occurring when two different metals are in contact.
C5.6d. Calculate the voltage for spontaneous redox reactions from the standard reduction potentials.
C5.6e. Identify the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode in an electrochemical cell.
C5.7. Acids and Bases
C5.7A. Recognize formulas for common inorganic acids, carboxylic acids, and bases formed from families I and II.
C5.7B. Predict products of an acid-base neutralization.
C5.7f. Write balanced chemical equations for reactions between acids and bases and perform calculations with balanced equations.
C5.7g. Calculate the pH from the hydronium ion or hydroxide ion concentration.
C5.7h. Explain why sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides contribute to acid rain.
C5.r7i. Identify the Bronsted-Lowry conjugate acid-base pairs in an equation. (recommended)
C5.8. Carbon Chemistry
C5.8C. Recognize that proteins, starches, and other large biological molecules are polymers.
C5.r1x. Rates of Reactions (recommended)
C5.r1a. Predict how the rate of a chemical reaction will be influenced by changes in concentration, and temperature, pressure. (recommended)
C5.r1b. Explain how the rate of a reaction will depend on concentration, temperature, pressure, and nature of reactant. (recommended)
P5.p1. Conservation of Matter (prerequisite)
P5.p1A. Draw a picture of the particles of an element or compound as a solid, liquid, and gas. (prerequisite)
MI.CC.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.11-12.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-12.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
MI.CC.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
RST.9-10.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
RST.9-10.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
MI.CC.WHST.11-12. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.11-12.2(a) Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.11-12.2(b) Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
WHST.11-12.2(c) Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
WHST.11-12.2(d) Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.11-12.2(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
MI.CC.WHST.9-10. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-10.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
MI.E1. Earth Science: Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation.
E1.1. Scientific Inquiry
E1.1B. Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.
E1.1C. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity-length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature-with the appropriate level of precision).
E1.1D. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
E1.1f. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
E1.2. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
E1.2f. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
E1.2g. Identify scientific tradeoffs in design decisions and choose among alternative solutions.
E1.2h. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
E1.2i. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that lead to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
E1.2k. Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.
MI.E2. Earth Science: Earth Systems: Students describe the interactions within and between Earth systems. Students will explain how both fluids (water cycle) and solids (rock cycle) move within Earth systems and how these movements form and change their environment.
E2.1. Earth Systems Overview
E2.1B. Analyze the interactions between the major systems (geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) that make up the Earth.
E2.2. Energy in Earth Systems
E2.2A. Describe the Earth's principal sources of internal and external energy (e.g., radioactive decay, gravity, solar energy).
E2.2B. Identify differences in the origin and use of renewable (e.g., solar, wind, water, biomass) and nonrenewable (e.g., fossil fuels, nuclear ) sources of energy.
E2.2C. Describe natural processes in which heat transfer in the Earth occurs by conduction, convection, and radiation.
E2.2D. Identify the main sources of energy to the climate system.
E2.2e. Explain how energy changes form through Earth systems.
E2.2f. Explain how elements exist in different compounds and states as they move from one reservoir to another.
E2.3. Biogeochemical Cycles
E2.3A. Explain how carbon exists in different forms such as limestone (rock), carbon dioxide (gas), carbonic acid (water), and animals (life) within Earth systems and how those forms can be beneficial or harmful to humans.
E2.3b. Explain why small amounts of some chemical forms may be beneficial for life but are poisonous in large quantities (e.g., dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico, Lake Nyos in Africa, fluoride in drinking water).
E2.3c. Explain how the nitrogen cycle is part of the Earth system.
E2.3d. Explain how carbon moves through the Earth system (including the geosphere) and how it may benefit (e.g., improve soils for agriculture) or harm (e.g., act as a pollutant) society.
E2.4. Resources and Human Impacts on Earth Systems
E2.4A. Describe renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy for human consumption (electricity, fuels), compare their effects on the environment, and include overall costs and benefits.
E2.4B. Explain how the impact of human activities on the environment (e.g., deforestation, air pollution, coral reef destruction) can be understood through the analysis of interactions between the four Earth systems.
E2.4c. Explain ozone depletion in the stratosphere and methods to slow human activities to reduce ozone depletion.
MI.E3. Earth Science: The Solid Earth: Students explain how scientists study and model the interior of the Earth and its dynamic nature. They use the theory of plate tectonics, the unifying theory of geology, to explain a wide variety of Earth features and processes and how hazards resulting from these processes impact society.
E3.1. Advanced Rock Cycle
E3.1A. Discriminate between igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock into another.
E3.1B. Explain the relationship between the rock cycle and plate tectonics theory in regard to the origins of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
E3.1c. Explain how the size and shape of grains in a sedimentary rock indicate the environment of formation (including climate) and deposition.
E3.1d. Explain how the crystal sizes of igneous rocks indicate the rate of cooling and whether the rock is extrusive or intrusive.
E3.1e. Explain how the texture (foliated, nonfoliated) of metamorphic rock can indicate whether it has experienced regional or contact metamorphism.
E3.2. Interior of the Earth
E3.2A. Describe the interior of the Earth (in terms of crust, mantle, and inner and outer cores) and where the magnetic field of the Earth is generated.
E3.2B. Explain how scientists infer that the Earth has interior layers with discernable properties using patterns of primary (P) and secondary (S) seismic wave arrivals.
E3.2d. Explain the uncertainties associated with models of the interior of the Earth and how these models are validated.
E3.3. Plate Tectonics Theory
E3.3A. Explain how plate tectonics accounts for the features and processes (sea floor spreading, mid-ocean ridges, subduction zones, earthquakes and volcanoes, mountain ranges) that occur on or near the Earth's surface.
E3.3B. Explain why tectonic plates move using the concept of heat flowing through mantle convection, coupled with the cooling and sinking of aging ocean plates that result from their increased density.
E3.3C. Describe the motion history of geologic features (e.g., plates, Hawaii) using equations relating rate, time, and distance.
E3.3d. Distinguish plate boundaries by the pattern of depth and magnitude of earthquakes.
E3.r3e. Predict the temperature distribution in the lithosphere as a function of distance from the mid-ocean ridge and how it relates to ocean depth. (recommended)
E3.r3f. Describe how the direction and rate of movement for the North American plate has affected the local climate over the last 600 million years. (recommended)
E3.4. Earthquakes and Volcanoes
E3.4A. Use the distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes to locate and determine the types of plate boundaries.
E3.4B. Describe how the sizes of earthquakes and volcanoes are measured or characterized.
E3.4C. Describe the effects of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on humans.
E3.4d. Explain how the chemical composition of magmas relates to plate tectonics and affects the geometry, structure, and explosivity of volcanoes.
E3.4f. Explain why fences are offset after an earthquake, using the elastic rebound theory.
E3.p1. Landforms and Soils (prerequisite)
E3.p1A. Explain the origin of Michigan landforms. Describe and identify surface features using maps and satellite images. (prerequisite)
E3.p1B. Explain how physical and chemical weathering leads to erosion and the formation of soils and sediments. (prerequisite)
E3.p1C. Describe how coastal features are formed by wave erosion and deposition. (prerequisite)
E3.p2. Rocks and Minerals (prerequisite)
E3.p2A. Identify common rock-forming minerals (quartz, feldspar, biotite, calcite, hornblende). (prerequisite)
E3.p2B. Identify common igneous (granite, basalt, andesite, obsidian, pumice), metamorphic (schist, gneiss, marble, slate, quartzite), and sedimentary (sandstone, limestone, shale, conglomerate) rocks and describe the processes that change one kind of rock to another. (prerequisite)
E3.p3. Basic Plate Tectonics (prerequisite)
E3.p3A. Describe geologic, paleontologic, and paleoclimatalogic evidence that indicates Africa and South America were once part of a single continent.
E3.p3B. Describe the three types of plate boundaries (divergent, convergent, and transform) and geographic features associated with them (e.g., continental rifts and mid-ocean ridges, volcanic and island arcs, deep-sea trenches, transform faults).
E3.p3C. Describe the three major types of volcanoes (shield volcano, stratovolcano, and cinder cones) and their relationship to the Ring of Fire.
MI.E4. Earth Science: The Fluid Earth: Students explain how the ocean and atmosphere move and transfer energy around the planet. They also explain how these movements affect climate and weather and how severe weather impacts society. Students explain how long term climatic changes (glaciers) have shaped the Michigan landscape.
E4.1A. Compare and contrast surface water systems (lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands) and groundwater in regard to their relative sizes as Earth's freshwater reservoirs and the dynamics of water movement (inputs and outputs, residence times, sustainability).
E4.1B. Explain the features and processes of groundwater systems and how the sustainability of North American aquifers has changed in recent history (e.g., the past 100 years) qualitatively using the concepts of recharge, residence time, inputs, and outputs.
E4.1C. Explain how water quality in both groundwater and surface systems is impacted by land use decisions.
E4.2. Oceans and Climate
E4.2A. Describe the major causes for the ocean's surface and deep water currents, including the prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, unequal heating of the earth, changes in water temperature and salinity in high latitudes, and basin shape.
E4.2B. Explain how interactions between the oceans and the atmosphere influence global and regional climate. Include the major concepts of heat transfer by ocean currents, thermohaline circulation, boundary currents, evaporation, precipitation, climatic zones, and the ocean as a major CO2 reservoir.
E4.2c. Explain the dynamics (including ocean-atmosphere interactions) of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and its effect on continental climates.
E4.2d. Identify factors affecting seawater density and salinity and describe how density affects oceanic layering and currents.
E4.2e. Explain the differences between maritime and continental climates with regard to oceanic currents.
E4.2f. Explain how the Coriolis effect controls oceanic circulation.
E4.r2g. Explain how El Nino affects economies (e.g., in South America). (recommended)
E4.3. Severe Weather
E4.3A. Describe the various conditions of formation associated with severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, waves, and drought).
E4.3B. Describe the damage resulting from, and the social impact of thunderstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, and floods.
E4.3C. Describe severe weather and flood safety and mitigation.
E4.3D. Describe the seasonal variations in severe weather.
E4.3E. Describe conditions associated with frontal boundaries that result in severe weather (thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes).
E4.3F. Describe how mountains, frontal wedging (including dry lines), convection, and convergence form clouds and precipitation.
E4.3g. Explain the process of adiabatic cooling and adiabatic temperature changes to the formation of clouds.
E4.p1. Water Cycle (prerequisite)
E4.p1A. Describe that the water cycle includes evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, infiltration, surface runoff, groundwater, and absorption. (prerequisite)
E4.p1B. Analyze the flow of water between the elements of a watershed, including surface features (lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands) and groundwater. (prerequisite)
E4.p1C. Describe the river and stream types, features, and process including cycles of flooding, erosion, and deposition as they occur naturally and as they are impacted by land use decisions. (prerequisite)
E4.p2. Weather and the Atmosphere (prerequisite)
E4.p2A. Describe the composition and layers of the atmosphere. (prerequisite)
E4.p2B. Describe the difference between weather and climate. (prerequisite)
E4.p2C. Explain the differences between fog and dew formation and cloud formation. (prerequisite)
E4.p2D. Describe relative humidity in terms of the moisture content of the air and the moisture capacity of the air and how these depend on the temperature. (prerequisite)
E4.p2E. Describe conditions associated with frontal boundaries (cold, warm, stationary, and occluded). (prerequisite)
E4.p2F. Describe the characteristics and movement across North America of the major air masses and the jet stream. (prerequisite)
E4.p2G. Interpret a weather map and describe present weather conditions and predict changes in weather over 24 hours. (prerequisite)
E4.p2H. Explain the primary causes of seasons. (prerequisite)
E4.p2I. Identify major global wind belts (trade winds, prevailing westerlies, and polar easterlies) and that their vertical components control the global distribution of rainforests and deserts. (prerequisite)
E4.p3. Glaciers (prerequisite)
E4.p3A. Describe how glaciers have affected the Michigan landscape and how the resulting landforms impact our state economy. (prerequisite)
E4.p3B. Explain what happens to the lithosphere when an ice sheet is removed. (prerequisite)
E4.p3C. Explain the formation of the Great Lakes. (prerequisite)
MI.E5. Earth Science: The Earth in Space and Time: Students explain theories about how the Earth and universe formed and evolved over a long period of time. Students predict how human activities may influence the climate of the future.
E5.1. The Earth in Space
E5.1A. Describe the position and motion of our solar system in our galaxy and the overall scale, structure, and age of the universe.
E5.1b. Describe how the Big Bang theory accounts for the formation of the universe.
E5.1d. Differentiate between the cosmological and Doppler red shift.
E5.2. The Sun
E5.2A. Identify patterns in solar activities (sunspot cycle, solar flares, solar wind).
E5.2B. Relate events on the Sun to phenomena such as auroras, disruption of radio and satellite communications, and power grid disturbances.
E5.2C. Describe how nuclear fusion produces energy in the Sun.
E5.2x. Stellar Evolution
E5.2e. Explain how the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram can be used to deduce other parameters (distance).
E5.2f. Explain how you can infer the temperature, life span, and mass of a star from its color. Use the H-R diagram to explain the life cycles of stars.
E5.2g. Explain how the balance between fusion and gravity controls the evolution of a star (equilibrium).
E5.2h. Compare the evolution paths of low-, moderate-, and high-mass stars using the H-R diagram.
E5.3. Earth History and Geologic Time
E5.3A. Explain how the solar system formed from a nebula of dust and gas in a spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy about 4.6 Ga (billion years ago).
E5.3B. Describe the process of radioactive decay and explain how radioactive elements are used to date the rocks that contain them.
E5.3C. Relate major events in the history of the Earth to the geologic time scale, including formation of the Earth, formation of an oxygen atmosphere, rise of life, Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) and Permian extinctions, and Pleistocene ice age.
E5.3D. Describe how index fossils can be used to determine time sequence.
E5.3x. Geologic Dating
E5.3e. Determine the approximate age of a sample, when given the half-life of a radioactive substance (in graph or tabular form) along with the ratio of daughter to parent substances present in the sample.
E5.3f. Explain why C-14 can be used to date a 40,000 year old tree, but U-Pb cannot.
E5.3g. Identify a sequence of geologic events using relative-age dating principles.
E5.4. Climate Change
E5.4A. Explain the natural mechanism of the greenhouse effect, including comparisons of the major greenhouse gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone).
E5.4B. Describe natural mechanisms that could result in significant changes in climate (e.g., major volcanic eruptions, changes in sunlight received by the earth, and meteorite impacts).
E5.4C. Analyze the empirical relationship between the emissions of carbon dioxide, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, and the average global temperature over the past 150 years.
E5.4D. Based on evidence of observable changes in recent history and climate change models, explain the consequences of warmer oceans (including the results of increased evaporation, shoreline and estuarine impacts, oceanic algae growth, and coral bleaching) and changing climatic zones (including the adaptive capacity of the biosphere).
E5.4e. Based on evidence from historical climate research (e.g. fossils, varves, ice core data) and climate change models, explain how the current melting of polar ice caps can impact the climatic system .
E5.4f. Describe geologic evidence that implies climates were significantly colder at times in the geologic record (e.g., geomorphology, striations, and fossils).
E5.4g. Compare and contrast the heat-trapping mechanisms of the major greenhouse gases resulting from emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons) as well as their abundance and heat- trapping capacity.
E5.r4h. Use oxygen isotope data to estimate paleotemperature. (recommended)
E5.r4i. Explain the causes of short-term climate changes such as catastrophic volcanic eruptions and impact of solar system objects. (recommended)
E5.p1. Sky Observations (prerequisite)
E5.p1A. Describe the motions of various celestial bodies and some effects of those motions. (prerequisite)
E5.p1B. Explain the primary cause of seasons. (prerequisite)
E5.p1D. Describe the position and motion of our solar system in our galaxy. (prerequisite)
MI.P1. Physics: Inquiry, Reflection, and Social Implications: Students will understand the nature of science and demonstrate an ability to practice scientific reasoning by applying it to the design, execution, and evaluation of scientific investigations. Students will demonstrate their understanding that scientific knowledge is gathered through various forms of direct and indirect observations and the testing of this information by methods including, but not limited to, experimentation.
P1.1. Scientific Inquiry
P1.1B. Evaluate the uncertainties or validity of scientific conclusions using an understanding of sources of measurement error, the challenges of controlling variables, accuracy of data analysis, logic of argument, logic of experimental design, and/or the dependence on underlying assumptions.
P1.1C. Conduct scientific investigations using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., selecting an instrument that measures the desired quantity, length, volume, weight, time interval, temperature with the appropriate level of precision).
P1.1D. Identify patterns in data and relate them to theoretical models.
P1.1E. Describe a reason for a given conclusion using evidence from an investigation.
P1.1f. Predict what would happen if the variables, methods, or timing of an investigation were changed.
P1.1g. Based on empirical evidence, explain and critique the reasoning used to draw a scientific conclusion or explanation.
P1.1h. Design and conduct a systematic scientific investigation that tests a hypothesis. Draw conclusions from data presented in charts or tables.
P1.2. Scientific Reflection and Social Implications
P1.2f. Critique solutions to problems, given criteria and scientific constraints.
P1.2h. Describe the distinctions between scientific theories, laws, hypotheses, and observations.
P1.2i. Explain the progression of ideas and explanations that lead to science theories that are part of the current scientific consensus or core knowledge.
P1.2j. Apply science principles or scientific data to anticipate effects of technological design decisions.
P1.2k. Analyze how science and society interact from a historical, political, economic, or social perspective.
MI.P2. Physics: Motion of Objects: The universe is in a state of constant change. From small particles (electrons) to the large systems (galaxies) all things are in motion. Therefore, for students to understand the universe they must describe and represent various types of motion.
P2.1. Position - Time
P2.1A. Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time.
P2.1B. Represent the velocities for linear and circular motion using motion diagrams (arrows on strobe pictures).
P2.1C. Create line graphs using measured values of position and elapsed time.
P2.1D. Describe and analyze the motion that a position-time graph represents, given the graph.
P2.1E. Describe and classify various motions in a plane as one dimensional, two dimensional, circular, or periodic.
P2.1F. Distinguish between rotation and revolution and describe and contrast the two speeds of an object like the Earth.
P2.1g. Solve problems involving average speed and constant acceleration in one dimension.
P2.1h. Identify the changes in speed and direction in everyday examples of circular (rotation and revolution), periodic, and projectile motions.
P2.2. Velocity - Time
P2.2A. Distinguish between the variables of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration.
P2.2B. Use the change of speed and elapsed time to calculate the average acceleration for linear motion.
P2.2C. Describe and analyze the motion that a velocity-time graph represents, given the graph.
P2.2D. State that uniform circular motion involves acceleration without a change in speed.
P2.2e. Use the area under a velocity-time graph to calculate the distance traveled and the slope to calculate the acceleration.
MI.P3. Physics: Forces and Motion: Students identify interactions between objects either as being by direct contact (e.g., pushes or pulls, friction) or at a distance (e.g., gravity, electromagnetism), and to use forces to describe interactions between objects.
P3.1. Basic Forces in Nature
P3.1A. Identify the force(s) acting between objects in 'direct contact' or at a distance.
P3.1b. Explain why scientists can ignore the gravitational force when measuring the net force between two electrons.
P3.1c. Provide examples that illustrate the importance of the electric force in everyday life.
P3.1d. Identify the basic forces in everyday interactions.
P3.2. Net Forces
P3.2A. Identify the magnitude and direction of everyday forces (e.g., wind, tension in ropes, pushes and pulls, weight).
P3.2B. Compare work done in different situations.
P3.2C. Calculate the net force acting on an object.
P3.2d. Calculate all the forces on an object on an inclined plane and describe the object's motion based on the forces using free-body diagrams.
P3.3. Newton's Third Law
P3.3A. Identify the action and reaction force from examples of forces in everyday situations (e.g., book on a table, walking across the floor, pushing open a door).
P3.3b. Predict how the change in velocity of a small mass compares to the change in velocity of a large mass when the objects interact (e.g., collide).
P3.3c. Explain the recoil of a projectile launcher in terms of forces and masses.
P3.3d. Analyze why seat belts may be more important in autos than in buses.
P3.4. Forces and Acceleration
P3.4A. Predict the change in motion of an object acted on by several forces.
P3.4B. Identify forces acting on objects moving with constant velocity (e.g., cars on a highway).
P3.4C. Solve problems involving force, mass, and acceleration in linear motion (Newton's second law).
P3.4D. Identify the force(s) acting on objects moving with uniform circular motion (e.g., a car on a circular track, satellites in orbit).
P3.4g. Explain how the time of impact can affect the net force (e.g., air bags in cars, catching a ball).
P3.5a. Apply conservation of momentum to solve simple collision problems.
P3.6. Gravitational Interactions
P3.6A. Explain earth-moon interactions (orbital motion) in terms of forces.
P3.6e. Draw arrows (vectors) to represent how the direction and magnitude of a force changes on an object in an elliptical orbit.
P3.7. Electric Charges
P3.7B. Explain why acquiring a large excess static charge (e.g., pulling off a wool cap, touching a Van de Graaff generator, combing) affects your hair.
P3.7x. Electric Charges - Interactions
P3.7g. Propose a mechanism based on electric forces to explain current flow in an electric circuit.
P3.8x. Electromagnetic Force
P3.8b. Explain how the interaction of electric and magnetic forces is the basis for electric motors, generators, and the production of electromagnetic waves.
P3.p8. Magnetic Force (prerequisite)
P3.p8A. Create a representation of magnetic field lines around a bar magnet and qualitatively describe how the relative strength and direction of the magnetic force changes at various places in the field. (prerequisite)
MI.P4. Physics: Forms of Energy and Energy Transformations: Energy is a useful conceptual system for explaining how the universe works and accounting for changes in matter. Energy is not a 'thing.' Students develop several energy-related ideas.
P4.1. Energy Transfer
P4.1A. Account for and represent energy into and out of systems using energy transfer diagrams.
P4.1B. Explain instances of energy transfer by waves and objects in everyday activities (e.g., why the ground gets warm during the day, how you hear a distant sound, why it hurts when you are hit by a baseball).
P4.10. Current Electricity - Circuits
P4.10A. Describe the energy transformations when electrical energy is produced and transferred to homes and businesses.
P4.10B. Identify common household devices that transform electrical energy to other forms of energy, and describe the type of energy transformation.
P4.10C. Given diagrams of many different possible connections of electric circuit elements, identify complete circuits, open circuits, and short circuits and explain the reasons for the classification.
P4.10D. Discriminate between voltage, resistance, and current as they apply to an electric circuit.
P4.10x. Current Electricity - Ohm's Law, Work, and Power
P4.10e. Explain energy transfer in a circuit, using an electrical charge model.
P4.10f. Calculate the amount of work done when a charge moves through a potential difference, V.
P4.10g. Compare the currents, voltages, and power in parallel and series circuits.
P4.10h. Explain how circuit breakers and fuses protect household appliances.
P4.10i. Compare the energy used in one day by common household appliances (e.g., refrigerator, lamps, hair dryer, toaster, televisions, music players).
P4.10j. Explain the difference between electric power and electric energy as used in bills from an electric company.
P4.11x. Heat, Temperature, and Efficiency
P4.11a. Calculate the energy lost to surroundings when water in a home water heater is heated from room temperature to the temperature necessary to use in a dishwasher, given the efficiency of the home hot water heater.
P4.11b. Calculate the final temperature of two liquids (same or different materials) at the same or different temperatures and masses that are combined.
P4.12. Nuclear Reactions
P4.12A. Describe peaceful technological applications of nuclear fission and radioactive decay.
P4.12C. Explain how stars, including our Sun, produce huge amounts of energy (e.g., visible, infrared, ultraviolet light).
P4.12x. Mass and Energy
P4.12d. Identify the source of energy in fission and fusion nuclear reactions.
P4.1x. Energy Transfer - Work
P4.1c. Explain why work has a more precise scientific meaning than the meaning of work in everyday language.
P4.1d. Calculate the amount of work done on an object that is moved from one position to another.
P4.1e. Using the formula for work, derive a formula for change in potential energy of an object lifted a distance h.
P4.2. Energy Transformation
P4.2A. Account for and represent energy transfer and transformation in complex processes (interactions).
P4.2B. Name devices that transform specific types of energy into other types (e.g., a device that transforms electricity into motion).
P4.2C. Explain how energy is conserved in common systems (e.g., light incident on a transparent material, light incident on a leaf, mechanical energy in a collision).
P4.2D. Explain why all the stored energy in gasoline does not transform to mechanical energy of a vehicle.
P4.2e. Explain the energy transformation as an object (e.g., skydiver) falls at a steady velocity.
P4.2f. Identify and label the energy inputs, transformations, and outputs using qualitative or quantitative representations in simple technological systems (e.g., toaster, motor, hair dryer) to show energy conservation.
P4.3. Kinetic and Potential Energy
P4.3A. Identify the form of energy in given situations (e.g., moving objects, stretched springs, rocks on cliffs, energy in food).
P4.3B. Describe the transformation between potential and kinetic energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts).
P4.3x. Kinetic and Potential Energy - Calculations
P4.3d. Rank the amount of kinetic energy from highest to lowest of everyday examples of moving objects.
P4.3e. Calculate the changes in kinetic and potential energy in simple mechanical systems (e.g., pendulums, roller coasters, ski lifts) using the formulas for kinetic energy and potential energy.
P4.3f. Calculate the impact speed (ignoring air resistance) of an object dropped from a specific height or the maximum height reached by an object (ignoring air resistance), given the initial vertical velocity.
P4.4. Wave Characteristics
P4.4A. Describe specific mechanical waves (e.g., on a demonstration spring, on the ocean) in terms of wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and speed.
P4.4B. Identify everyday examples of transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves.
P4.4C. Compare and contrast transverse and compression (longitudinal) waves in terms of wavelength, amplitude, and frequency.
P4.4x. Wave Characteristics - Calculations
P4.4d. Demonstrate that frequency and wavelength of a wave are inversely proportional in a given medium.
P4.4e. Calculate the amount of energy transferred by transverse or compression waves of different amplitudes and frequencies (e.g., seismic waves).
P4.5. Mechanical Wave Propagation
P4.5A. Identify everyday examples of energy transfer by waves and their sources.
P4.5B. Explain why an object (e.g., fishing bobber) does not move forward as a wave passes under it.
P4.5C. Provide evidence to support the claim that sound is energy transferred by a wave, not energy transferred by particles.
P4.5D. Explain how waves propagate from vibrating sources and why the intensity decreases with the square of the distance from a point source.
P4.6. Electromagnetic Waves
P4.6A. Identify the different regions on the electromagnetic spectrum and compare them in terms of wavelength, frequency, and energy.
P4.6B. Explain why radio waves can travel through space, but sound waves cannot.
P4.6C. Explain why there is a delay between the time we send a radio message to astronauts on the moon and when they receive it.
P4.6D. Explain why we see a distant event before we hear it (e.g., lightning before thunder, exploding fireworks before the boom).
P4.8. Wave Behavior - Reflection and Refraction
P4.8A. Draw ray diagrams to indicate how light reflects off objects or refracts into transparent media.
P4.8B. Predict the path of reflected light from flat, curved, or rough surfaces (e.g., flat and curved mirrors, painted walls, paper).
P4.8x. Wave Behavior - Diffraction, Interference, and Refraction
P4.8c. Describe how two wave pulses propagated from opposite ends of a demonstration spring interact as they meet.
P4.8d. List and analyze everyday examples that demonstrate the interference characteristics of waves (e.g., dead spots in an auditorium, whispering galleries, colors in a CD, beetle wings).
P4.8e. Given an angle of incidence and indices of refraction of two materials, calculate the path of a light ray incident on the boundary (Snell's Law).
P4.8f. Explain how Snell's Law is used to design lenses (e.g., eye glasses, microscopes, telescopes, binoculars).
P4.9. Nature of Light
P4.9A. Identify the principle involved when you see a transparent object (e.g., straw, piece of glass) in a clear liquid.
P4.9B. Explain how various materials reflect, absorb, or transmit light in different ways.
P4.9C. Explain why the image of the Sun appears reddish at sunrise and sunset.
P4.r9x. Nature of Light - Wave-Particle Nature (recommended)
P4.r9d. Describe evidence that supports the dual wave - particle nature of light. (recommended)
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