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Mississippi Standards for High School Science

MS.A. Astronomy

A.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.1. Safety rules and symbols
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

A.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of theories pertaining to the history of the universe and concepts related to the interaction of celestial bodies.

2.a. Investigate and compare historical developments in astronomy to current knowledge of the universe. (DOK 2)
2.a.2. Models to predict planetary motion (e.g., Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton) and their influence on modern astronomy
2.b. Research and summarize theories of the universe's origin. (DOK 3)
2.c. Differentiate and evaluate the significance of technologies and instruments used in ground and space-based astronomy (e.g., optical telescopes, radio telescopes, x-ray telescopes, long-base interferometers, space probes, artificial satellites, spectra, probes, Doppler radar, etc.) (DOK 2)
2.d. Research and develop a logical argument supporting or refuting current theories, proposals, and supporting data of celestial bodies in our solar system. (DOK 3)
2.e. Investigate Newton's Universal Gravitation Law and Kepler's Laws. (DOK 2)
2.e.1. Motion and interactions of a planetary system according to Kepler's laws
2.e.2. Structure and gravitational interactions of a planetary system according to Newton's laws of motion and gravitation
2.f. Apply Newton's Universal Gravitation Law and Kepler's Laws to predict the orbital velocity of a given planet around the sun or a given moon around its primary and to calculate period, distance from the sun, and/or velocity of a planet. (DOK 2)
2.g. Compare and contrast celestial bodies in our solar system. (DOK 1)
2.g.1. Motion of celestial bodies (e.g., planetary rotation and revolution, comets, asteroids, moons, sun, etc.)
2.g.2. Internal and surface components of celestial bodies
2.g.3. Patterns of the Earth's moon over an extended period of time
2.g.4. Origin, composition and structure of asteroids, meteors and comets (e.g., the Ort cloud)
2.h. Investigate and demonstrate an understanding of the sun, other stars, and star systems. (DOK 3)
2.h.1. Origin and demise of stars of various masses
2.h.2. Star classification (by size and magnitude) and types of stars
2.h.3. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (used to classify and describe the evolution of stars)
2.i. Research and differentiate the composition, energy production, and solar-magnetic activity of stars. (DOK 2)
2.j. Investigate and apply various methods to measure astronomical distances. (DOK 2)
2.j.1. Triangulation (parallax) method
2.j.2. Use of Cepheid variables
2.k. Research to compare and contrast star systems visible from Earth.
2.l. Describe the universe in terms of its diverse components and their relationships. (DOK 3)
2.l.1. Types of galaxies, proximity of galaxies, the name of Earth's galaxy, etc.
2.l.2. Components of the celestial sphere (e.g., dark matter, dark energy, pulsars, quasars, supernovae, hierarchical structure of the universe, galactic clusters, the ''Great Wall'', etc.)
2.m. Research and summarize theories about the structure of the universe (Big Bang, the inflationary era, microwave background radiation, and the importance of its anisotropies to galactic formation). (DOK 3)

MS.AS. Aerospace Studies

AS.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.f. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence (data analysis). (DOK 3)

AS.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of the concepts involved in aerodynamics, flight control, and aircraft propulsion.

2.b. Describe principles of aerodynamics and flight control. (DOK 2)
2.b.1. Bernoulli effect
2.d. Compare the various methods of aircraft propulsion. (DOK 2)
2.d.2. Development of aircraft propulsion systems
2.e. Calculate the expansion ratio of gases in an engine (gas laws). (DOK 1)
2.f. Use appropriate instruments and perform calculations involved in navigation (e.g., locating a point on the globe from its global coordinates and plotting a point-point course using a sectional map). (DOK 2)

MS.B. Botany

B.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

B.2. Life Science: Distinguish among the characteristics of botanical organization, structure, and function.

2.a. Relate plant cell structures to their functions (e.g., major organelles, cell wall components, photosynthetic chemical reactions, plant pigments, plant tissues, roots, stems, leaves, flowers). (DOK 1)
2.b. Differentiate the characteristics found in various plant divisions. (DOK 2)
2.b.1. Differences and similarities of nonvascular plants
2.b.2. Characteristics of seed-bearing and non-seed bearing vascular plants relative to taxonomy
2.b.3. Major vegetative structures and their modifications in angiosperms and gymnosperms
2.c. Compare and contrast leaf modifications of gymnosperms and angiosperms (e.g., needles, overlapping scales, simple leaves, compound leaves, evergreen trees, and deciduous trees). (DOK 2)
2.d. Apply the modern classification scheme utilized in naming plants to identify plant specimens. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Classification scheme used in botany
2.d.2. Classification of native Mississippi plants
2.e. Use inquiry to investigate and discuss the physical and chemical processes of plants. (DOK 3)
2.e.1. Relationships among photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and translocation
2.e.2. Importance of soil type and soil profiles to plant survival
2.e.3. Mechanism of water movement in plants
2.e.5. Tropic responses of a plant organ to a given stimulus

B.3. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of plant reproduction.

3.a. Compare and contrast reproductive structures (e.g., cones, flowers). (DOK 2)
3.b. Differentiate among the vegetative organs of monocots, herbaceous dicots, and woody dicots. (DOK 1)
3.c. Differentiate between the structures and processes of sexual and asexual reproduction in plants. (DOK 1)
3.c.1. Reproductive structures, their modifications, and the mechanisms involved in plant reproduction
3.c.2. Functions of flower parts, seeds, cones
3.c.3. Spore production in bryophytes and ferns
3.f. Research and compare various methods of plant propagation. (DOK 2)

B.4. Live Science: Draw conclusions about the factors that affect the adaptation and survival of plants.

4.b. Design and conduct an experiment to determine the effects of environmental factors on photosynthesis. (DOK 3)

MS.BI. Biology I

BI.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

BI.2. Physical Science: Describe the biochemical basis of life and explain how energy flows within and between the living systems.

2.a. Explain and compare with the use of examples the types of bond formation (e.g., covalent, ionic, hydrogen, etc.) between or among atoms. (DOK 2)
2.a.1. Subatomic particles and arrangement in atoms
2.a.2. Importance of ions in biological processes
2.b. Develop a logical argument defending water as an essential component of living systems (e.g., unique bonding and properties including polarity, high specific heat, surface tension, hydrogen bonding, adhesion, cohesion, and expansion upon freezing). (DOK 2)
2.c. Classify solutions as acidic, basic, or neutral and relate the significance of the pH scale on an organism's survival (e.g., consequences of having different concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions). (DOK 2)
2.d. Compare and contrast the structure, properties, and principal functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in living organisms. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Basic chemical composition of each group
2.d.2. Building components of each group (e.g., amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides, etc.)
2.d.3. Basic functions (e.g., energy, storage, cellular, heredity) of each group
2.e. Examine the life processes to conclude the role enzymes play in regulating biochemical reactions. (DOK 2)
2.e.1. Enzyme structure
2.e.2. Enzyme function, including enzyme-substrate specificity and factors that effect enzyme function (pH and temperature)
2.f. Describe the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in making energy available to cells. (DOK 1)
2.f.1. ATP structure
2.f.2. ATP function
2.g. Analyze and explain the biochemical process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and draw conclusions about the roles of the reactant and products in each. (DOK 3)
2.g.1. Photosynthesis and respiration (reactants and products)
2.g.2. Light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions in photosynthesis, including requirements and products of each
2.g.3. Aerobic and anaerobic processes in cellular respiration, including products of each and energy differences

BI.3. Life Science: Investigate and evaluate the interaction between living organisms and their environment.

3.a. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the world's major biomes (e.g., deserts, tundra, taiga, grassland, temperate forest, tropical rainforest). (DOK 2)
3.a.1. Plant and animal species
3.a.2. Climate (temperature and rainfall)
3.a.3. Adaptations of organisms
3.b. Provide examples to justify the interdependence among environmental elements. (DOK 2)
3.b.2. Energy flow in ecosystems (e.g., energy pyramids and photosynthetic organisms to herbivores, carnivores, and decomposers)
3.b.3. Roles of beneficial bacteria
3.b.4. Interrelationships of organisms (e.g., cooperation, predation, parasitism, commensalism, symbiosis, and mutualism)
3.c. Examine and evaluate the significance of natural events and human activities on major ecosystems (e.g., succession, population growth, technology, loss of genetic diversity, consumption of resources). (DOK 2)

BI.4. Life Science: Analyze and explain the structures and function of the levels of biological organization.

4.a. Differentiate among plant and animal cells and eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
4.a.1. Functions of all major cell organelles and structures (e.g., nucleus, mitochondrion, rough ER, smooth ER, ribosomes, Golgi bodies, vesicles, lysosomes, vacuoles, microtubules, microfiliaments, chloroplast, cytoskeleton, centrioles, nucleolus, chromosomes, nuclear membrane, cell wall, cell membrane , cytosol)
4.a.2. Components of mobility (e.g., cilia, flagella, pseudopodia)
4.b. Analyze and explain the biochemical process of photosynthesis and cellular respiration and draw conclusions about the roles of the reactant and products in each. (DOK 3)
4.b.1. Photosynthesis and respiration (reactants and products)
4.b.2. Light-dependent reactions and light-independent reactions in photosynthesis, including requirements and products of each
4.b.3. Aerobic and anaerobic processes in cellular respiration, including products of each and energy differences
4.c. Differentiate between types of cellular reproduction. (DOK 1)
4.c.1. Main events in the cell cycle and cell mitosis (including differences in plant and animal cell divisions
4.c.2. Binary fission (e.g., budding, vegetative propagation, etc.)
4.c.3. Significance of meiosis in sexual reproduction
4.c.4. Significance of crossing over
4.d. Describe and differentiate among the organizational levels of organisms (e.g., cells, tissues, organs, systems, types of tissues.) (DOK 1)
4.e. Explain and describe how plant structures (vascular and nonvascular) and cellular functions are related to the survival of plants (e.g., movement of materials, plant reproduction). (DOK 1)

BI.5. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the molecular basis of heredity.

5.a. Analyze and explain the molecular basis of heredity and the inheritance of traits to successive generations by using the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. (DOK 3)
5.a.1. Structures of DNA and RNA
5.a.2. Processes of replication, transcription, and translation
5.a.3. Messenger RNA codon charts
5.b. Utilize Mendel's laws to evaluate the results of monohybrid Punnett squares involving complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, sex linked, and multiple alleles (including outcome percentage of both genotypes and phenotypes.) (DOK 2)
5.c. Examine inheritance patterns using current technology (e.g., pedigrees, karyotypes, gel electrophoresis). (DOK 2)
5.d. Discuss the characteristics and implications of both chromosomal and gene mutations. (DOK 2)
5.d.1. Significance of nondisjunction, deletion, substitutions, translocation, frame shift mutation in animals
5.d.2. Occurrence and significance of genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disorder, cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, Downs Syndrome, color blindness

BI.6. Demonstrate an understanding of principles that explain the diversity of life and biological evolution.

6.a. Draw conclusions about how organisms are classified into a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based on similarities that reflect their evolutionary relationships. (DOK 2)
6.a.1. Characteristics of the six kingdoms
6.a.2. Major levels in the hierarchy of taxa (e.g., kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, and species)
6.a.3. Body plans (symmetry)
6.a.4. Methods of sexual reproduction (e.g., conjugation, fertilization, pollination)
6.a.5. Methods of asexual reproduction (e.g., budding, binary fission, regeneration, spore formation)
6.b. Critique data (e.g., comparative anatomy, Biogeography, molecular biology, fossil record, etc.) used by scientists (e.g., Redi, Needham, Spallanzani, Pasteur) to develop an understanding of evolutionary processes and patterns. (DOK 3)
6.c. Research and summarize the contributions of scientists, (including Darwin, Malthus, Wallace, Lamarck, and Lyell) whose work led to the development of the theory of evolution. (DOK 2)
6.d. Analyze and explain the roles of natural selection, including the mechanisms of speciation (e.g., mutations, adaptations, geographic isolation) and applications of speciation (e.g., pesticide and antibiotic resistance). (DOK 3)
6.e. Differentiate among chemical evolution, organic evolution, and the evolutionary steps along the way to aerobic heterotrophs and photosynthetic autotrophs.(DOK 2)

MS.BII. Biology II

BII.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs), draw conclusions, and make inferences. (DOK 3)

BII.2. Life Science: Describe and contrast the structures, functions, and chemical processes of the cell.

2.a. Relate the structure and function of a selectively permeable membrane to its role in diffusion and osmosis. (DOK 2)
2.b. Summarize how cell regulation controls and coordinates cell growth and division. (DOK 2)
2.c. Analyze and describe the function of enzymes in biochemical reactions. (DOK 2)
2.c.1. The impact of enzymatic reactions on biochemical processes
2.c.2. Factors that affect enzyme function (e.g., pH, concentration, temperature, etc.)
2.d. Life Science: Differentiate between photosynthesis and cellular respiration. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Cellular sites and major pathways of anaerobic and aerobic respiration (with reactants, products, and ATP per monosaccharide)
2.d.2. Cellular respiration with respect to the sites at which they take place, the reactions involved, and the energy input and output in each stage (e.g., glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain)
2.d.3. Pigments, absorption, reflection of light, and light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis
2.d.4. Oxidation and reduction reactions

BII.3. Life Science: Investigate and discuss the molecular basis of heredity.

3.a. Explain how the process of meiosis clarifies the mechanism underlying Mendel's conclusions about segregation and independent assortment on a molecular level. (DOK 1)
3.b. Research and explain how major discoveries led to the determination of DNA structure. (DOK 2)
3.c. Relate gene expression (e.g., replication, transcription, translation) to protein structure and function. (DOK 2)
3.c.1. Translation of a messenger RNA strand into a protein
3.c.2. Processing by organelles so that the protein is appropriately packaged, labeled, and eventually exported by the cell
3.c.3. Messenger RNA codon charts to determine the effects of different types of mutations on amino acid sequence and protein structure (e.g., sickle cell anemia resulting from base substitution mutation)
3.c.4. Gene expression regulated in organisms so that specific proteins are synthesized only when they are needed by the cell (e.g., allowing cell specialization)
3.d. Assess the potential implications of DNA technology with respect to its impact on society. (DOK 3)
3.d.1. Modern DNA technologies (e.g., polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene splicing, gel electrophoresis, transformation, recombinant DNA) in agriculture, medicine and forensics
3.e. Develop a logical argument defending or refuting bioethical issues arising from applications of genetic technology (e.g., the human genome project, cloning, gene therapy, stem cell research). (DOK 3)

BII.4. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the factors that contribute to evolutionary theory and natural selection.

4.a. Explain the history of life on Earth and infer how geological changes provide opportunities and constraints for biological evolution. (DOK 2)
4.a.1. Main periods of the geologic timetable of Earth's history
4.a.2. Roles of catastrophic and gradualistic processes in shaping planet Earth
4.b. Provide support for the argument based upon evidence from anatomy, embryology, biochemistry, and paleontology that organisms descended with modification from common ancestry. (DOK 2)
4.c. Identify and provide supporting evidence for the evolutionary relationships among various organisms using phylogenetic trees and cladograms. (DOK 2)
4.e. Compare and contrast the basic types of selection (e.g., disruptive, stabilizing, directional, etc.) (DOK 2)
4.f. Cite examples to justify behaviors that have evolved through natural selection (e.g., migration, parental care, use of tools, etc.) (DOK 1)
4.g. Research and explain the contributions of 19th century scientists (e.g., Malthus, Wallace, Lyell, Darwin) on the formulation of ideas about evolution. (DOK 2)
4.h. Develop a logical argument describing ways in which the influences of 20th century science have impacted the development of ideas about evolution (e.g., synthetic theory of evolution, molecular biology). (DOK 3)
4.i. Analyze changes in an ecosystem resulting from natural causes (succession), changes in climate, human activity (pollution and recycling), or introduction of non-native species. (DOK 2)

BII.5. Life Science: Develop an understanding of organism classification.

5.a. Classify organisms according to traditional Linnaean classification characteristics (e.g., cell structure, biochemistry, anatomy, fossil record, methods of reproduction) and the cladistic approach. (DOK 2)
5.b. Categorize organisms according to the characteristics that distinguish them as Bacteria, Archaea, or Eucarya. (DOK 1)
5.b.1. Bacteria, fungi, and protists
5.b.2. Characteristics of invertebrates (e.g., habitat, reproduction, body plan, locomotion) as related to phyla (e.g., Porifera, Cnidarians, Nematoda, Annelida, Platyhelmenthes, and Arthropoda) and classes (e.g., Insecta, Crustacea, Arachnida, Mollusca, Echinodermata)
5.b.3. Characteristics of vertebrates (e.g., habitat, reproduction, body plan, locomotion) as related to classes (e.g., Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia)
5.b.4. Nomenclature of various types of plants (e.g., Bryophyta, Tracheophyta, Gymnospermae, Angiospermae, Monocotyledonae, Dicotyledonae, vascular plants, nonvascular plants).

MS.BR. Biomedical Research

BR.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs) to draw conclusions and make inferences. (DOK 3)

BR.2. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the processes and resources used in biomedical research.

2.a. Explore the processes and technologies by which biomedical scientific literature is stored, catalogued, and retrieved and communicate technical approaches and conclusions pertaining to contemporary professional biomedical research publications. (DOK 2)
2.a.1. Student-created glossary of technical scientific terminology from the selected readings
2.a.4. Additional resources (e.g., textbooks, periodicals, personal interviews with a scientist or teacher familiar with that area of research) needed to assess research findings
2.b. Identify the research area of a particular biomedical researcher and summarize a research article upon which to draw conclusions about the importance of the researcher's work. (DOK 2)
2.c. Critique a current research article from a specified internet site. (DOK 3)
2.d. Communicate with science students at other high school sites using electronic communications to compare and contrast conclusions about specified research topics. (DOK 3)

BR.3. Life Science: Analyze contemporary issues, related to the practice or application of biomedical research, that pose a dilemma or dilemmas for our society.

3.a. Identify, research, and summarize current, topical advances in biomedical research and healthcare areas. (Suggested areas of initial focus including fetal tissue research, legalization of drugs, drug abuse, euthanasia, research fraud, use of non-human animals in research, genetic engineering, and universal health care. DOK 4
3.a.1. Biomedical science areas of personal interest
3.b. Research, develop, and present a justifiable argument for or against a biomedical issue. (DOK 3)

BR.4. Life Science: Investigate and describe the basic elements of genetics and molecular biology that are fundamental to modern biomedical research.

4.a. Research and describe major historical events leading to the development of the science of genetics. (DOK 3)
4.a.1. Events that have revolutionized genetic analysis and manipulation, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene transfection, the Human Genome Project, protein sequencing, and in vitro fertilization
4.a.2. Influence that environmental pollutants and other man-made chemicals could have on the regulation of protein synthesis and reproduction
4.a.3. Subcellular organelles responsible for protein synthesis and reproduction
4.b. Apply formulas and properties in analyzing hydrocarbon families. (DOK 1)
4.b.1. Bonding families of hydrocarbons
4.d. Describe the use of protein crystallography in the determination of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (DOK 2)

BR.5. Life Science: Demonstrate proficiency in the application of fundamental technical procedures related to biomedical laboratory research activities.

5.d. Describe and demonstrate the use of accurate and safe pipetting techniques in the preparation of a series of protein dilutions. (DOK 1)
5.e. Explain the process used to sample organic compounds, including methane, ethane, acetic acid, ethyl ethanoate, and methanol. (DOK 1)

MS.C. Chemistry

C.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs), draw conclusions, and make inferences. (DOK 3)

C.2. Physical Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the atomic model of matter by explaining atomic structure and chemical bonding.

2.a. Describe and classify matter based on physical and chemical properties and interactions between molecules or atoms. (DOK 1)
2.a.1. Physical properties (e.g., melting points, densities, boiling points)of a variety of substances
2.a.2. Substances and mixtures
2.a.3. Three states of matter in terms of internal energy, molecular motion, and the phase transitions between them
2.b. Research and explain crucial contributions and critical experiments of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr, de Broglie, and Schrodinger and describe how each discovery contributed to the current model of atomic and nuclear structure. (DOK 2)
2.c. Develop a model of atomic and nuclear structure based on theory and knowledge of fundamental particles. (DOK 2)
2.c.1. Properties and interactions of the three fundamental particles of the atom
2.d. Write appropriate equations for nuclear decay reactions, describe how the nucleus changes during these reactions, and compare the resulting radiation with regard to penetrating ability. (DOK 1)
2.d.2. The concept of half-life for a radioactive isotope (e.g., carbon-14 dating) based on the principle that the decay of any individual atom is a random process
2.e. Compare the properties of compounds according to their type of bonding. (DOK 1)
2.e.1. Covalent, ionic, and metallic bonding
2.e.2. Polar and non-polar covalent bonding
2.e.3. Valence electrons and bonding atoms
2.f. Compare different types of intermolecular forces and explain the relationship between intermolecular forces, boiling points, and vapor pressure when comparing differences in properties of pure substances. (DOK 1)

C.3. Physical Science: Develop an understanding of the periodic table.

3.b. Analyze patterns and trends in the organization of elements in the periodic table and compare their relationship to position in the periodic table. (DOK 2)
3.b.1. Atomic number, atomic mass, mass number, and number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in isotopes of elements
3.b.2. Average atomic mass calculations
3.b.3. Chemical characteristics of each region
3.b.4. Periodic properties (e.g., metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy, atomic/covalent/ionic radius)
3.c. Classify chemical reactions by type. (DOK 2)
3.c.1. Single displacement, double displacement, synthesis (combination), decomposition, disproportionation, combustion, or precipitation.
3.c.2. Products (given reactants) or reactants (given products) for each reaction type
3.c.3. Solubility rules for precipitation reactions and the activity series for single and double displacement reactions
3.d. Use stoichiometry to calculate the amount of reactants consumed and products formed. (DOK 3)
3.d.1. Difference between chemical reactions and chemical equations
3.d.3. Empirical formula given the percent composition of elements
3.d.4. Molecular formula given the empirical formula and molar mass

C.4. Physical Science: Analyze the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic models of matter.

4.a. Analyze the nature and behavior of gaseous, liquid, and solid substances using the kinetic molecular theory. (DOK 3)
4.b. Use the ideal gas laws to explain the relationships between volume, temperature, pressure, and quantity in moles. (DOK 2)
4.b.1. Difference between ideal and real gas
4.b.2. Assumptions made about an ideal gas
4.b.3. Conditions that favor an ideal gas
4.c. Use the gas laws of Boyles, Charles, Gay-Lussac, and Dalton to solve problems based on the laws. (DOK 2)
4.d. Explain the thermodynamics associated with physical and chemical concepts related to temperature, entropy, enthalpy, and heat energy. (DOK 2)
4.d.1. Specific heat as it relates to the conservation of energy
4.d.2. Amount of heat absorbed or released in a process, given mass, specific heat, and temperature change
4.d.4. Endothermic or exothermic changes
4.e. Describe and identify factors affecting the solution process, rates of reaction, and equilibrium. (DOK 2)
4.e.1. Concentration of a solution in terms of its molarity, using stoichiometry to perform specified dilutions
4.e.2. Chemical reaction rates affected by temperature, concentration, surface area, pressure, mixing, and the presence of a catalyst
4.e.3. Relationship of solute character

C.5. Physical Science: Compare factors associated with acid/base and oxidation/reduction reactions.

5.a. Analyze and explain acid/base reactions. (DOK 2)
5.a.1. Properties of acids and bases, including how they affect indicators and the relative pH of the solution
5.a.2. Formation of acidic and basic solutions
5.b. Classify species in aqueous solutions according to the Arrhenius and Bronsted-Lowry definitions, respectively and predict products for aqueous neutralization reactions. (DOK 2)
5.c. Analyze a reduction/oxidation reaction (REDOX) to assign oxidation numbers (states) to reaction species and identify the species oxidized and reduced, the oxidizing agent, and reducing agent. (DOK 2)

MS.CC.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Ecology IWorksheets :4Vocabularies :2Ecology IIWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical Formulas and BondingWorksheets :3Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Measurements and CalculationsWorksheets :3Protection, Reproduction and CooperationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Moving and Controlling the BodyWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Providing Fuel and TransportationWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Food Chains and Food WebsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Six Kingdoms of LifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Plate TectonicsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Cell TransportWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Work, Power & Simple MachinesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2EarthquakesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Pond MicrolifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Chromosomes, Genes and DNAWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MitosisWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2The Study of HeredityWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Our Solar SystemWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Earth`s SurfaceWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Properties and States of MatterWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Earth`s ClimateWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Photosynthesis and RespirationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2RocksWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2VolcanoesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MeiosisWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Forces and MotionWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Energy: Forms and ChangesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3SoundWorksheets :3Vocabularies :4Light and OpticsWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Elements and the periodic tableWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Atoms and Chemical BondingWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.11-12.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-12.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.

MS.CC.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
The Digestive and nutritionWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :4Ecosystems, food chains and food websWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :5Chemical bondingFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Chemical reactionsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Ecology IWorksheets :4Vocabularies :2Ecology IIWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical Formulas and BondingWorksheets :3Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Measurements and CalculationsWorksheets :3Protection, Reproduction and CooperationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Moving and Controlling the BodyWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Providing Fuel and TransportationWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Food Chains and Food WebsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Six Kingdoms of LifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Plate TectonicsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Cell TransportWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Work, Power & Simple MachinesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2EarthquakesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Pond MicrolifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Chromosomes, Genes and DNAWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MitosisWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2The Study of HeredityWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Our Solar SystemWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Earth`s SurfaceWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Properties and States of MatterWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Earth`s ClimateWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Photosynthesis and RespirationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2RocksWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2VolcanoesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MeiosisWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Forces and MotionWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Energy: Forms and ChangesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3SoundWorksheets :3Vocabularies :4Light and OpticsWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Elements and the periodic tableWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Atoms and Chemical BondingWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2
RST.9-10.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
RST.9-10.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.

MS.CC.WHST.11-12. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

WHST.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

WHST.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

WHST.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.11-12.2(a) Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.11-12.2(b) Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
WHST.11-12.2(c) Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
WHST.11-12.2(d) Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.11-12.2(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

MS.CC.WHST.9-10. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

WHST.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

WHST.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

WHST.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-10.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

MS.ES. Environmental Science

ES.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of the relationship of ecological factors that effect an ecosystem.

2.a. Compare ways in which the three layers of the biosphere change over time and their influence on an ecosystem's ability to support life. (DOK 2)
2.b. Explain the flow of matter and energy in ecosystems. (DOK 2)
2.b.1. Interactions between biotic and abiotic factors
2.b.2. Indigenous plants and animals and their roles in various ecosystems
2.b.3. Biogeochemical cycles within the environment
2.d. Develop a logical argument explaining the relationships and changes within an ecosystem. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. How a species adapts to its niche
2.d.2. Process of primary and secondary succession and its effects on a population
2.d.3. How changes in the environment might affect organisms
2.f. Research and explain how habitat destruction leads to the loss of biodiversity. (DOK 2)
2.g. Compare and contrast the major biomes of the world's ecosystems, including location, climate, adaptations and diversity. (DOK 1)

ES.3. Earth and Space Science: Discuss the impact of human activities on the environment, conservation activities, and efforts to maintain and restore ecosystems.

3.a. Summarize the effects of human activities on resources in the local environments. (DOK 2)
3.a.1. Sources, uses, quality, and conservation of water
3.a.2. Renewable and nonrenewable resources
3.a.3. Effects of pollution (e.g., water, noise, air, etc.) on the ecosystem
3.b. Research and evaluate the impacts of human activity and technology on the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and develop a logical argument to support how communities restore ecosystems. (DOK 3)
3.c. Research and evaluate the use of renewable and nonrenewable resources and critique efforts to conserve natural resources and reduce global warming in the United States including (but not limited) to Mississippi. (DOK 3)

MS.ESS. Earth and Space Science

ESS.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.1. Safety rules and symbols
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

ESS.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of the history and evolution of the universe and Earth.

2.a. Summarize the origin and evolution of the universe. (DOK 2)
2.a.1. Big Bang theory
2.a.3. The Hubble constant
2.b. Differentiate methods used to measure space distances, including astronomical unit, light-year, stellar parallax, Cepheid variables, and the red shift. (DOK 1)
2.c. Interpret how gravitational attraction played a role in the formation of the planetary bodies and how the fusion of hydrogen and other processes in ''ordinary'' stars and supernovae lead to the formation of all other elements. (DOK 2)
2.d. Summarize the early evolution of the Earth, including the formation of Earth's solid layers (e.g., core, mantle, crust), the distribution of major elements, the origin of internal heat sources, and the initiation of plate tectonics. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. How the decay of radioactive isotopes is used to determine the age of rocks, Earth, and the solar system

ESS.3. Earth and Space Science: Discuss factors which are used to explain the geological history of Earth.

3.a. Develop an understanding of how plate tectonics create certain geological features, materials, and hazards. (DOK 1)
3.a.1. Plate tectonic boundaries (e.g., divergent, convergent, and transform)
3.a.2. Modern and ancient geological features to each kind of plate tectonic boundary
3.a.3. Production of particular groups of igneous and metamorphic rocks and mineral resources
3.a.4. Sedimentary basins created and destroyed through time
3.b. Compare and contrast types of mineral deposits/groups (e.g., oxides, carbonates, halides, sulfides, sulfates, silicates, phosphates). (DOK 2)
3.c. Categorize minerals and rocks by determining their physical and/or chemical characteristics. (DOK 2)
3.d. Justify the causes of certain geological hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis) to their effects on specific plate tectonic locations. (DOK 2)
3.e. Interpret and explain how rock relationships and fossils are used to reconstruct the geologic history of the Earth. (DOK 2)
3.f. Apply principles of relative age (e.g., superposition, original horizontality, cross-cutting relations, and original lateral continuity) to support an opinion related to Earth's geological history. (DOK 3)
3.f.1. Types of unconformity (e.g., disconformity, angular unconformity, nonconformity)
3.f.2. Geological timetable
3.g. Apply the principle of uniformitarianism to relate sedimentary rock associations and their fossils to the environments in which the rocks were deposited. (DOK 2)
3.h. Compare and contrast the relative and absolute dating methods (e.g., the principle of fossil succession, radiometric dating, and paleomagnetism) for determining the age of the Earth. (DOK 1)

ESS.4. Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate an understanding of Earth systems relating to weather and climate.

4.a. Explain the interaction of Earth Systems that affect weather and climate. (DOK 1)
4.a.1. Latitudinal variations in solar heating
4.a.2. The effects of Coriolis forces on ocean currents, cyclones, anticyclones, ocean currents, topography, and air masses (e.g., warm fronts, cold fronts, stationary fronts, and occluded fronts)
4.b. Interpret the patterns in temperature and precipitation that produce the climate regions on Earth and relate them to the hazards associated with extreme weather events and climate change (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, El Nino/La Nina, global warming). (DOK 2)
4.c. Justify how changes in global climate and variation in Earth/Sun relationships contribute to natural and anthropogenic (human-caused) modification of atmospheric composition. (DOK 2)
4.d. Summarize how past and present actions of ice, wind, and water contributed to the types and distributions of erosional and depositional features in landscapes. (DOK 1)
4.e. Research and explain how external forces affect Earth's topography. (DOK 2)
4.e.1. How surface water and groundwater act as the major agents of physical and chemical weathering
4.e.2. How soil results from weathering and biological processes
4.e.3. Processes and hazards associated with both sudden and gradual mass wasting

ESS.5. Earth and Space Science: Apply an understanding of ecological factors to explain relationships between Earth systems.

5.a. Draw conclusions about how life on Earth shapes Earth systems and responds to the interaction of Earth systems (lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere). (DOK 3)
5.a.2. Distribution of biomes (e.g., terrestrial, freshwater, and marine) to climate regions through time
5.a.3. Geochemical and ecological processes (e.g., rock, hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen) that interact through time to cycle matter and energy, and how human activity alters the rates of these processes (e.g., fossil fuel formation and combustion, damming and channeling of rivers)
5.b. Interpret the record of shared ancestry (fossils), evolution, and extinction as related to natural selection. (DOK 2)
5.c. Identify the cause and effect relationships of the evolutionary innovations that most profoundly shaped Earth systems. (DOK 1)
5.c.2. Multicellular animals and marine environments
5.c.3. Land plants and terrestrial environments

MS.G. Genetics

G.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for pie, bar, and line graphs) to draw conclusions and make inferences. (DOK 3)

G.2. Life Science: Analyze the structure and function of the cell and cellular organelles.

2.a. Cite evidence to illustrate how the structure and function of cells are involved in the maintenance of life. (DOK 2)
2.b. Describe how organic components are integral to biochemical processes. (DOK 2)
2.c. Differentiate among the processes by which plants and animals reproduce. (DOK 1)
2.c.1. Cell cycle and mitosis
2.c.2. Meiosis, spermatogenesis, and oogenesis
2.d. Explain the significance of the discovery of nucleic acids. (DOK 1)
2.e. Analyze and explain the structure and function of DNA and RNA in replication, transcription, translation and DNA repair. (DOK 2)
2.f. Cite examples to compare the consequences of the different types of mutations. (DOK 1)

G.3. Life Science: Apply the principles of heredity to demonstrate genetic understandings.

3.a. Cite evidence that supports the significance of Mendel's concept of ''particulate inheritance'' to explain the understanding of heredity. (DOK 1)
3.b. Apply classical genetics principles to solve basic genetic problems. (DOK 2)
3.b.1. Genes and alleles, dominance, recessiveness, the laws of segregation, and independent assortment
3.b.2. Inheritance of autosomal and sex-linked traits
3.b.3. Inheritance of traits influenced by multiple alleles and traits with polygenetic inheritance
3.b.4. Chromosomal theory of inheritance
3.c. Apply population genetic concepts to summarize variability of multicellular organisms. (DOK 2)
3.c.1. Genetic variability
3.d. Distinguish and explain the applications of various tools and techniques used in DNA manipulation. (DOK 1)
3.d.1. Steps in genetic engineering experiments
3.e. Research and present a justifiable explanation the practical uses of biotechnology (e.g., chromosome mapping, karyotyping, pedigrees). (DOK 2)
3.f. Develop and present a scientifically-based logical argument for or against moral and ethical issues related to genetic engineering. (DOK 3)
3.g. Research genomics (human and other organisms.) and predict benefits and medical advances that may result from the use of genome projects. (DOK 2)

MS.GEO. Geology

GEO.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.1. Safety rules and symbols
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

GEO.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of plate tectonics and geochemical and ecological processes that affect Earth.

2.a. Differentiate the components of the Earth's atmosphere and lithosphere. (DOK 1)
2.c. Compare the causes and effects of internal and external components that shape Earth's topography. (DOK 2)
2.c.1. Physical weathering (e.g., atmospheric, glacial, etc.)
2.c.2. Chemical weathering agents (e.g., acid precipitation, carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, etc.)
2.d. Develop an understanding of how plate tectonics create certain geologic features, materials, and hazards. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Types of crustal movements and the resulting landforms (e.g., seafloor spreading, paleomagnetic measurements, and orogenesis)
2.d.2. Processes that create earthquakes and volcanoes
2.d.3. Asthenosphere
2.e. Summarize the theories of plate development and continental drift and describe the causes and effects involved in each. (DOK 2)
2.f. Develop a logical argument to explain how geochemical and ecological processes (e.g., rock, hydrologic, carbon, nitrogen) interact through time to cycle matter and energy, and how human activity alters the rates of these processes (e.g., fossil fuel formation and combustion, damming and channeling of rivers). (DOK 2)
2.g. Interpret how the Earth's geological time scale relates to geological history, landforms, and lifeforms. (DOK 2)
2.h. Research and describe different techniques for determining relative and absolute age of the Earth (e.g., index of fossil layers, superposition, radiometric dating, etc.) (DOK 1)
2.k. Evaluate an emergency preparedness plan for natural disasters associated with crustal movement. (DOK 3)

MS.HAP. Human Anatomy & Physiology

HAP.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs) to draw conclusions and make inferences. (DOK 3)

HAP.2. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the basic organization of the body.

2.b. Explain how specific mechanisms (e.g., feedback, transport, pH, temperature regulation, etc.) maintain homeostasis. (DOK 1)
2.c. Describe the relationships and interactions of biochemical composition of the human body to body functions. (DOK 2)
2.c.1. Compounds and elements necessary for maintaining life
2.c.2. Major groups of organic substances in the human body
2.c.3. Major types of chemical reactions employed within the organ systems
2.c.4. Effects of external factors (e.g., heat, pH, etc.) on enzymatic reactions
2.d. Categorize the relationship of the cell and its functions to the more complex levels of organization within the body. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Anabolic and catabolic reactions within a human cell
2.d.2. Four major categories of tissues and their location, structure, and function

HAP.3. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the structure, functions, and relationships of the body systems.

3.a. Identify structures and explain functions of the components of the integumentary system. (DOK 1)
3.b. Research and distinguish among common integumentary system disorders in terms of origin, manifestation, and treatments. (DOK 1)
3.c. Compare the structure and functions of the skeletal system with its relationship to movement. (DOK 1)
3.c.1. Structures which comprise bone
3.c.2. Difference between endochondrial and intramembranous ossification
3.c.3. Major bones of the axial and appendicular skeleton, noting inherent differences between males and females
3.c.4. Types of joints and their movements
3.d. Research and draw conclusions about changes in the skeletal system associated with disease, disorder, injury, age, and stress. (DOK 3)
3.e. Compare the functions and structures of the muscular system with its relationship to movement. (DOK 1)
3.e.1. Major components and functions of skeletal muscle fiber
3.e.3. Three types of muscles in the body
3.g. Relate the components of the nervous system to the senses and the functions of the human body systems. (DOK 1)
3.g.1. Four types of neurological cells and the functions of each
3.g.2. Conduction of a nerve impulse
3.g.3. Structures and functions of the brain and spinal cord
3.g.4. Divisions of the nervous system (e.g., central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic, etc.)
3.h. Describe functions of the various sense organs and identify environmental factors that affect their responses. (DOK 1)
3.i. Distinguish the location, structure, and functions of the endocrine glands. (DOK 1)
3.i.1. Major endocrine glands
3.i.2. Function of each endocrine gland and the various hormones they generated by each
3.i.3. Negative feedback mechanisms that regulate hormonal secretions.
3.j. Research common disorders or diseases of the endocrine system and assess the unique problems associated with diagnoses and treatments. (DOK 3)
3.k. Identify and discuss the structures and functions of the organs of the digestive system and discuss their relationships to the interaction among the human body systems. (DOK 2)
3.k.1. Major organs of the digestive system (e.g., alimentary canal and accessory structures)
3.k.2. Roles of organs in the mechanical and chemical digestion of food and nutrient absorption
3.k.3. Contents of the alimentary canal and how they are mixed and moved
3.k.4. Enzymes and gland secretions as related to the absorption of digestion products
3.l. Research common disorders or diseases of the digestive system and identify a diagnosis, based upon a given set of symptoms, for a specific disorder. (DOK 3)
3.m. Describe the primary functions of the respiratory organs and the relationships between structure and function. (DOK 1)
3.m.1. Breathing verses respiration
3.m.2. Gaseous exchange between air and blood and mechanisms of gaseous transport by the blood
3.n. Research to describe various diseases commonly affecting normal respiratory function and assert environmental and social factors which may contribute to the incidence of disease. (DOK 2)
3.o. Demonstrate an understanding of the structures and functions of the circulatory system and their role in maintaining homeostasis. (DOK 2)
3.o.1. Blood types and the four parts of blood in terms of morphology, function and origin
3.o.2. Pulminary and systemic circulation
3.o.3. Systolic and diastolic pressures in relationship to cardiovascular health
3.p. Investigate and describe the social and economic impact of technological advances in medical treatment on cardiovascular disorders. (DOK 3)
3.q. Describe and discuss the structures and functions of the lymphatic system and the relationships to the circulatory system and immunity. (DOK 1)
3.q.1. Major lymphatic organs and pathways
3.q.2. Functions of lymph nodes, lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, thymus, and spleen
3.q.3. Types of immunity and immune responses
3.r. Research and describe common lymphatic disorders and present conclusions about the effectiveness of available treatment options. (DOK 3)
3.s. Explain the role of the structures and functions of the urinary system as they relate to the formation, composition and elimination of urine. (DOK 1)
3.t. Research and describe the treatments of common urinary system disorders. (DOK 1)
3.u. Identify and discuss the locations, structures, and functions of the major components of the male and female reproductive systems. (DOK 1)
3.u.1. Role of hormones in maturation and reproduction
3.u.2. Development of a fetus.
3.v. Research common reproductive diseases and disorders and justify the need for continued research in the diagnosis and treatment of reproductive system diseases. (DOK 3)

MS.IB. Introduction to Biology

IB.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.c. Identify and apply components of scientific methods in classroom investigations. (DOK 3)
1.c.1. Predicting, gathering data, drawing conclusions
1.c.2. Recording outcomes and organizing data from a variety of sources (e.g., scientific articles, magazines, student experiments, etc.)
1.c.3. Critically analyzing current investigations/problems using periodicals and scientific scenarios
1.g. Communicate effectively to present and explain scientific results, using appropriate terminology and graphics. (DOK 3)

IB.2. Physical Science: Investigate and summarize the chemical basis of life.

2.a. Compare and contrast atoms, ions, elements, molecules, and compounds in terms of the relationship of the bond types (e.g., ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds) to chemical activity and explain how this is relevant to biological activity. (DOK 2)
2.b. Classify pH solutions (e.g., acids, bases, neutrals) and explain the importance of pH in living systems. (DOK 2)
2.c. Compare the composition and primary properties of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and relate these to their functions in living organisms. (DOK 2)
2.d. Compare and contrast the basic processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. (DOK 2)

IB.3. Life Science: Investigate and explain how organisms interact with their environment.

3.b. Analyze and explain the interactions among organisms for each level of biological organization. (DOK 2)
3.b.2. Predation, competition, symbiosis, mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, etc.
3.b.3. Food chains, food webs, and food pyramids
3.c. Analyze energy flow through an ecosystem by assessing the roles of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, producers, and decomposers and determine their effects on an ecosystem. (DOK 2)
3.d. Predict the impact of human activities (e.g., recycling, pollution, overpopulation) on the environment. (DOK 3)

IB.4. Life Science: Investigate, compare, and contrast cell structures, functions, and methods of reproduction.

4.a. Compare and contrast cell structures, functions, and methods of reproduction to analyze the similarities and differences among cell types. (DOK 2)
4.a.1. Prokaryotic/eukaryotic
4.a.2. Unicellular/multicellular
4.a.3. Plant/animal/bacterial/protist/fungal
4.b. Describe and explain the relationships between structures and functions of major eukaryotic organelles (e.g., cell wall, cell membrane, chromosomes, mitochondrion, nucleus, chloroplast, vacuole, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, centrioles, cytoplasm/cytosol, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, lysosomes, microtubules, microfilaments, cytoskeleton, nucleolus, nuclear membrane.) (DOK 2)
4.c. Describe how active, passive, and facilitated transports relate to the maintenance of homeostasis. (DOK 1)
4.d. Compare and contrast the processes and results of mitosis and meiosis. (DOK 2)

IB.5. Life Science: Analyze the roles DNA and RNA play on the mechanism of inheritance.

5.a. Utilize genetic terminology and principles to solve monohybrid crosses involving dominant and recessive traits. (DOK 2)
5.b. Identify inheritance patterns using pedigrees and karyotypes. (DOK 2)
5.c. Explain and distinguish among the roles of DNA and RNA in replication, transcription, and translation. (DOK 1)

IB.6. Life Science: Apply the concept of evolution to the diversity of organisms.

6.a. Classify organisms into groups based on their unique characteristics (e.g., cell type, nutrition, reproductive methods, organism examples, etc.) and trace the evolutionary relationships among the groups. (DOK 2)
6.b. Describe how natural selection relates to adaptation, survival, and speciation. (DOK 1)

MS.MAS. Marine & Aquatic Science

MAS.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of physical and chemical properties of water and aquatic environments.

2.b. Explain the causes and characteristics of tides. (DOK 1)
2.c. Research, create diagrams, and summarize principles related to waves and current characteristics and formation. (DOK 2)
2.d. Compare and contrast the physical and chemical parameters of dissolved O2, pH, temperature, salinity, and results obtained through analysis of different water column depths/zones. (DOK 2)
2.e. Investigate the causes and effects of erosion and discuss conclusions. (DOK 2)
2.f. Describe and differentiate among the major geologic features of specific aquatic environments. (DOK 1)
2.f.1. Plate tectonics
2.f.2. Rise, slope, elevation, and depth
2.f.3. Formation of dunes, reefs, barrier/volcanic islands, and coastal/flood plains
2.g. Compare and contrast the unique abiotic and biotic characteristics of selected aquatic ecosystems. (DOK 2)
2.g.1. Barrier island, coral reef, tidal pool, and ocean
2.g.2. River, stream, lake, pond, and swamp
2.g.3. Bay, sound, estuary, and marsh

MAS.3. Life Science: Apply an understanding of the diverse organisms found in aquatic environments.

3.a. Analyze and explain the diversity and interactions among aquatic life. (DOK 3)
3.a.2. Relationship of organisms in food chains/webs within aquatic environments.
3.b. Research, calculate, and interpret population data. (DOK 2)
3.d. Differentiate among characteristics of planktonic, nektonic, and benthic organisms. (DOK 1)
3.e. Explore the taxonomy of aquatic organisms and use dichotomous keys to differentiate among the organisms. (DOK 2)
3.f. Research and explain the symbiotic relationships in aquatic ecosystems. (DOK 3)

MAS.4. Life Science: Draw conclusions about the relationships between human activity and aquatic organisms.

4.a. Describe the impact of natural and human activity on aquatic ecosystems and evaluate the effectiveness of various solutions to environmental problems. (DOK 3)
4.a.1. Sources of pollution in aquatic environments and methods to reduce the effects of the pollution
4.a.2. Effectiveness of a variety of methods of environmental management and stewardship
4.b. Research and cite evidence of the effects of natural phenomena such as hurricanes, floods, or drought on aquatic habitats and organisms. (DOK 3)
4.c. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages involved in applications of modern technology in aquatic science. (DOK 2)
4.c.2. Modern technology within aquatic science (e.g., mariculture, aquaculture)
4.c.3. Contributions of aquatic technology to industry and government

MS.MB. Microbiology

MB.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs) to draw conclusions and make inferences. (DOK 3)

MB.3. Life Science: Explore and demonstrate an understanding of the classification of microorganisms.

3.a. Cite examples to differentiate between the characteristics of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. (DOK 1)
3.b. Cite examples and compare the characteristics of prokaryotes, fungi, and protists. (DOK 2)

MB.4. Life Science: Investigate and summarize concepts related to pathogenic microbiology.

4.a. Research and interpret with examples the causes and effects of epidemics and pandemics. (DOK 2)
4.b. Justify an explanation of strategies that can be used to reduce a person's chance of becoming infected with a pathogen. (DOK 3)
4.b.2. Hospital procedures for dealing with infectious diseases

MB.5. Life Science: Examine and evaluate the classification, morphology, characteristics, pathology, and benefits associated with bacteria.

5.a. Differentiate between eubacteria and archaebacteria (DOK 1)
5.b. Analyze and distinguish the characteristics of bacteria. (DOK 2)
5.b.1. Shapes, motility structures, formation of endospores and capsules
5.b.3. Principles of Gram staining
5.c. Research and explain the characteristics, causes, and treatments of bacterial diseases. (DOK 2)
5.d. Explain and describe the factors leading to antibiotic resistance among bacteria and predict its potential impacts on society. (DOK 2)
5.e. Research and evaluate the beneficial aspects of bacteria in medicine, industry, and daily life. (DOK 3)

MB.6. Life Science: Differentiate among the growth requirements of bacteria.

6.a. Describe growth requirements of bacteria. (DOK 2)
6.a.1. Effectiveness of household antiseptics and disinfectants in controlling bacterial growth
6.a.2. Effect of pH and temperature on bacterial growth
6.b. Compare and contrast aerobes and anaerobes, both facultative and obligative, and predict their impact on human life. (DOK 2)
6.c. Compare and interpret the results of investigations with various growth mediums. (DOK 3)

MB.7. Life Science: Develop an understanding of classification, morphology, characteristics, pathology and benefits associated with viruses.

7.a. Research and explain the characteristics, causes, and treatments of viral diseases, (e.g., smallpox, polio, influenza, measles, rabies, tumor viruses, common cold, hepatitis, herpes simplex I and II, chickenpox, shingles, HIV, warts, genital warts, etc.) (DOK 3)
7.a.1. Structure of viruses, including a phage virus
7.a.2. Methods to culture viruses in a laboratory
7.a.3. Life cycle of a virus
7.b. Cite evidence and explanations to defend the societal and economic importance of viruses. (DOK 2)

MB.8. Life Science: Develop an understanding of the classification, morphology, characteristics, pathology, and benefits associated with fungi.

8.a. Summarize the characteristics, causes, and treatment of the most common types of fungal diseases. (DOK 2)
8.a.1. Structure of fungal cells
8.a.2. Growth requirements and reproduction of fungi
8.a.3. Methods to culture fungi in a laboratory
8.b. Cite evidence and explanations to support the societal and economic significance of fungi. (DOK 2)

MB.9. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of microorganisms as they relate to food processes.

9.a. Analyze and evaluate microbial actions in major industrial processes involving foods. (DOK 3)
9.a.2. Process of fermentation in producing certain foods.

MS.OC. Organic Chemistry

OC.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.1. Safety rules and symbols
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs), draw conclusions, and make inferences. (DOK 3)

OC.2. Physical Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the properties, structure and function of organic compounds.

2.a. Apply International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) nomenclature and differentiate the structure of aliphatic, aromatic, and cyclic hydrocarbon compounds. (DOK 1)
2.a.1. Structures of hydrocarbon compounds
2.b. Relate structure to physical and chemical properties of hydrocarbon. (DOK 1)

OC.3 Physical Science: Discuss the versatility of polymers and the diverse application of organic chemicals.

3.a. Describe and classify the synthesis, properties, and uses of polymers.(DOK 2)
3.a.1. Common polymers
3.a.2. Synthesis of polymers from monomers by addition or condensation
3.a.4. Elasticity and other polymer properties

MS.PH. Physics

PH.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, theory development). (DOK 3)
1.d. Organize data to construct graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs) draw conclusions and make inferences. (DOK 3)
1.f. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence (data analysis). (DOK 3)

PH.2. Physical Science: Develop an understanding of concepts related to forces and motion.

2.a. Use inquiry to investigate and develop an understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of physical bodies. (DOK 3)
2.a.1. Vector and scalar quantities
2.a.4. Relations among mass, inertia, and weight
2.b. Analyze, describe, and solve problems by creating and utilizing graphs of one-dimensional motion (e.g., position, distance, displacement, time, speed, velocity, acceleration, the special case of freefall). (DOK 2)
2.c. Analyze real-world applications to draw conclusions about Newton's three laws of motion. (DOK 2)
2.d. Apply the effects of the universal gravitation law to graph and interpret the force between two masses, acceleration due to gravity, and planetary motion. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Situations where g is constant (falling bodies)
2.d.2. Concept of centripetal acceleration undergoing uniform circular motion
2.d.3. Kepler's third law
2.d.4. Oscillatory motion and the mechanics of waves

PH.3. Physical Science: Develop an understanding of concepts related to work and energy.

3.a. Explain and apply the conservation of energy and momentum. (DOK 2)
3.a.1. Concept of work and applications
3.a.2. Concept of kinetic energy, using the elementary work-energy theorem
3.a.3. Concept of conservation of energy with simple examples
3.a.4. Concepts of energy, work, and power (qualitatively and quantitatively)
3.a.5. Principles of impulse in inelastic and elastic collisions
3.b. Analyze real-world applications to draw conclusions about mechanical potential energy (the energy of configuration). (DOK 3)
3.c. Apply the principles of impulse and compare conservation of momentum and conservation of kinetic energy in perfectly inelastic and elastic collisions. (DOK 1)
3.d. Investigate and summarize the principles of thermodynamics. (DOK 2)
3.d.2. Temperature and thermal energy as related to molecular motion and states of matter
3.d.3. Problems involving specific heat and heat capacity
3.d.4. First and second laws of thermodynamics as related to heat engines, refrigerators, and thermal efficiency
3.e. Develop the kinetic theory of ideal gases and explain the concept of Carnot efficiency. (DOK 2)

PH.4. Physical Science: Discuss the characteristics and properties of light and sound.

4.a. Describe and model the characteristics and properties of mechanical waves. (DOK 2)
4.a.2. Relationships among wave characteristics such as velocity, period, frequency, amplitude, phase, and wavelength
4.a.3. Energy of a wave in terms of amplitude and frequency.
4.a.4. Standing waves and waves in specific media (e.g., stretched string, water surface, air, etc.)
4.b. Differentiate and explain the Doppler effect as it relates to a moving source and to a moving observer. (DOK 1)
4.c. Explain the laws of reflection and refraction and apply Snell's law to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction. (DOK 2)
4.d. Use ray tracing and the thin lens equation to solve real-world problems involving object distance from lenses. (DOK 2)
4.e. Investigate and draw conclusions about the characteristics and properties of electromagnetic waves. (DOK 2)

PH.5. Physical Science: Apply an understanding of magnetism, electric fields, and electricity.

5.a. Analyze and explain the relationship between electricity and magnetism. (DOK 2)
5.a.1. Characteristics of static charge and how a static charge is generated
5.a.2. Electric field, electric potential, current, voltage, and resistance as related to Ohm's Law
5.b. Use schematic diagrams to analyze the current flow in series and parallel electric circuits, given the component resistances and the imposed electric potential. (DOK 2)
5.c. Analyze and explain the relationship between magnetic fields and electrical current by induction, generators, and electric motors. (DOK 2)

PH.6. Physical Science: Analyze and explain concepts of nuclear physics.

6.a. Analyze and explain the principles of nuclear physics. (DOK 1)
6.a.1. The mass number and atomic number of the nucleus of an isotope of a given chemical element
6.b. Defend the wave-particle duality model of light, using observational evidence. (DOK 3)
6.b.1. Quantum energy and emission spectra

MS.PS. Physical Science

PS.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Use appropriate laboratory safety symbols and procedures to design and conduct a scientific investigation. (DOK 2)
1.a.1. Safety symbols and safety rules in all laboratory activities
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.c. Identify and apply components of scientific methods in classroom investigations. (DOK 3)
1.c.1. Predicting, gathering data, drawing conclusions
1.c.2. Recording outcomes and organizing data from a variety of sources (e.g., scientific articles, magazines, student experiments, etc.)
1.c.3. Critically analyzing current investigations/problems using periodicals and scientific scenarios
1.d. Interpret and generate graphs (e.g., plotting points, labeling x-and y-axis, creating appropriate titles and legends for circle, bar, and line graphs.) (DOK 2)
1.f. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence (data analysis). (DOK 3)

PS.2. Physical Science: Describe and explain how forces affect motion.

2.a. Demonstrate and explain the basic principles of Newton's three laws of motion including calculations of acceleration, force, and momentum. (DOK 2)
2.a.1. Inertia and distance-time graphs to determine average speed
2.a.2. Net force (accounting for gravity, friction, and air resistance) and the resulting motion of objects
2.a.3. Effects of the gravitational force on objects on Earth and effects on planetary and lunar motion
2.b. Explain the connection between force, work, and energy. (DOK 2)
2.b.1. Force exerted over a distance (results in work done)
2.b.2. Force-distance graph (to determine work)
2.b.3. Net work on an object which contributes to change in kinetic energy (work-to-energy theorem)
2.c. Describe (with supporting details and diagrams) how the kinetic energy of an object can be converted into potential energy (the energy of position) and how energy is transferred or transformed (conservation of energy). (DOK 2)
2.d. Draw and assess conclusions about charges and electric current. (DOK 2)
2.d.1. Static/current electricity and direct current/alternating current
2.d.2. Elements in an electric circuit that are in series or parallel
2.d.3. Conductors and insulators
2.d.4. Relationship between current flowing through a resistor and voltage flowing across a resistor
2.e. Cite evidence and explain the application of electric currents and magnetic fields as they relate to their use in everyday living (e.g., the application of fields in motors and generators and the concept of electric current using Ohm's Law). (DOK 2)

PS.3. Physical Science: Demonstrate an understanding of general properties and characteristics of waves.

3.a. Differentiate among transverse, longitudinal, and surface waves as they propagate through a medium (e.g., string, air, water, steel beam). (DOK 1)
3.b. Compare properties of waves (e.g., superposition, interference, refraction, reflection, diffraction, Doppler Effect) and explain the connection among the quantities (e.g., wavelength, frequency, period, amplitude, and velocity). (DOK 2)
3.c. Classify the electromagnetic spectrum's regions according to frequency and/or wavelength and draw conclusions about their impact on life. (DOK 2)
3.c.3. Additive and subtractive properties of colors
3.c.4. Relationship of visible light to the color spectrum
3.d. Explain how sound intensity is measured and its relationship to the decibel scale. (DOK 1)

PS.4. Physical Science: Develop an understanding of the atom.

4.a. Cite evidence to summarize the atomic theory. (DOK 1)
4.a.1. Models for atoms
4.a.3. Building blocks of matter (e.g., proton, neutron, and electron) and elementary particles (e.g., positron, mesons, neutrinos, etc.)
4.a.4. Atomic orbitals (s, p, d, f) and their basic shapes
4.c. Research the history of the periodic table of the elements and summarize the contributions which led to the atomic theory. (DOK 2)
4.c.1. Contributions of scientists (e.g., John Dalton, J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Newton, Einstein, Neils, Bohr, Louis de Broglie, Erwin Schrodinger, etc.)
4.c.3. Experiments (e.g., gold-foil, cathode-ray, etc.)
4.d. Utilize the periodic table to predict and explain patterns and draw conclusions about the structure, properties, and organization of matter. (DOK 2)
4.d.1. Atomic composition and valence electron configuration (e.g., atomic number, mass number of protons, neutrons, electrons, isotopes, and ions)
4.d.2. Periodic trends using the periodic table (e.g., valence, reactivity, atomic radius)
4.d.3. Average atomic mass from isotopic abundance
4.d.4. Solids, liquids, and gases
4.d.5. Periodic properties of elements (e.g., metal/nonmetal/metalloid behavior, electrical/heat conductivity, electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy, atomic/covalent/ionic radius) and how they relate to position in the periodic table

PS.5. Physical Science: Investigate and apply principles of physical and chemical changes in matter.

5.a. Write chemical formulas for compounds comprising monatomic and polyatomic ions. (DOK 1)
5.b. Balance chemical equations. (DOK 2)
5.c. Classify types of chemical reactions (e, g., composition, decomposition, single displacement, double displacement, combustion, acid/base reactions). (DOK 2)

MS.SIS. Spatial Information Science

SIS.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.c. Demonstrate the use of scientific inquiry and methods to formulate, conduct, and evaluate laboratory investigations (e.g., hypotheses, experimental design, observations, data analyses, interpretations, and theory development). (DOK 3)
1.f. Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence (data analysis). (DOK 3)

SIS.2. Earth and Space Science: Develop an understanding of geographic information systems.

2.c. Explain the basic concepts of remote sensing. (DOK 2)
2.c.2. Passive verses active sensor systems
2.c.3. Types of sensor platforms
2.d. Analyze the effects of changes in spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution and effects on images due to changes in scale. (DOK 2)
2.g. Formulate a hypothesis of geological factors/problems and determine data sets pertinent to the hypothesis.(DOK 3)
2.h. Explain how data sets are geo-referenced and geo-rectified. (DOK 1)
2.j. Analyze and apply the basic concepts of geographic information systems. (DOK 2)
2.j.1. Compatible geographic data layers of information utilizing computer software
2.j.2. Relationships between geographic data
2.l. Research and defend a variety of applications for geographic information systems. (DOK 3)
2.n. Assess image problems and demonstrate the ability to adjust equipment to obtain correct, and clear data images. (DOK 1)

MS.Z. Zoology

Z.1. Inquiry: Apply inquiry-based and problem-solving processes and skills to scientific investigations.

1.a. Conduct a scientific investigation demonstrating safe procedures and proper care of laboratory equipment. (DOK 2)
1.a.2. Proper use and care of the compound light microscope, slides, chemicals, etc.
1.a.3. Accuracy and precision in using graduated cylinders, balances, beakers, thermometers, and rulers
1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations for experimental results and to make predictions based on observations and prior knowledge. (DOK 3)

Z.2. Life Science: Develop an understanding of levels of organization and animal classification.

2.a. Explain how organisms are classified and identify characteristics of major groups. (DOK 1)
2.a.1. Levels of organization of structures in animals (e.g., cells, tissues, organs, and systems)
2.a.2. Characteristics used to classify organisms (e.g., cell structure, biochemistry, anatomy, fossil record, and methods of reproduction)
2.b. Identify and describe characteristics of the major phyla. (DOK 1)
2.b.1. Symmetry and body plan
2.b.3. Organ systems (e.g., digestive, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive)
2.b.4. Locomotion and coordination
2.c. Distinguish Viruses from Bacteria and Protists and give examples. (DOK 1)
2.d. Differentiate among the characteristics of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eucarya. (DOK 1)
2.d.1. Phylogenic sequencing of the major phyla
2.d.2. Invertebrate characteristics (e.g., habitat, reproduction, body plan, locomotion) of the following phyla: Porifera, Cnidarians, Nematoda, Annelida, Platyhelmenthes, Arthropoda (Insecta, Crustacea, Arachnida, Mollusca , and Echinodermata)
2.d.3. Vertebrate characteristics (e.g., habitat, reproduction, body plan, locomotion) of the following classes: Agnatha, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, and Mammalia

Z.3. Life Science: Differentiate among animal life cycles, behaviors, adaptations, and relationships.

3.b. Describe and explain concepts of animal behavior and differentiate between learned and innate behavior. (DOK 1)
3.b.1. Division of labor within a group of animals
3.d. Compare and contrast ecological relationships and make predictions about the survival of populations under given circumstances. (DOK 3)
3.d.1. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems
3.d.2. Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers and other feeding relationships
3.d.3. Symbiotic relationships such as mutualism, commensalisms, and parasitism
3.e. Contrast food chains and food webs. (DOK 2)

Z.4. Life Science: Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of animal genetic diversity and evolution.

4.a. Categorize and explain sources of genetic variation on the cellular level (e.g., mutations, crossing over, non-disjunction) and the population level (e.g., non-random mating, migration, etc.) (DOK 2)
4.a.1. Relationship between natural selection and evolution
4.a.2. Mutations, crossing over, non-disjunction
4.a.3. Non-random mating, migration, etc.

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