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What's New: Science Worksheets and Study Guides

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Elements and the periodic table Seventh Grade Science
Bones, muscles, and skin Eighth Grade Science
The Digestive and nutrition Eighth Grade Science
Circulation and immunity Eighth Grade Science
Protists and Fungi Seventh Grade Science
Agents of Erosion and Deposition Seventh Grade Science

Washington Standards for High School Science

WA.1. Systems (SYS)

9-12.SYS. Predictability and Feedback: In prior grades students learned how to simplify and analyze complex situations by thinking about them as systems. In grades 9-12 students learn to construct more sophisticated system models, including the concept of feedback. Students are expected to determine whether or not systems analysis will be helpful in a given situation and if so, to describe the system, including subsystems, boundaries, flows, and feedbacks. The next step is to use the system as a dynamic model to predict changes. Students are also expected to recognize that even the most sophisticated models may not accurately predict how the real world functions. This deep understanding of systems and ability to use systems analysis is an essential tool both for scientific inquiry and for technological design.

9-12.SYSA. Students know that feedback is a process in which the output of a system provides information used to regulate the operation of the system. Positive feedback increases the disturbance to a system. Negative feedback reduces the disturbance to a system.
9-12.SYSA.1. Students are expected to give examples of a positive feedback system and explain its regulatory mechanism (e.g., global warming causes Earth's ice caps to melt, reflecting less energy to space, increasing temperatures).
9-12.SYSA.2. Students are expected to give examples of a negative feedback system and explain its regulatory mechanism (e.g., when a human body overheats, it produces sweat that cools the body by evaporation).
9-12.SYSB. Students know that systems thinking can be especially useful in analyzing complex situations. To be useful, a system needs to be specified as clearly as possible.
9-12.SYSB.1. Students are expected to determine if a systems approach will be helpful in answering a question or solving a problem.
9-12.SYSB.2. Students are expected to represent the system with a diagram specifying components, boundaries, flows, and feedbacks.
9-12.SYSB.3. Students are expected to describe relevant subsystems and the larger system that contains the system being analyzed.
9-12.SYSB.4. Students are expected to determine how the system functions with respect to other systems.
9-12.SYSC. Students know that in complex systems, entirely new and unpredictable properties may emerge. Consequently, modeling a complex system in sufficient detail to make reliable predictions may not be possible.
9-12.SYSC.1. Students are expected to create a simplified model of a complex system. Trace the possible consequences of a change in one part of the system and explain how the simplified model may not be adequate to reliably predict consequences.
9-12.SYSD. Students know that systems can be changing or in equilibrium.
9-12.SYSD.1. Students are expected to analyze whether or not a system (e.g., population) is changing or in equilibrium.
9-12.SYSD.2. Students are expected to determine whether a state of equilibrium is static or dynamic (e.g., inflows equal outflows).

WA.2. Inquiry (INQ)

9-12.INQ. Conducting Analyses and Thinking Logically: In prior grades students learned to revise questions so they can be answered scientifically. In grades 9-12 students extend and refine their understanding of the nature of inquiry and their ability to formulate questions, propose hypotheses, and design, conduct, and report on investigations. Refinement includes an increased understanding of the kinds of questions that scientists ask and how the results reflect the research methods and the criteria that scientific arguments are judged by. Increased abilities include competence in using mathematics, a closer connection between student-planned investigations and existing knowledge, improvements in communication and collaboration, and participation in a community of learners.

9-12.INQC. Explain: Students know that conclusions must be logical, based on evidence, and consistent with prior established knowledge.
9-12.INQC.1. Students are expected to draw conclusions supported by evidence from the investigation and consistent with established scientific knowledge.
9-12.INQC.2. Students are expected to analyze alternative explanations and decide which best fits the data and evidence.
9-12.INQD. Communicate Clearly: Students know that the methods and procedures that scientists use to obtain evidence must be clearly reported to enhance opportunities for further investigation.
9-12.INQD.1. Students are expected to write a detailed laboratory report that includes: the question that motivated the study, a justification for the kind of investigation chosen, hypotheses (if any), a description of what was done, a summary of data in tables and graphs, and a conclusion, based on the evidence, that responds to the question.
9-12.INQE. Model: Students know that the essence of scientific investigation involves the development of a theory or conceptual model that can generate testable predictions.
9-12.INQE.1. Students are expected to formulate one or more hypotheses based on a model or theory of a causal relationship. Demonstrate creativity and critical thinking to formulate and evaluate the hypotheses.
9-12.INQF. Communicate: Students know that science is a human endeavor that involves logical reasoning and creativity and entails the testing, revision, and occasional discarding of theories as new evidence comes to light.
9-12.INQF.2. Students are expected to describe the development of a scientific theory that illustrates logical reasoning, creativity, testing, revision, and replacement of prior ideas in light of new evidence.
9-12.INQG. Intellectual Honesty: Students know that public communication among scientists is an essential aspect of research. Scientists evaluate the validity of one another's investigations, check the reliability of results, and explain inconsistencies in findings.
9-12.INQG.2. Students are expected to respond to questions and criticisms, and if appropriate, revise explanations based on these discussions.

WA.3. Application (APP)

9-12.APP. Science, Technology, and Society: In prior grades students learn to work with other members of a team to apply the full process of technological design and relevant science concepts to solve problems. In grades 9-12 students apply what they have learned to address societal issues and cultural differences. Students learn that science and technology are interdependent, that science and technology influence society, and that society influences science and technology. Students continue to increase their abilities to work with other students and to use mathematics and information technologies (when available) to solve problems. They transfer insights from those increased abilities when considering local, regional, and global issues. These insights and capabilities will help prepare students to solve societal and personal problems in future years.

9-12.APPB. Students know that the technological design process begins by defining a problem in terms of criteria and constraints, conducting research, and generating several different solutions.
9-12.APPB.1. Students are expected to work collaboratively with other students to generate ideas for solving a problem. Identify criteria and constraints, research the problem, and generate several possible solutions.
9-12.APPD. Students know that the ability to solve problems is greatly enhanced by use of mathematics and information technologies.
9-12.APPD.1. Students are expected to use proportional reasoning, functions, graphing, and estimation to solve problems.
9-12.APPE. Students know that perfect solutions do not exist. All technological solutions involve trade-offs in which decisions to include more of one quality means less of another. All solutions involve consequences, some intended, others not.
9-12.APPE.1. Students are expected to analyze a societal issue that may be addressed through science and/or technology. Compare alternative solutions by considering trade-offs and unintended consequences (e.g., removing dams to increase salmon spawning).

WA.4. Earth and Space Science

ES1. Earth in Space

9-11.ES1. Evolution of the Universe: In prior grades students learned about other objects in the Solar System and how they are held together by a force called "gravity." In grades 9-11 students learn the current scientific theory about the origin of the universe and subsequent formation of our Solar System. These discoveries are based on the important concept that the physical principles that apply today on Earth apply everywhere in the universe, now and in the distant past. These fundamental concepts help students make coherent sense of the universe and engage in further wondering and learning.
9-11.ES1A. Students know that stars have "life cycles." During most of their "lives", stars produce heavier elements from lighter elements starting with the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. The heaviest elements are formed when massive stars "die" in massive explosions.
9-11.ES1A.1. Students are expected to connect the life cycles of stars to the production of elements through the process of nuclear fusion.
9-11.ES1B. Students know that the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe is based on evidence (e.g., red shift) that all galaxies are rushing apart from one another. As space expanded and matter began to cool, gravitational attraction pulled clumps of matter together, forming the stars and galaxies, clouds of gas and dust, and planetary systems that we see today. If we were to run time backwards, the universe gets constantly smaller, shrinking to almost zero size 13.7 billion years ago.
9-11.ES1B.1. Students are expected to cite evidence that supports the "Big Bang theory" (e.g., red shift of galaxies or 3K background radiation).

ES2. Earth Systems, Structures, and Processes

9-11.ES2. Energy in Earth Systems: In prior grades students learned about planet Earth as an interacting system of solids, liquids, and gases, and about the water cycle, the rock cycle, and the movement of crustal plates. In grades 9-11 students learn how the uneven heating of Earth's surface causes differences in climate in different parts of the world, and how the tilt of Earth's axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun causes seasonal variations. Students also learn about the essential biogeochemical cycles that continuously move elements such as carbon and nitrogen through Earth systems. These major ideas about energy inputs and outputs in and around the Earth help students understand Earth as a dynamic system.
9-11.ES2A. Students know that global climate differences result from the uneven heating of Earth's surface by the Sun. Seasonal climate variations are due to the tilt of Earth's axis with respect to the plane of Earth's nearly circular orbit around the Sun.
9-11.ES2A.1. Students are expected to explain that Earth is warmer near the equator and cooler near the poles due to the uneven heating of Earth by the Sun.9-11.ES2A.2. Students are expected to explain that it's warmer in summer and colder in winter for people in Washington State because the intensity of sunlight is greater and the days are longer in summer than in winter. Connect these seasonal changes in sunlight to the tilt of Earth's axis with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun.
9-11.ES2B. Students know that climate is determined by energy transfer from the sun at and near Earth's surface. This energy transfer is influenced by dynamic processes such as cloud cover and Earth's rotation, as well as static conditions such as proximity to mountain ranges and the ocean. Human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, also affect the global climate.
9-11.ES2B.1. Students are expected to explain the factors that affect climate in different parts of Washington state.
9-11.ES2C. Students know that earth is a system that contains essentially a fixed amount of each stable chemical element existing in different chemical forms. Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs in the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles driven by energy from Earth's interior and from the Sun.
9-11.ES2C.2. Students are expected to give examples of carbon found on Earth (e.g., carbonate rocks such as limestone, in coal and oil, in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide gas, and in the tissues of all living organisms).
9-11.ES2D. Students know that the Earth does not have infinite resources; increasing human consumption impacts the natural processes that renew some resources and it depletes other resources including those that cannot be renewed.
9-11.ES2D.1. Students are expected to identify renewable and nonrenewable resources in the Pacific Northwest region.9-11.ES2D.2. Students are expected to explain how human use of natural resources stress natural processes and link that use to a possible long term consequence.

ES3. Earth History

9-11.ES3. Evolution of the Earth: In prior grades students learned about a few of the methods that have made it possible to uncover the history of our planet. In grades 9-11 students learn about the major changes in Earth systems over geologic time and some of the methods used to gather evidence of those changes. Methods include observation and measurement of sediment layers, using cores drilled from the sea bottom and from ancient glaciers, and the use of radioactive isotopes. Findings of Earth history include the existence of life as early as 3.5 billion years ago and major changes in the composition of Earth's atmosphere.
9-11.ES3A. Students know that interactions among the solid Earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the Earth system. We can observe changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years.
9-11.ES3A.1. Students are expected to interpret current rock formations of the Pacific Northwest as evidence of past geologic events. Consider which Earth processes that may have caused these rock formations (e.g., erosion, deposition, and scraping of terrain by glaciers, floods, volcanic eruptions, and tsunami).9-11.ES3A.2. Students are expected to construct a possible timeline showing the development of these rock formations given the cause of the formations.
9-11.ES3B. Students know that geologic time can be estimated by several methods (e.g., counting tree rings, observing rock sequences, using fossils to correlate sequences at various locations, and using the known decay rates of radioactive isotopes present in rocks to measure the time since the rock was formed).
9-11.ES3B.1. Students are expected to explain how decay rates of radioactive materials in rock layers are used to establish the timing of geologic events.9-11.ES3B.2. Students are expected, to given a geologic event, explain multiple methods that could be used to establish the timing of that event.
9-11.ES3D. Students know that data gathered from a variety of methods have shown that Earth has gone through a number of periods when Earth was much warmer and much colder than today.
9-11.ES3D.1. Students are expected to describe factors that change climates over long periods of time and cite methods that scientists have found to gather information on ancient climates.

WA.4. Life Science

LS1. Structures and Functions of Living Organisms

9-11.LS1. Processes Within Cells: In prior grades students learned that all living systems are composed of cells which make up tissues, organs, and organ systems. In grades 9-11 students learn that cells have complex molecules and structures that enable them to carry out life functions such as photosynthesis and respiration and pass on their characteristics to future generations. Information for producing proteins and reproduction is coded in DNA and organized into genes in chromosomes. This elegant yet complex set of processes explains how life forms replicate themselves with slight changes that make adaptations to changing conditions possible over long periods of time. These processes that occur within living cells help students understand the commonalities among the diverse living forms that populate Earth today.
9-11.LS1A. Students know that carbon-containing compounds are the building blocks of life. Photosynthesis is the process that plant cells use to combine the energy of sunlight with molecules of carbon dioxide and water to produce energy-rich compounds that contain carbon (food) and release oxygen.
9-11.LS1A.1. Students are expected to explain how plant cells use photosynthesis to produce their own food. Use the following equation to illustrate how plants rearrange atoms during photosynthesis: 6CO2+6H2O+light energy --> C6H12O6+6O29-11.LS1A.2. Students are expected to explain the importance of photosynthesis for both plants and animals, including humans.
9-11.LS1B. Students know that the gradual combustion of carbon-containing compounds within cells, called cellular respiration, provides the primary energy source of living organisms; the combustion of carbon by burning of fossil fuels provides the primary energy source for most of modern society.
9-11.LS1B.1. Students are expected to explain how the process of cellular respiration is similar to the burning of fossil fuels (e.g., both processes involve combustion of carbon-containing compounds to transform chemical energy to a different form of energy).
9-11.LS1C. Students know that cells contain specialized parts for determining essential functions such as regulation of cellular activities, energy capture and release, formation of proteins, waste disposal, the transfer of information, and movement.
9-11.LS1C.1. Students are expected to draw, label, and describe the functions of components of essential structures within cells (e.g., cellular membrane, nucleus, chromosome, chloroplast, mitochondrion, ribosome)
9-11.LS1D. Students know that the cell is surrounded by a membrane that separates the interior of the cell from the outside world and determines which substances may enter and which may leave the cell.
9-11.LS1D.1. Students are expected to describe the structure of the cell membrane and how the membrane regulates the flow of materials into and out of the cell.
9-11.LS1E. Students know that the genetic information responsible for inherited characteristics is encoded in the DNA molecules in chromosomes. DNA is composed of four subunits (A,T,C,G). The sequence of subunits in a gene specifies the amino acids needed to make a protein. Proteins express inherited traits (e.g., eye color, hair texture) and carry out most cell function.
9-11.LS1E.1. Students are expected to describe how DNA molecules are long chains linking four subunits (smaller molecules) whose sequence encodes genetic information.9-11.LS1E.2. Students are expected to illustrate the process by which gene sequences are copied to produce proteins.
9-11.LS1F. Students know that all of the functions of the cell are based on chemical reactions. Food molecules are broken down to provide the energy and the chemical constituents needed to synthesize other molecules. Breakdown and synthesis are made possible by proteins called enzymes. Some of these enzymes enable the cell to store energy in special chemicals, such as ATP, that are needed to drive the many other chemical reactions in a cell.
9-11.LS1F.1. Students are expected to explain how cells break down food molecules and use the constituents to synthesize proteins, sugars, fats, DNA and many other molecules that cells require.9-11.LS1F.2. Students are expected to describe the role that enzymes play in the breakdown of food molecules and synthesis of the many different molecules needed for cell structure and function.9-11.LS1F.3. Students are expected to explain how cells extract and store energy from food molecules.
9-11.LS1G. Students know that cells use the DNA that forms their genes to encode enzymes and other proteins that allow a cell to grow and divide to produce more cells, and to respond to the environment.
9-11.LS1G.1. Students are expected to explain that regulation of cell functions can occur by changing the activity of proteins within cells and/or by changing whether and how often particular genes are expressed.
9-11.LS1H. Students know that genes are carried on chromosomes. Animal cells contain two copies of each chromosome with genetic information that regulate body structure and functions. Most cells divide by a process called mitosis, in which the genetic information is copied so that each new cell contains exact copies of the original chromosomes.
9-11.LS1H.1. Students are expected to describe and model the process of mitosis, in which one cell divides, producing two cells, each with copies of both chromosomes from each pair in the original cell.
9-11.LS1I. Students know that egg and sperm cells are formed by a process called meiosis in which each resulting cell contains only one representative chromosome from each pair found in the original cell. Recombination of genetic information during meiosis scrambles the genetic information, allowing for new genetic combinations and characteristics in the offspring. Fertilization restores the original number of chromosome pairs and reshuffles the genetic information, allowing for variation among offspring.
9-11.LS1I.1. Students are expected to describe and model the process of meiosis in which egg and sperm cells are formed with only one set of chromosomes from each parent.9-11.LS1I.2. Students are expected to model and explain the process of genetic recombination that may occur during meiosis and how this then results in differing characteristics in offspring.9-11.LS1I.3. Students are expected to describe the process of fertilization that restores the original chromosome number while reshuffling the genetic information, allowing for variation among offspring.9-11.LS1I.4. Students are expected to predict the outcome of specific genetic crosses involving two characteristics.

LS2. Ecosystems

9-11.LS2. Maintenance and Stability of Populations: In prior grades students learned to apply key concepts about ecosystems to understand the interactions among organisms and the nonliving environment. In grades 9-11 students learn about the factors that foster or limit growth of populations within ecosystems and that help to maintain the health of the ecosystem overall. Organisms participate in the cycles of matter and flow of energy to survive and reproduce. Given abundant resources, populations can increase at rapid rates. But living and nonliving factors limit growth, resulting in ecosystems that can remain stable for long periods of time. Understanding the factors that affect populations is important for many societal issues, from decisions about protecting endangered species to questions about how to meet the resource needs of civilization while maintaining the health and sustainability of Earth's ecosystems.
9-11.LS2A. Students know that matter cycles and energy flows through living and nonliving components in ecosystems. The transfer of matter and energy is important for maintaining the health and sustainability of an ecosystem.
9-11.LS2A.1. Students are expected to explain how plants and animals cycle carbon and nitrogen within an ecosystem.9-11.LS2A.2. Students are expected to explain how matter cycles and energy flows in ecosystems, resulting in the formation of differing chemical compounds and heat.
9-11.LS2E. Students know that interrelationships of organisms may generate ecosystems that are stable for hundreds or thousands of years. Biodiversity refers to the different kinds of organisms in specific ecosystems or on the planet as a whole.
9-11.LS2E.1. Students are expected to compare the biodiversity of organisms in different types of ecosystems (e.g., rain forest, grassland, desert) noting the interdependencies and interrelationships among the organisms in these different ecosystems.

LS3. Biological Evolution

9-11.LS3. Mechanisms of Evolution: In prior grades students learned how the traits of organisms are passed on through the transfer of genetic information during reproduction. In grades 9-11 students learn about the factors that underlie biological evolution: variability of offspring, population growth, a finite supply of resources, and natural selection. Both the fossil record and analyses of DNA have made it possible to better understand the causes of variability and to determine how the many species alive today are related. Evolution is the major framework that explains the amazing diversity of life on our planet and guides the work of the life sciences.
9-11.LS3A. Students know that biological evolution is due to: (1) genetic variability of offspring due to mutations and genetic recombination, (2) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (3) a finite supply of resources, and (4) natural selection by the environment for those offspring better able to survive and produce offspring.
9-11.LS3A.1. Students are expected to explain biological evolution as the consequence of the interactions of four factors: population growth, inherited variability of offspring, a finite supply of resources, and natural selection by the environment of offspring better able to survive and reproduce.9-11.LS3A.2. Students are expected to predict the effect on a species if one of these factors should change.
9-11.LS3B. Students know that random changes in the genetic makeup of cells and organisms (mutations) can cause changes in their physical characteristics or behaviors. If the genetic mutations occur in eggs or sperm cells, the changes will be inherited by offspring. While many of these changes will be harmful, a small minority may allow the offspring to better survive and reproduce.
9-11.LS3B.1. Students are expected to describe the molecular process by which organisms pass on physical and behavioral traits to offspring, as well as the environmental and genetic factors that cause minor differences (variations) in offspring or occasional 'mistakes' in the copying of genetic material that can be inherited by future generations (mutations).9-11.LS3B.2. Students are expected to explain how a genetic mutation may or may not allow a species to survive and reproduce in a given environment.
9-11.LS3C. Students know that the great diversity of organisms is the result of more than 3.5 billion years of evolution that has filled available ecosystem niches on Earth with life forms.
9-11.LS3C.1. Students are expected to explain how the millions of different species alive today are related by descent from a common ancestor.9-11.LS3C.2. Students are expected to explain that genes in organisms that are very different (e.g., yeast, flies, and mammals) can be very similar because these organisms all share a common ancestor.
9-11.LS3D. Students know that the fossil record and anatomical and molecular similarities observed among diverse species of living organisms provide evidence of biological evolution.
9-11.LS3D.1. Students are expected to using the fossil record and anatomical and/or molecular (DNA) similarities as evidence, formulate a logical argument for biological evolution as an explanation for the development of a representative species (e.g., birds, horses, elephants, whales).
9-11.LS3E. Students know that biological classifications are based on how organisms are related, reflecting their evolutionary history. Scientists infer relationships from physiological traits, genetic information, and the ability of two organisms to produce fertile offspring.
9-11.LS3E.1. Students are expected to classify organisms, using similarities and differences in physical and functional characteristics.9-11.LS3E.2. Students are expected to explain similarities and differences among closely related organisms in terms of biological evolution (e.g., "Darwin's finches" had different beaks due to food sources on the islands where they evolved).

WA.4. Physical Science

PS.2. Matter: Properties and Change (PS2)

9-11.PS2. Chemical Reactions: In prior years, students learned the basic concepts behind the atomic nature of matter. In grades 9-11 students learn about chemical reactions, starting with the structure of an atom. They learn that the Periodic Table groups elements with similar physical and chemical properties. With grounding in atomic structure, students learn about the formation of molecules and ions, compounds and solutions, and the details of a few common chemical reactions. They also learn about nuclear reactions and the distinction between fusion and fission. These concepts about the fundamental properties of matter will help students understand chemical and nuclear reactions that are important in modern society and lay the groundwork for both chemistry and life science.
9-11.PS2A. Students know that atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons. The nucleus of an atom takes up very little of the atom's volume but makes up almost all of the mass. The nucleus contains protons and neutrons, which are much more massive than the electrons surrounding the nucleus. Protons have a positive charge, electrons are negative in charge, and neutrons have no net charge.
9-11.PS2A.1. Students are expected to describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
9-11.PS2B. Students know that atoms of the same element have the same number of protons. The number and arrangement of electrons determines how the atom interacts with other atoms to form molecules and ionic crystals.
9-11.PS2B.1. Students are expected, to given the number and arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell of an atom, predict the chemical properties of the element.
9-11.PS2C. Students know that when elements are listed in order according to the number of protons, repeating patterns of physical and chemical properties identify families of elements with similar properties. This Periodic Table is a consequence of the repeating pattern of outermost electrons.
9-11.PS2C.1. Students are expected, to given the number of protons, identify the element using a Periodic Table.9-11.PS2C.2. Students are expected to explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the significant relationships among elements in a given column or row.
9-11.PS2D. Students know that ions are produced when atoms or molecules lose or gain electrons, thereby gaining a positive or negative electrical charge. Ions of opposite charge are attracted to each other, forming ionic bonds. Chemical formulas for ionic compounds represent the proportion of ion of each element in the ionic crystal.
9-11.PS2D.1. Students are expected to explain how ions and ionic bonds are formed (e.g., sodium atoms lose an electron and chlorine atoms gain an electron, then the charged ions are attracted to each other and form bonds).9-11.PS2D.2. Students are expected to explain the meaning of a chemical formula for an ionic crystal (e.g., NaCl).
9-11.PS2E. Students know that molecular compounds are composed of two or more elements bonded together in a fixed proportion by sharing electrons between atoms, forming covalent bonds. Such compounds consist of well-defined molecules. Formulas of covalent compounds represent the types and number of atoms of each element in each molecule.
9-11.PS2E.1. Students are expected to give examples to illustrate that molecules are groups of two or more atoms bonded together (e.g., a molecule of water is formed when one oxygen atom shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms).9-11.PS2E.2. Students are expected to explain the meaning of a chemical formula for a molecule (e.g., CH4 or H2O).
9-11.PS2F. Students know that all forms of life are composed of large molecules that contain carbon. Carbon atoms bond to one another and other elements by sharing electrons, forming covalent bonds. Stable molecules of carbon have four covalent bonds per carbon atom.
9-11.PS2F.1. Students are expected to demonstrate how carbon atoms form four covalent bonds to make large molecules. Identify the functions of these molecules (e.g., plant and animal tissue, polymers, sources of food and nutrition, fossil fuels).
9-11.PS2G. Students know that chemical reactions change the arrangement of atoms in the molecules of substances. Chemical reactions release or acquire energy from their surroundings and result in the formation of new substances.
9-11.PS2G.1. Students are expected to describe at least three chemical reactions of particular importance to humans (e.g., burning of fossil fuels, photosynthesis, rusting of metals).9-11.PS2G.2. Students are expected to use a chemical equation to illustrate how the atoms in molecules are arranged before and after a reaction.9-11.PS2G.3. Students are expected to give examples of chemical reactions that either release or acquire energy and result in the formation of new substances (e.g., burning of fossil fuels releases large amounts of energy in the form of heat).
9-11.PS2H. Students know that solutions are mixtures in which particles of one substance are evenly distributed through another substance. Liquids are limited in the amount of dissolved solid or gas that they can contain. Aqueous solutions can be described by relative quantities of the dissolved substances and acidity or alkalinity (pH).
9-11.PS2H.1. Students are expected to give examples of common solutions. Explain the differences among the processes of dissolving, melting, and reacting.
9-11.PS2I. Students know that the rate of a physical or chemical change may be affected by factors such as temperature, surface area, and pressure.
9-11.PS2I.1. Students are expected to predict the effect of a change in temperature, surface area, or pressure on the rate of a given physical or chemical change.
9-11.PS2J. Students know that the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom determines the isotope of the element. Radioactive isotopes are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation. Though the timing of a single nuclear decay is unpredictable, a large group of nuclei decay at a predictable rate, making it possible to estimate the age of materials that contain radioactive isotopes.
9-11.PS2J.1. Students are expected, to given the atomic number and atomic mass number of an isotope, students draw and label a model of the isotope's atomic structure (number of protons, neutrons, and electrons).

PS1. Force and Motion

9-11.PS1. Newton's Laws: In prior grades students learned to measure, record, and calculate the average speed of objects, and to tabulate and graph the results. In grades 9-11 students learn to apply Newton's Laws of Motion and Gravity both conceptually and quantitatively. Students are able to calculate average speed, velocity, and acceleration. Students also develop an understanding of forces due to gravitational and electrical attraction. These fundamental concepts enable students to understand the forces that govern the observable world and provide a foundation for a full course in physics.
9-11.PS1A. Students know that average velocity is defined as a change in position with respect to time. Velocity includes both speed and direction.
9-11.PS1A.1. Students are expected to calculate the average velocity of a moving object, given the object's change in position and time. (v = x2-x1/ t2-t1)9-11.PS1A.2. Students are expected to explain how two objects moving at the same speed can have different velocities.
9-11.PS1B. Students know that average acceleration is defined as a change in velocity with respect to time. Acceleration indicates a change in speed and/or a change in direction.
9-11.PS1B.1. Students are expected to calculate the average acceleration of an object, given the object's change in velocity with respect to time. (a = v2-v1/ t2-t1)9-11.PS1B.2. Students are expected to explain how an object moving at constant speed can be accelerating.
9-11.PS1C. Students know that an object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object in motion at constant velocity will continue at the same velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force. (Newton's First Law of Motion, the Law of Inertia)
9-11.PS1C.1. Students are expected, to given specific scenarios, compare the motion of an object acted on by balanced forces with the motion of an object acted on by unbalanced forces.
9-11.PS1D. Students know that A net force will cause an object to accelerate or change direction. A less massive object will speed up more quickly than a more massive object subjected to the same force. (Newton's Second Law of Motion, F=ma)
9-11.PS1D.1. Students are expected to predict how objects of different masses will accelerate when subjected to the same force.9-11.PS1D.2. Students are expected to calculate the acceleration of an object, given the object's mass and the net force on the object, using Newton's Second Law of Motion (F=ma).
9-11.PS1E. Students know that whenever one object exerts a force on another object, a force of equal magnitude is exerted on the first object in the opposite direction. (Newton's Third Law of Motion)
9-11.PS1E.1. Students are expected to illustrate with everyday examples that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction (e.g., a person exerts the same force on the Earth as the Earth exerts on the person).
9-11.PS1F. Students know that gravitation is a universal attractive force by which objects with mass attract one another. The gravitational force between two objects is proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the objects. (Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation)
9-11.PS1F.2. Students are expected to explain how the weight of an object can change while its mass remains constant.
9-11.PS1H. Students know that electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single electromagnetic force. Moving electric charges produce magnetic forces, and moving magnets produce electric forces.
9-11.PS1H.1. Students are expected to demonstrate and explain that an electric current flowing in a wire will create a magnetic field around the wire (electromagnetic effect).9-11.PS1H.2. Students are expected to demonstrate and explain that moving a magnet near a wire will cause an electric current to flow in the wire (the generator effect).

PS3. Energy: Transfer, Transformation, and Conservation

9-11.PS3. Transformation and Conservation of Energy: In prior grades students learned to apply the concept of "energy" in various settings. In grades 9-11 students learn fundamental concepts of energy, including the Law of Conservation of Energy-that the total amount of energy in a closed system is constant. Other key concepts include gravitational potential and kinetic energy, how waves transfer energy, the nature of sound, and the electromagnetic spectrum. Energy concepts are essential for understanding all of the domains of science (EALR 4), from the ways that organisms get energy from their environment, to the energy that drives weather systems and volcanoes.
9-11.PS3A. Students know that although energy can be transferred from one object to another and can be transformed from one form of energy to another form, the total energy in a closed system remains the same. The concept of conservation of energy, applies to all physical and chemical changes.
9-11.PS3A.1. Students are expected to describe a situation in which energy is transferred from one place to another and explain how energy is conserved.9-11.PS3A.2. Students are expected to describe a situation in which energy is transformed from one form to another and explain how energy is conserved.
9-11.PS3B. Students know that kinetic energy is the energy of motion. The kinetic energy of an object is defined by the equation: Ek = 1/2 mv^2
9-11.PS3B.1. Students are expected to calculate the kinetic energy of an object, given the object's mass and velocity.
9-11.PS3D. Students know that waves (including sound, seismic, light, and water waves) transfer energy when they interact with matter. Waves can have different wavelengths, frequencies, and amplitudes, and travel at different speeds.
9-11.PS3D.1. Students are expected to demonstrate how energy can be transmitted by sending waves along a spring or rope. Characterize physical waves by frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and speed.9-11.PS3D.2. Students are expected to apply these properties to the pitch and volume of sound waves and to the wavelength and magnitude of water waves.
9-11.PS3E. Students know that electromagnetic waves differ from physical waves because they do not require a medium and they all travel at the same speed in a vacuum. This is the maximum speed that any object or wave can travel. Forms of electromagnetic waves include X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, and radio.
9-11.PS3E.1. Students are expected to illustrate the electromagnetic spectrum with a labeled diagram, showing how regions of the spectrum differ regarding wavelength, frequency, and energy, and how they are used (e.g., infrared in heat lamps, microwaves for heating foods, X-rays for medical imaging).

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