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NE.SC 1: INQUIRY, THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGY: Students will combine scientific processes and knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to ask questions about phenomena and propose explanations based on gathered evidence.
1.1. Abilities to do Scientific Inquiry
12.1.1. Students will design and conduct investigations that lead to the use of logic and evidence in the formulation of scientific explanations and models.
Mathematics12.1.1.l. Use appropriate mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry
Scientific Communication12.1.1.k. Evaluate scientific investigations and offer revisions and new ideas as appropriate
Scientific Controls and Variables12.1.1.c. Identify and manage variables and constraints
Scientific Data Collection12.1.1.f. Represent and review collected data in a systematic, accurate, and objective manner
Scientific Interpretations, Reflections, and Applications12.1.1.g. Analyze and interpret data, synthesize ideas, formulate and evaluate models, and clarify concepts and explanations12.1.1.h. Use results to verify or refute a hypothesis12.1.1.i. Propose and/or evaluate possible revisions and alternate explanations
Scientific Investigations12.1.1.b. Design and conduct logical and sequential scientific investigations with repeated trials and apply findings to new investigations
Scientific Observations12.1.1.e. Use tools and technology to make detailed qualitative and quantitative observations
Scientific Questioning12.1.1.a. Formulate a testable hypothesis supported by prior knowledge to guide an investigation
Scientific Tools12.1.1.d. Select and use lab equipment and technology appropriately and accurately
1.2. Nature of Science
12.1.2. Students will apply the nature of scientific knowledge to their own investigations and in the evaluation of scientific explanations.
Science as a Human Endeavor12.1.2.c. Recognize that the work of science results in incremental advances, almost always building on prior knowledge, in our understanding of the world12.1.2.d. Research and describe the difficulties experienced by scientific innovators who had to overcome commonly held beliefs of their times to reach conclusions that we now take for granted
Scientific Knowledge12.1.2.a. Recognize that scientific explanations must be open to questions, possible modifications, and must be based upon historical and current scientific knowledge
NE.SC 2: PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of the Physical Sciences to make connections with the natural and engineered world.
12.2.1. Students will investigate and describe matter in terms of its structure, composition and conservation.
Atomic Structure12.2.1.f. Recognize the charges and relative locations of subatomic particles (neutrons, protons, electrons)12.2.1.g. Describe properties of atoms, ions, and isotopes
Classification of Matter12.2.1.h. Describe the organization of the periodic table of elements with respect to patterns of physical and chemical properties
Physical and Chemical Changes12.2.1.d. Recognize a large number of chemical reactions involve the transfer of either electrons (oxidation/reduction) or hydrogen ions (acid/base) between reacting ions, molecules, or atoms12.2.1.e. Identify factors affecting rates of chemical reactions (temperature, particle size, surface area)
Properties and Structure of Matter12.2.1.a. Recognize bonding occurs when outer electrons are transferred (ionic) or shared (covalent)
States of Matter12.2.1.b. Describe the energy transfer associated with phase changes between solids, liquids, and gasses12.2.1.c. Describe the three normal states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of energy, particle arrangement, particle motion, and strength of bond between molecules
2.2. Force and Motion
12.2.2. Students will investigate and describe the nature of field forces and their interactions with matter.
Forces/Newton’s 2nd law12.2.2.c. Make predictions based on relationships among net force, mass, and acceleration (Newton’s 2nd law)
Inertia/Newton’s 1st law12.2.2.b. Describe how the law of inertia (Newton’s 1st law) is evident in a real-world event
Motion12.2.2.a. Describe motion with respect to displacement and acceleration
Newton’s 3rd law12.2.2.d. Recognize that all forces occur in equal and opposite pairs (Newton’s 3rd law)12.2.2.e. Describe how Newton’s 3rd law of motion is evident in a real-world event
Universal Forces12.2.2.f. Describe gravity as a force that each mass exerts on another mass, which is proportional to the masses and the distance between them
12.2.3. Students will describe and investigate energy systems relating to the conservation and interaction of energy and matter.
Chemical Energy12.2.3.k. Identify endothermic and exothermic reactions
Conservation12.2.3.i. Interpret the law of conservation of energy to make predictions for the outcome of an event
Electricity/Magnetism12.2.3.f. Recognize that the production of electromagnetic waves is a result of changes in the motion of charges or by a changing magnetic field12.2.3.g. Compare and contrast segments of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma) based on frequency and wavelength
Heat12.2.3.d. Distinguish between temperature (a measure of the average kinetic energy of atomic or molecular motion) and heat (the quantity of thermal energy that transfers due to a change in temperature)12.2.3.e. Compare and contrast methods of heat transfer and the interaction of heat with matter via conduction, convection, and radiation
Light12.2.3.c. Recognize that light can behave as a wave (diffraction and interference)
Mechanical Energy12.2.3.j. Identify that all energy can be considered to be either kinetic, potential, or energy contained by a field (e.g. electromagnetic waves)
Nuclear12.2.3.h. Recognize that nuclear reactions (fission, fusion, radioactive decay) convert a fraction of the mass of interacting particles into energy, and this amount of energy is much greater than the energy in chemical interactions
Sound/Mechanical Waves12.2.3.a. Describe mechanical wave properties (speed, wavelength, frequency, amplitude) and how waves travel through a medium12.2.3.b. Recognize that the energy in waves can be changed into other forms of energy
NE.SC 3: LIFE SCIENCE: Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of the Life Sciences to make connections with the natural and engineered world.
3.1. Structure and Function of Living Systems
12.3.1. Students will investigate and describe the chemical basis of the growth, development, and maintenance of cells.
Behavior12.3.1.d. Describe how an organism senses changes in its internal or external environment and responds to ensure survival
Cellular Composition of Organisms12.3.1.b. Identify the form and function of sub-cellular structures that regulate cellular activities12.3.1.c. Describe the cellular functions of photosynthesis, respiration, cell division, protein synthesis, transport of materials, and energy capture/release
Characteristics of Life12.3.1.a. Identify the complex molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) that make up living organisms
12.3.2. Students will describe the molecular basis of reproduction and heredity.
Inherited Traits12.3.2.a. Identify that information passed from parents to offspring is coded in DNA molecules12.3.2.b. Describe the basic structure of DNA and its function in genetic inheritance12.3.2.c. Recognize how mutations could help, harm, or have no effect on individual organisms
Reproduction12.3.2.d. Describe that sexual reproduction results in a largely predictable, variety of possible gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents
3.3. Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems
12.3.3. Students will describe, on a molecular level, the cycling of matter and the flow of energy between organisms and their environment.
Ecosystems12.3.3.b. Recognize that atoms and molecules cycle among living and nonliving components of the biosphere
Flow of Energy12.3.3.a. Explain how the stability of an ecosystem is increased by biological diversity
Impact on Ecosystems12.3.3.d. Analyze factors which may influence environmental quality
12.3.4. Students will describe the theory of biological evolution.
Biological Adaptations12.3.4.a. Identify different types of adaptations necessary for survival (morphological, physiological, behavioral)
Biological Evolution12.3.4.b. Recognize that the concept of biological evolution is a theory which explains the consequence of the interactions of: (1) the potential for a species to increase its numbers, (2) the genetic variability of offspring due to mutation and recombination of genes, (3) a finite supply of the resources required for life, and (4) the ensuing selection by the environment of those offspring better able to survive and leave offspring12.3.4.c. Explain how natural selection provides a scientific explanation of the fossil record and the molecular similarities among the diverse species of living organisms12.3.4.d. Apply the theory of biological evolution to explain diversity of life over time
NE.SC 4: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES: Students will integrate and communicate the information, concepts, principles, processes, theories, and models of Earth and Space Sciences to make connections with the natural and engineered world.
4.1. Earth in Space
12.4.1. Students will investigate and describe the known universe.
Objects in the Sky and Universe12.4.1.a. Describe the formation of the universe using the Big Bang Theory12.4.1.b. Recognize that stars, like the Sun, transform matter into energy by nuclear reactions which leads to the formation of other elements12.4.1.c. Describe stellar evolution
4.2. Earth Structures and Processes
12.4.2. Students will investigate the relationships among Earth’s structure, systems, and processes.
Earth’s Processes12.4.2.b. Describe how heat convection in the mantle propels the plates comprising Earth’s surface across the face of the globe (plate tectonics)
Properties of Earth Materials12.4.2.a. Recognize how Earth materials move through geochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen) resulting in chemical and physical changes in matter
Use of Earth Materials12.4.2.c. Evaluate the impact of human activity and natural causes on Earth’s resources (groundwater, rivers, land, fossil fuels)
4.3. Energy in Earth’s Systems
12.4.3. Students will investigate and describe the relationships among the sources of energy and their effects on Earth’s systems.
Energy Sources12.4.3.a. Identify internal and external sources of heat energy in Earth’s systems12.4.3.b. Describe how radiation, conduction, and convection transfer heat in Earth’s systems12.4.3.c. Compare and contrast benefits of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources
Weather and Climate12.4.3.d. Describe natural influences (Earth’s rotation, mountain ranges, oceans, differential heating) on global climate
4.4. Earth’s History
12.4.4. Students will explain the history and evolution of Earth.
Past/Present Earth12.4.4.b. Interpret Earth’s history by observing rock sequences, using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, and using data from radioactive dating methods12.4.4.c. Compare and contrast the physical and biological differences of the early Earth with the planet we live on today
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