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AZ.CC.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.11-12.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-12.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
AZ.CC.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
RST.9-10.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
RST.9-10.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
AZ.CC.WHST.11-12. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.11-12.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
WHST.11-12.1(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
WHST.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.11-12.2(a) Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.11-12.2(b) Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
WHST.11-12.2(c) Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
WHST.11-12.2(d) Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.11-12.2(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
AZ.CC.WHST.9-10. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.9-10.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
WHST.9-10.1(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
WHST.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-10.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
AZ.SCHS-S1. Inquiry Process
SCHS-S1C1. Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses: Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses based on observations. Evaluate appropriate resources.
SCHS-S1C1-04. Predict the outcome of an investigation based on prior evidence, probability, and/or modeling (not guessing or inferring).
SCHS-S1C2. Scientific Testing (Investigating and Modeling): Design and conduct controlled investigations.
SCHS-S1C2-01. Demonstrate safe and ethical procedures (e.g., use and care of technology, materials, organisms) and behavior in all science inquiry.
SCHS-S1C2-02. Identify the resources needed to conduct an investigation.
SCHS-S1C2-04. Conduct a scientific investigation that is based on a research design.
SCHS-S1C2-05. Record observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using tools such as journals, charts, graphs, and computers. .
SCHS-S1C3. Analysis, Conclusions, and Refinements: Evaluate experimental design, analyze data to explain results and propose further investigations. Design models.
SCHS-S1C3-01. Interpret data that show a variety of possible relationships between variables, including: positive relationship; negative relationship; no relationship.
SCHS-S1C3-02. Evaluate whether investigational data support or do not support the proposed hypothesis.
SCHS-S1C3-05. Design models (conceptual or physical) of the following to represent 'real world' scenarios: carbon cycle; water cycle; phase change; collisions.
SCHS-S1C3-06. Use descriptive statistics to analyze data, including: Mean; frequency; range (See MHS-S2C1-10).
SCHS-S1C3-07. Propose further investigations based on the findings of a conducted investigation.
SCHS-S1C4. Communication: Communicate results of investigations.
SCHS-S1C4-01. For a specific investigation, choose an appropriate method for communicating the results. (See W09-S3C2-01 and W10-S3C3-01).
SCHS-S1C4-02. Produce graphs that communicate data. (See MHS-S2C1-02).
SCHS-S1C4-03. Communicate results clearly and logically. .
AZ.SCHS-S2. History and Nature of Science
SCHS-S2C2. Nature of Scientific Knowledge: Understand how science is a process for generating knowledge.
SCHS-S2C2-02. Explain the process by which accepted ideas are challenged or extended by scientific innovation.
AZ.SCHS-S3. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives
SCHS-S3C1. Changes in Environments: Describe the interactions between human populations, natural hazards, and the environment.
SCHS-S3C1-01. Evaluate how the processes of natural ecosystems affect, and are affected by, humans.
SCHS-S3C1-02. Describe the environmental effects of the following natural and/or human-caused hazards: Flooding; drought; earthquakes; fires; pollution; extreme weather.
SCHS-S3C1-03. Assess how human activities (e.g., clear cutting, water management, tree thinning) can affect the potential for hazards.
SCHS-S3C1-04. Evaluate the following factors that affect the quality of the environment: urban development; smoke; volcanic dust.
SCHS-S3C2. Science and Technology in Society: Develop viable solutions to a need or problem.
SCHS-S3C2-01. Analyze the costs, benefits, and risks of various ways of dealing with the following needs or problems: various forms of alternative energy; storage of nuclear waste; abandoned mines; greenhouse gases; hazardous wastes.
SCHS-S3C2-04. Analyze the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources in Arizona: Water; land; soil; minerals; air.
AZ.SCHS-S4. Life Science
SCHS-S4C1. The Cell: Understand the role of the cell and cellular processes.
SCHS-S4C1-01. Describe the role of energy in cellular growth, development, and repair.
SCHS-S4C1-02. Compare the form and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their cellular components.
SCHS-S4C1-03. Explain the importance of water to cells.
SCHS-S4C1-04. Analyze mechanisms of transport of materials (e.g., water, ions, macromolecules) into and out of cells: passive transport; active transport.
SCHS-S4C1-05. Describe the purposes and processes of cellular reproduction.
SCHS-S4C2. Molecular Basis of Heredity: Understand the molecular basis of heredity and resulting genetic diversity.
SCHS-S4C2-01. Analyze the relationships among nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), genes, and chromosomes.
SCHS-S4C2-02. Describe the molecular basis of heredity, in viruses and living things, including DNA replication and protein synthesis.
SCHS-S4C2-03. Explain how genotypic variation occurs and results in phenotypic diversity.
SCHS-S4C2-04. Describe how meiosis and fertilization maintain genetic variation.
SCHS-S4C3. Interdependence of Organisms: Analyze the relationships among various organisms and their environment.
SCHS-S4C3-01. Identify the relationships among organisms within populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.
SCHS-S4C4. Biological Evolution: Understand the scientific principles and processes involved in biological evolution.
SCHS-S4C4-01. Identify the following components of natural selection, which can lead to speciation: potential for a species to increase its numbers; genetic variability and inheritance of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes; finite supply of resources required for life; selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and produce offspring.
SCHS-S4C4-02. Explain how genotypic and phenotypic variation can result in adaptations that influence an organism's success in an environment.
SCHS-S4C4-03. Describe how the continuing operation of natural selection underlies a population's ability to adapt to changes in the environment and leads to biodiversity and the origin of new species.
SCHS-S4C4-04. Predict how a change in an environmental factor (e.g., rainfall, habitat loss, non-native species) can affect the number and diversity of species in an ecosystem.
SCHS-S4C4-05. Analyze how patterns in the fossil record, nuclear chemistry, geology, molecular biology, and geographical distribution give support to the theory of organic evolution through natural selection over billions of years and the resulting present day biodiversity.
SCHS-S4C4-06. Analyze, using a biological classification system (i.e., cladistics, phylogeny, morphology, DNA analysis), the degree of relatedness among various species.
SCHS-S4C5. Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems (Including Human Systems): Understand the organization of living systems, and the role of energy within those systems.
SCHS-S4C5-01. Compare the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy flow, reactants, and products.
SCHS-S4C5-02. Describe the role of organic and inorganic chemicals (e.g., carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, water, ATP) important to living things.
SCHS-S4C5-03. Diagram the following biogeochemical cycles in an ecosystem: Water; carbon; nitrogen.
SCHS-S4C5-04. Diagram the energy flow in an ecosystem through a food chain.
SCHS-S4C5-05. Describe the levels of organization of living things from cells, through tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, and communities to ecosystems.
AZ.SCHS-S5. Physical Science
SCHS-S5C1. Structure and Properties of Matter: Understand physical, chemical, and atomic properties of matter.
SCHS-S5C1-01. Describe substances based on their physical properties.
SCHS-S5C1-02. Describe substances based on their chemical properties.
SCHS-S5C1-03. Predict properties of elements and compounds using trends of the periodic table (e.g., metals, non-metals, bonding - ionic/covalent).
SCHS-S5C1-05. Describe the properties of electric charge and the conservation of electric charge.
SCHS-S5C1-06. Describe the following features and components of the atom: Protons; neutrons; electrons; mass; number and type of particles; structure; organization.
SCHS-S5C1-07. Describe the historical development of models of the atom.
SCHS-S5C1-08. Explain the details of atomic structure (e.g., electron configuration, energy levels, isotopes).
SCHS-S5C2. Motions and Forces: Analyze relationships between forces and motion.
SCHS-S5C2-01. Determine the rate of change of a quantity (e.g., rate of erosion, rate of reaction, rate of growth, velocity).
SCHS-S5C2-02. Analyze the relationships among position, velocity, acceleration, and time: graphically; mathematically.
SCHS-S5C2-03. Explain how Newton's 1st Law applies to objects at rest or moving at constant velocity.
SCHS-S5C2-04. Using Newton's 2nd Law of Motion, analyze the relationships among the net force acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the resulting acceleration: graphically; mathematically.
SCHS-S5C2-05. Use Newton's 3rd Law to explain forces as interactions between bodies (e.g., a table pushing up on a vase that is pushing down on it; an athlete pushing on a basketball as the ball pushes back on her).
SCHS-S5C2-08. Analyze the general relationships among force, acceleration, and motion for an object undergoing uniform circular motion.
SCHS-S5C2-09. Represent the force conditions required to maintain static equilibrium.
SCHS-S5C2-10. Describe the nature and magnitude of frictional forces.
SCHS-S5C2-13. Analyze the impulse required to produce a change in momentum.
SCHS-S5C2-14. Quantify interactions between objects to show that the total momentum is conserved in both collision and recoil situations.
SCHS-S5C3. Conservation of Energy and Increase in Disorder: Understand ways that energy is conserved, stored, and transferred.
SCHS-S5C3-01. Describe the following ways in which energy is stored in a system: Mechanical; electrical; chemical; nuclear.
SCHS-S5C3-02. Describe various ways in which energy is transferred from one system to another (e.g., mechanical contact, thermal conduction, electromagnetic radiation.).
SCHS-S5C3-03. Recognize that energy is conserved in a closed system.
SCHS-S5C3-04. Calculate quantitative relationships associated with the conservation of energy.
SCHS-S5C3-05. Analyze the relationship between energy transfer and disorder in the universe (2nd Law of Thermodynamics).
SCHS-S5C3-06. Distinguish between heat and temperature.
SCHS-S5C3-07. Explain how molecular motion is related to temperature and phase changes.
SCHS-S5C4. Chemical Reactions: Investigate relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions.
SCHS-S5C4-02. Identify the indicators of chemical change, including formation of a precipitate, evolution of a gas, color change, absorption or release of heat energy.
SCHS-S5C4-03. Represent a chemical reaction by using a balanced equation.
SCHS-S5C4-04. Distinguish among the types of bonds (i.e., ionic, covalent, metallic, hydrogen bonding).
SCHS-S5C4-05. Describe the mole concept and its relationship to Avogadro's number.
SCHS-S5C4-07. Predict the properties (e.g., melting point, boiling point, conductivity) of substances based upon bond type.
SCHS-S5C4-08. Quantify the relationships between reactants and products in chemical reactions (e.g., stoichiometry, equilibrium, energy transfers).
SCHS-S5C4-09. Predict the products of a chemical reaction using types of reactions (e.g., synthesis, decomposition, replacement, combustion).
SCHS-S5C4-10. Explain the energy transfers within chemical reactions using the law of conservation of energy.
SCHS-S5C4-11. Predict the effect of various factors (e.g., temperature, concentration, pressure, catalyst) on the equilibrium state and on the rates of chemical reaction.
SCHS-S5C4-12. Compare the nature, behavior, concentration, and strengths of acids and bases.
SCHS-S5C4-13. Determine the transfer of electrons in oxidation/reduction reactions.
SCHS-S5C5. Interactions of Energy and Matter: Understand the interactions of energy and matter.
SCHS-S5C5-01. Describe various ways in which matter and energy interact (e.g., photosynthesis, phase change).
SCHS-S5C5-02. Describe the following characteristics of waves: Wavelength; frequency; period; amplitude.
SCHS-S5C5-03. Quantify the relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and the speed of light.
SCHS-S5C5-04. Describe the basic assumptions of kinetic molecular theory.
SCHS-S5C5-05. Apply kinetic molecular theory to the behavior of matter (e.g., gas laws).
SCHS-S5C5-06. Analyze calorimetric measurements in simple systems and the energy involved in changes of state.
SCHS-S5C5-07. Explain the relationship between the wavelength of light absorbed or released by an atom or molecule and the transfer of a discrete amount of energy.
SCHS-S5C5-08. Describe the relationship among electric potential, current, and resistance in an ohmic system.
SCHS-S5C5-09. Quantify the relationships among electric potential, current, and resistance in an ohmic system.
AZ.SCHS-S6. Earth and Space Science
SCHS-S6C1. Geochemical Cycles: Analyze the interactions between the Earth's structures, atmosphere, and geochemical cycles.
SCHS-S6C1-01. Identify ways materials are cycled within the Earth system (i.e., carbon cycle, water cycle, rock cycle).
SCHS-S6C1-02. Demonstrate how dynamic processes such as weathering, erosion, sedimentation, metamorphism, and orogenesis relate to redistribution of materials within the Earth system.
SCHS-S6C1-03. Explain how the rock cycle is related to plate tectonics.
SCHS-S6C1-04. Demonstrate how the hydrosphere links the biosphere, lithosphere, cryosphere, and atmosphere.
SCHS-S6C1-05. Describe factors that impact current and future water quantity and quality including surface, ground, and local water issues.
SCHS-S6C1-06. Analyze methods of reclamation and conservation of water. .
SCHS-S6C2. Energy in the Earth System (Both Internal and External): Understand the relationships between the Earth's land masses, oceans, and atmosphere.
SCHS-S6C2-01. Describe the flow of energy to and from the Earth.
SCHS-S6C2-02. Explain the mechanisms of heat transfer (convection, conduction, radiation) among the atmosphere, land masses, and oceans.
SCHS-S6C2-03. Distinguish between weather and climate.
SCHS-S6C2-04. Internal Energy: Demonstrate the relationship between the Earth's internal convective heat flow and plate tectonics.
SCHS-S6C2-05. Internal Energy: Demonstrate the relationships among earthquakes, volcanoes, mountain ranges, mid-oceanic ridges, deep sea trenches, and tectonic plates.
SCHS-S6C2-06. Internal Energy: Distinguish among seismic S, P, and surface waves.
SCHS-S6C2-07. Internal Energy: Analyze the seismic evidence (S and P waves) used to determine the structure of the Earth.
SCHS-S6C2-09. External Energy: Explain the effect of heat transfer on climate and weather.
SCHS-S6C2-10. External Energy: Demonstrate the effect of the Earth's rotation (i.e., Coriolis effect) on the movement of water and air.
SCHS-S6C2-11. External Energy: Describe the origin, life cycle, and behavior of weather systems (i.e., air mass, front, high and low systems, pressure gradients).
SCHS-S6C2-12. External Energy: Describe the conditions that cause severe weather (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, thunderstorms).
SCHS-S6C2-14. External Energy: Analyze how weather is influenced by both natural and artificial Earth features (e.g., mountain ranges, bodies of water, cities, air pollution).
SCHS-S6C2-15. External Energy: List the factors that determine climate (e.g., altitude, latitude, water bodies, precipitation, prevailing winds, topography).
SCHS-S6C2-16. External Energy: Explain the causes and/or effects of climate changes over long periods of time (e.g., glaciation, desertification, solar activity, greenhouse effect).
SCHS-S6C2-17. External Energy: Investigate the effects of acid rain, smoke, volcanic dust, urban development, and greenhouse gases, on climate change over various periods of time.
SCHS-S6C3. Origin and Evolution of the Earth System: Analyze the factors used to explain the history and evolution of the Earth.
SCHS-S6C3-01. Earth Origin/System: Describe the scientific theory of the origin of the solar system (solar nebular hypothesis).
SCHS-S6C3-02. Earth Origin/System: Describe the characteristics, location, and motions of the various kinds of objects in our solar system, including the Sun, planets, satellites, comets, meteors, and asteroids. .
SCHS-S6C3-03. Earth Origin/System: Explain the phases of the Moon, eclipses (lunar and solar), and the interaction of the Sun, Moon, and Earth (tidal effect).
SCHS-S6C3-04. Earth History/Evolution: Interpret a geologic time scale.
SCHS-S6C3-05. Earth History/Evolution: Distinguish between relative and absolute geologic dating techniques. .
SCHS-S6C3-06. Earth History/Evolution: Investigate scientific theories of how life originated on Earth (high temperature, low oxygen, clay catalyst model).
SCHS-S6C3-08. Earth History/Evolution: Sequence major events in the Earth's evolution (e.g., mass extinctions, glacial episodes) using relative and absolute dating data.
SCHS-S6C3-09. Analyze patterns in the fossil record related to the theory of organic evolution.
SCHS-S6C4. Origin and Evolution of the Universe: Analyze the factors used to explain the origin and evolution of the universe.
SCHS-S6C4-01. Describe the Big Bang Theory as an explanation for the origin of the universe.
SCHS-S6C4-02. Describe the fusion process that takes place in stars.
SCHS-S6C4-03. Analyze the evolution of various types of stars using the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. .
SCHS-S6C4-04. Compare the evolution (life cycles) of stars of different masses (low and high mass).
SCHS-S6C4-06. Explain the evolution and life cycles of galaxies.
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