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New Jersey Standards for High School Science

NJ.5.1.12. Science Practices: Science is both a body of knowledge and an evidence-based, model-building enterprise that continually extends, refines, and revises knowledge. The four Science Practices strands encompass the knowledge and reasoning skills that students must acquire to be proficient in science.

5.1.12.A. Understand Scientific Explanations: Students understand core concepts and principles of science and use measurement and observation tools to assist in categorizing, representing, and interpreting the natural and designed world.

Interpretation and manipulation of evidence-based models are used to build and critique arguments/explanations.
5.1.12.A.2. Develop and use mathematical, physical, and computational tools to build evidence-based models and to pose theories.
Mathematical, physical, and computational tools are used to search for and explain core scientific concepts and principles.
5.1.12.A.1. Refine interrelationships among concepts and patterns of evidence found in different central scientific explanations.

5.1.12.B. Generate Scientific Evidence Through Active Investigations: Students master the conceptual, mathematical, physical, and computational tools that need to be applied when constructing and evaluating claims.

Empirical evidence is used to construct and defend arguments.
5.1.12.B.3. Revise predictions and explanations using evidence, and connect explanations/arguments to established scientific knowledge, models, and theories.
Logically designed investigations are needed in order to generate the evidence required to build and refine models and explanations.
5.1.12.B.1. Design investigations, collect evidence, analyze data, and evaluate evidence to determine measures of central tendencies, causal/correlational relationships, and anomalous data.
Mathematical tools and technology are used to gather, analyze, and communicate results.
5.1.12.B.2. Build, refine, and represent evidence-based models using mathematical, physical, and computational tools.
Scientific reasoning is used to evaluate and interpret data patterns and scientific conclusions.
5.1.12.B.4. Develop quality controls to examine data sets and to examine evidence as a means of generating and reviewing explanations.

5.1.12.C. Reflect on Scientific Knowledge: Scientific knowledge builds on itself over time.

Data and refined models are used to revise predictions and explanations.
5.1.12.C.2. Use data representations and new models to revise predictions and explanations.
Refinement of understandings, explanations, and models occurs as new evidence is incorporated.
5.1.12.C.1. Reflect on and revise understandings as new evidence emerges.

5.1.12.D. Participate Productively in Science: The growth of scientific knowledge involves critique and communication, which are social practices that are governed by a core set of values and norms.

Science involves using language, both oral and written, as a tool for making thinking public.
5.1.12.D.2. Represent ideas using literal representations, such as graphs, tables, journals, concept maps, and diagrams.

NJ.5.2.12. Physical Science: Physical science principles, including fundamental ideas about matter, energy, and motion, are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of phenomena in physical, living, and Earth systems science.

5.2.12.A. Properties of Matter: All objects and substances in the natural world are composed of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space, and matter has inertia.

Differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases are explained by the ways in which the atoms, ions, or molecules of the substances are arranged, and by the strength of the forces of attraction between the atoms, ions, or molecules.
5.2.12.A.2. Account for the differences in the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Electrons, protons, and neutrons are parts of the atom and have measurable properties, including mass and, in the case of protons and electrons, charge. The nuclei of atoms are composed of protons and neutrons. A kind of force that is only evident at nuclear distances holds the particles of the nucleus together against the electrical repulsion between the protons.
5.2.12.A.1. Use atomic models to predict the behaviors of atoms in interactions.
In a neutral atom, the positively charged nucleus is surrounded by the same number of negatively charged electrons. Atoms of an element whose nuclei have different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes.
5.2.12.A.4. Explain how the properties of isotopes, including half-lives, decay modes, and nuclear resonances, lead to useful applications of isotopes.
In the Periodic Table, elements are arranged according to the number of protons (the atomic number). This organization illustrates commonality and patterns of physical and chemical properties among the elements.
5.2.12.A.3. Predict the placement of unknown elements on the Periodic Table based on their physical and chemical properties.
Solids, liquids, and gases may dissolve to form solutions. When combining a solute and solvent to prepare a solution, exceeding a particular concentration of solute will lead to precipitation of the solute from the solution. Dynamic equilibrium occurs in saturated solutions. Concentration of solutions can be calculated in terms of molarity, molality, and percent by mass.
5.2.12.A.5. Describe the process by which solutes dissolve in solvents.

5.2.12.B. Changes in Matter: Substances can undergo physical or chemical changes to form new substances. Each change involves energy.

A large number of important reactions involve the transfer of either electrons or hydrogen ions between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms. In other chemical reactions, atoms interact with one another by sharing electrons to create a bond.
5.2.12.B.2. Describe oxidation and reduction reactions, and give examples of oxidation and reduction reactions that have an impact on the environment, such as corrosion and the burning of fuel.
An atom’s electron configuration, particularly of the outermost electrons, determines how the atom interacts with other atoms. Chemical bonds are the interactions between atoms that hold them together in molecules or between oppositely charged ions.
5.2.12.B.1. Model how the outermost electrons determine the reactivity of elements and the nature of the chemical bonds they tend to form.
The conservation of atoms in chemical reactions leads to the ability to calculate the mass of products and reactants using the mole concept.
5.2.12.B.3. Balance chemical equations by applying the law of conservation of mass.

5.2.12.C. Forms of Energy: Knowing the characteristics of familiar forms of energy, including potential and kinetic energy, is useful in coming to the understanding that, for the most part, the natural world can be explained and is predictable.

Gas particles move independently and are far apart relative to each other. The behavior of gases can be explained by the kinetic molecular theory. The kinetic molecular theory can be used to explain the relationship between pressure and volume, volume and temperature, pressure and temperature, and the number of particles in a gas sample. There is a natural tendency for a system to move in the direction of disorder or entropy.
5.2.12.C.1. Use the kinetic molecular theory to describe and explain the properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
Heating increases the energy of the atoms composing elements and the molecules or ions composing compounds. As the kinetic energy of the atoms, molecules, or ions increases, the temperature of the matter increases. Heating a pure solid increases the vibrational energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions. When the vibrational energy of the molecules of a pure substance becomes great enough, the solid melts.
5.2.12.C.2. Account for any trends in the melting points and boiling points of various compounds.

5.2.12.D. Energy Transfer and Conservation: The conservation of energy can be demonstrated by keeping track of familiar forms of energy as they are transferred from one object to another.

Chemical equilibrium is a dynamic process that is significant in many systems, including biological, ecological, environmental, and geological systems. Chemical reactions occur at different rates. Factors such as temperature, mixing, concentration, particle size, and surface area affect the rates of chemical reactions.
5.2.12.D.5. Model the change in rate of a reaction by changing a factor.
Energy may be transferred from one object to another during collisions.
5.2.12.D.4. Measure quantitatively the energy transferred between objects during a collision.
The driving forces of chemical reactions are energy and entropy. Chemical reactions either release energy to the environment (exothermic) or absorb energy from the environment (endothermic).
5.2.12.D.2. Describe the potential commercial applications of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

5.2.12.E. Forces and Motion: It takes energy to change the motion of objects. The energy change is understood in terms of forces.

Objects undergo different kinds of motion (translational, rotational, and vibrational).
5.2.12.E.2. Compare the translational and rotational motions of a thrown object and potential applications of this understanding.
The magnitude of acceleration of an object depends directly on the strength of the net force, and inversely on the mass of the object. This relationship (a=Fnet/m) is independent of the nature of the force.
5.2.12.E.4. Measure and describe the relationship between the force acting on an object and the resulting acceleration.
The motion of an object can be described by its position and velocity as functions of time and by its average speed and average acceleration during intervals of time.
5.2.12.E.1. Compare the calculated and measured speed, average speed, and acceleration of an object in motion, and account for differences that may exist between calculated and measured values.
The motion of an object changes only when a net force is applied.
5.2.12.E.3. Create simple models to demonstrate the benefits of seatbelts using Newton's first law of motion.

NJ.5.3.12. Life Science: Life science principles are powerful conceptual tools for making sense of the complexity, diversity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Order in natural systems arises in accordance with rules that govern the physical world, and the order of natural systems can be modeled and predicted through the use of mathematics.

5.3.12.A. Organization and Development: Living organisms are composed of cellular units (structures) that carry out functions required for life. Cellular units are composed of molecules, which also carry out biological functions.

Cell differentiation is regulated through the expression of different genes during the development of complex multicellular organisms.
5.3.12.A.5. Describe modern applications of the regulation of cell differentiation and analyze the benefits and risks (e.g., stem cells, sex determination).
Cells are made of complex molecules that consist mostly of a few elements. Each class of molecules has its own building blocks and specific functions.
5.3.12.A.1. Represent and explain the relationship between the structure and function of each class of complex molecules using a variety of models.
Cells divide through the process of mitosis, resulting in daughter cells that have the same genetic composition as the original cell.
5.3.12.A.4. Distinguish between the processes of cellular growth (cell division) and development (differentiation).
Cellular function is maintained through the regulation of cellular processes in response to internal and external environmental conditions.
5.3.12.A.3. Predict a cell's response in a given set of environmental conditions.
Cellular processes are carried out by many different types of molecules, mostly by the group of proteins known as enzymes.
5.3.12.A.2. Demonstrate the properties and functions of enzymes by designing and carrying out an experiment.
There is a relationship between the organization of cells into tissues and the organization of tissues into organs. The structures and functions of organs determine their relationships within body systems of an organism.
5.3.12.A.6. Describe how a disease is the result of a malfunctioning system, organ, and cell, and relate this to possible treatment interventions (e.g., diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lactose intolerance).

5.3.12.B. Matter and Energy Transformations: Food is required for energy and building cellular materials. Organisms in an ecosystem have different ways of obtaining food, and some organisms obtain their food directly from other organisms.

All organisms must break the high-energy chemical bonds in food molecules during cellular respiration to obtain the energy needed for life processes.
5.3.12.B.6. Explain how the process of cellular respiration is similar to the burning of fossil fuels.
As matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization within living systems (cells, organs, organisms, communities), and between living systems and the physical environment, chemical elements are recombined into different products.
5.3.12.B.1. Cite evidence that the transfer and transformation of matter and energy links organisms to one another and to their physical setting.
Continual input of energy from sunlight keeps matter and energy flowing through ecosystems.
5.3.12.B.3. Predict what would happen to an ecosystem if an energy source was removed.
Each recombination of matter and energy results in storage and dissipation of energy into the environment as heat.
5.3.12.B.2. Use mathematical formulas to justify the concept of an efficient diet.
In both plant and animal cells, sugar is a source of energy and can be used to make other carbon-containing (organic) molecules.
5.3.12.B.5. Investigate and describe the complementary relationship (cycling of matter and flow of energy) between photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Plants have the capability to take energy from light to form sugar molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
5.3.12.B.4. Explain how environmental factors (such as temperature, light intensity, and the amount of water available) can affect photosynthesis as an energy storing process.

5.3.12.C. Interdependence: All animals and most plants depend on both other organisms and their environment to meet their basic needs.

Biological communities in ecosystems are based on stable interrelationships and interdependence of organisms.
5.3.12.C.1. Analyze the interrelationships and interdependencies among different organisms, and explain how these relationships contribute to the stability of the ecosystem.

5.3.12.D. Heredity and Reproduction: Organisms reproduce, develop, and have predictable life cycles. Organisms contain genetic information that influences their traits, and they pass this on to their offspring during reproduction.

Genes are segments of DNA molecules located in the chromosome of each cell. DNA molecules contain information that determines a sequence of amino acids, which result in specific proteins.
5.3.12.D.1. Explain the value and potential applications of genome projects.
Inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA segments can alter the genetic code. An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it. The resulting features may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring’s success in its environment.
5.3.12.D.2. Predict the potential impact on an organism (no impact, significant impact) given a change in a specific DNA code, and provide specific real world examples of conditions caused by mutations.
Sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction result in a great variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents.
5.3.12.D.3. Demonstrate through modeling how the sorting and recombination of genes during sexual reproduction has an effect on variation in offspring (meiosis, fertilization).

5.3.12.E. Evolution and Diversity: Sometimes, differences between organisms of the same kind provide advantages for surviving and reproducing in different environments. These selective differences may lead to dramatic changes in characteristics of organisms in a population over extremely long periods of time.

Molecular evidence (e.g., DNA, protein structures, etc.) substantiates the anatomical evidence for evolution and provides additional detail about the sequence in which various lines of descent branched.
5.3.12.E.2. Estimate how closely related species are, based on scientific evidence (e.g., anatomical similarities, similarities of DNA base and/or amino acid sequence).
New traits may result from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells within a population.
5.3.12.E.1. Account for the appearance of a novel trait that arose in a given population.
The principles of evolution (including natural selection and common descent) provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth as evidenced in the fossil record and in the similarities that exist within the diversity of existing organisms.
5.3.12.E.3. Provide a scientific explanation for the history of life on Earth using scientific evidence (e.g., fossil record, DNA, protein structures, etc.).

NJ.5.4.12. Earth Systems Science: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.

5.4.12.A. Objects in the Universe: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.

According to the Big Bang theory, the universe has been expanding since its beginning, explaining the apparent movement of galaxies away from one another.
5.4.12.A.6. Argue, citing evidence (e.g., Hubble Diagram), the theory of an expanding universe.
Prior to the work of 17th-century astronomers, scientists believed the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentric model).
5.4.12.A.1. Explain how new evidence obtained using telescopes (e.g., the phases of Venus or the moons of Jupiter) allowed 17th-century astronomers to displace the geocentric model of the universe.
Stars experience significant changes during their life cycles, which can be illustrated with an Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) Diagram.
5.4.12.A.3. Analyze an H-R diagram and explain the life cycle of stars of different masses using simple stellar models.
The Big Bang theory places the origin of the universe at approximately 13.7 billion years ago. Shortly after the Big Bang, matter (primarily hydrogen and helium) began to coalesce to form galaxies and stars.
5.4.12.A.5. Critique evidence for the theory that the universe evolved as it expanded from a single point 13.7 billion years ago.
The properties and characteristics of solar system objects, combined with radioactive dating of meteorites and lunar samples, provide evidence that Earth and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
5.4.12.A.2. Collect, analyze, and critique evidence that supports the theory that Earth and the rest of the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
The Sun is one of an estimated two hundred billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy, which together with over one hundred billion other galaxies, make up the universe.
5.4.12.A.4. Analyze simulated and/or real data to estimate the number of stars in our galaxy and the number of galaxies in our universe.

5.4.12.B. History of Earth: From the time that Earth formed from a nebula 4.6 billion years ago, it has been evolving as a result of geologic, biological, physical, and chemical processes.

Absolute dating, using radioactive isotopes in rocks, makes it possible to determine how many years ago a given rock sample formed.
5.4.12.B.3. Account for the evolution of species by citing specific absolute-dating evidence of fossil samples.
Relative dating uses index fossils and stratigraphic sequences to determine the sequence of geologic events.
5.4.12.B.2. Correlate stratigraphic columns from various locations by using index fossils and other dating techniques.

5.4.12.C. Properties of Earth Materials: Earth's composition is unique, is related to the origin of our solar system, and provides us with the raw resources needed to sustain life.

Soils are at the interface of the Earth systems, linking together the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere.
5.4.12.C.1. Model the interrelationships among the spheres in the Earth systems by creating a flow chart.
The chemical and physical properties of the vertical structure of the atmosphere support life on Earth.
5.4.12.C.2. Analyze the vertical structure of Earth's atmosphere, and account for the global, regional, and local variations of these characteristics and their impact on life.

5.4.12.D. Tectonics: The theory of plate tectonics provides a framework for understanding the dynamic processes within and on Earth.

Convection currents in the upper mantle drive plate motion. Plates are pushed apart at spreading zones and pulled down into the crust at subduction zones.
5.4.12.D.1. Explain the mechanisms for plate motions using earthquake data, mathematics, and conceptual models.
Evidence from lava flows and ocean-floor rocks shows that Earth’s magnetic field reverses (North – South) over geologic time.
5.4.12.D.2. Calculate the average rate of seafloor spreading using archived geomagnetic-reversals data.

5.4.12.E. Energy in Earth Systems: Internal and external sources of energy drive Earth systems.

Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat.
5.4.12.E.2. Predict what the impact on biogeochemical systems would be if there were an increase or decrease in internal and external energy.
The Sun is the major external source of energy for Earth’s global energy budget.
5.4.12.E.1. Model and explain the physical science principles that account for the global energy budget.

5.4.12.F. Climate and Weather: Earth's weather and climate systems are the result of complex interactions between land, ocean, ice, and atmosphere.

Climate is determined by energy transfer from the Sun at and near Earth’s surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes, such as cloud cover and Earth’s rotation, as well as static conditions, such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, also affect the global climate.
5.4.12.F.2. Explain how the climate in regions throughout the world is affected by seasonal weather patterns, as well as other factors, such as the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and proximity to mountain ranges and to the ocean.
Earth’s radiation budget varies globally, but is balanced. Earth’s hydrologic cycle is complex and varies globally, regionally, and locally.
5.4.12.F.3. Explain variations in the global energy budget and hydrologic cycle at the local, regional, and global scales.
Global climate differences result from the uneven heating of Earth’s surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth’s axis with respect to the plane of Earth’s nearly circular orbit around the Sun.
5.4.12.F.1. Explain that it is warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in New Jersey because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth's axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.

5.4.12.G. Biogeochemical Cycles: The biogeochemical cycles in the Earth systems include the flow of microscopic and macroscopic resources from one reservoir in the hydrosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, or biosphere to another, are driven by Earth's internal and external sources of energy, and are impacted by human activity.

Earth is a system in which chemical elements exist in fixed amounts and move through the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and living things as part of geochemical cycles.
5.4.12.G.7. Relate information to detailed models of the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles, identifying major sources, sinks, fluxes, and residence times.
Human activities have changed Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere, as well as its populations of plant and animal species.
5.4.12.G.5. Assess (using maps, local planning documents, and historical records) how the natural environment has changed since humans have inhabited the region.
Movement of matter through Earth’s system is driven by Earth’s internal and external sources of energy and results in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the matter.
5.4.12.G.3. Demonstrate, using models, how internal and external sources of energy drive the hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and oxygen cycles.
Natural and human activities impact the cycling of matter and the flow of energy through ecosystems.
5.4.12.G.4. Compare over time the impact of human activity on the cycling of matter and energy through ecosystems.
Natural and human-made chemicals circulate with water in the hydrologic cycle.
5.4.12.G.1. Analyze and explain the sources and impact of a specific industry on a large body of water (e.g., Delaware or Chesapeake Bay).

NJ.CC.11-12.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

11-12.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

11-12.RST.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
11-12.RST.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

NJ.CC.11-12.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

11-12.WHST.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

11-12.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
11-12.WHST.2.d. Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
11-12.WHST.2.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

NJ.CC.9-10.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

9-10.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
9-10.RST.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

9-10.RST.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
9-10.RST.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.

NJ.CC.9-10.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

9-10.WHST.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

9-10.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
9-10.WHST.2.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
9-10.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

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