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ME.A. Unifying Themes: Students apply the principles of systems, models, constancy and change, and scale in science and technology.
A.1. Systems: Students apply an understanding of systems to explain and analyze man-made and natural phenomena.
A.1.a. Analyze a system using the principles of boundaries, subsystems, inputs, outputs, feedback, or the system's relation to other systems and design solutions to a system problem.
A.1.b. Explain and provide examples that illustrate how it may not always be possible to predict the impact of changing some part of a man-made or natural system.
A.2. Models: Students evaluate the effectiveness of a model by comparing its predictions to actual observations from the physical setting, the living environment, and the technological world.
A.3. Constancy and Change: Students identify and analyze examples of constancy and change that result from varying types and rates of change in physical, biological, and technological systems with and without counterbalances.
A.4. Scale: Students apply understanding of scale to explain phenomena in physical, biological, and technological systems.
A.4.a. Describe how large changes of scale may change how physical and biological systems work and provide examples.
ME.B. The Skills and Traits of Scientific Inquiry and Technological Design: Students plan, conduct, analyze data from and communicate results of in-depth scientific investigations; and they use a systematic process, tools, equipment, and a variety of materials to create a technological design and produce a solution or product to meet a specified need.
B.1. Skills and Traits of Scientific Inquiry: Students methodically plan, conduct, analyze data from, and communicate results of in-depth scientific investigations, including experiments guided by a testable hypothesis.
B.1.b. Design and safely conduct methodical scientific investigations, including experiments with controls.
B.1.c. Use statistics to summarize, describe, analyze, and interpret results.
B.1.d. Formulate and revise scientific investigations and models using logic and evidence.
B.1.e. Use a variety of tools and technologies to improve investigations and communications.
B.1.f. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models using scientific criteria.
ME.C. The Scientific and Technological Enterprise: Students understand the history and nature of scientific knowledge and technology, the processes of inquiry and technological design, and the impacts science and technology have on society and the environment.
C.3. Science, Technology, and Society: Students describe the role of science and technology in creating and solving contemporary issues and challenges.
C.3.a. Explain how science and technology influence the carrying capacity and sustainability of the planet.
C.3.b. Explain how ethical, societal, political, economic, and cultural factors influence personal health, safety, and the quality of the environment.
C.4. History and Nature of Science: Students describe the human dimensions and traditions of science, the nature of scientific knowledge, and historical episodes in science that impacted science and society.
C.4.b. Select and describe one of the major episodes in the history of science including how the scientific knowledge changed over time and any important effects on science and society.
C.4.d. Provide examples of criteria that distinguish scientific explanations from pseudoscientific ones.
ME.CC.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.11-12.8. Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information.
RST.11-12.9. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible.
ME.CC.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
RST.9-10.5. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
RST.9-10.9. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts.
ME.CC.WHST.11-12. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.11-12.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.11-12.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.11-12.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.11-12.2(a) Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.11-12.2(b) Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience's knowledge of the topic.
WHST.11-12.2(c) Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
WHST.11-12.2(d) Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic; convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.11-12.2(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
ME.CC.WHST.9-10. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
WHST.9-10.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
WHST.9-10.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
Text Types and Purposes
WHST.9-10.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.9-10.2(d) Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
WHST.9-10.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
ME.D. The Physical Setting: Students understand the universal nature of matter, energy, force, and motion and identify how these relationships are exhibited in Earth Systems, in the solar system, and throughout the universe.
D.1. Universe and Solar System: Students explain the physical formation and changing nature of our universe and solar system, and how our past and present knowledge of the universe and solar system developed.
D.1.b. Explain the role of gravity in forming and maintaining planets, stars, and the solar system.
D.1.c. Outline the age, origin, and process of formation of the universe as currently understood by science.
D.1.d. Describe the major events that have led to our current understanding of the universe and the current technologies used to further our understanding.
D.2. Earth: Students describe and analyze the biological, physical, energy, and human influences that shape and alter Earth Systems.
D.2.a. Describe and analyze the effect of solar radiation, ocean currents, and atmospheric conditions on the Earth's surface and the habitability of Earth.
D.2.b. Describe Earth's internal energy sources and their role in plate tectonics.
D.2.c. Describe and analyze the effects of biological and geophysical influences on the origin and changing nature of Earth Systems.
D.2.d. Describe and analyze the effects of human influences on Earth Systems.
D.3. Matter and Energy: Students describe the structure, behavior, and interactions of matter at the atomic level and the relationship between matter and energy.
D.3.a. Describe the structure of atoms in terms of neutrons, protons, and electrons and the role of the atomic structure in determining chemical properties.
D.3.b. Describe how the number and arrangement of atoms in a molecule determine a molecule's properties, including the types of bonds it makes with other molecules and its mass, and apply this to predictions about chemical reactions.
D.3.c. Explain the essential roles of carbon and water in life processes.
D.3.e. Describe factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions (including concentration, pressure, temperature, and the presence of molecules that encourage interaction with other molecules).
D.3.f. Apply an understanding of the factors that affect the rate of chemical reaction to predictions about the rate of chemical reactions.
D.3.g. Describe nuclear reactions, including fusion and fission, and the energy they release.
D.3.i. Explain the relationship between kinetic and potential energy and apply the knowledge to solve problems.
D.3.j. Describe how in energy transformations the total amount of energy remains the same, but because of inefficiencies (heat, sound, and vibration) useful energy is often lost through radiation or conduction.
D.3.k. Apply an understanding of energy transformations to solve problems.
D.3.l. Describe the relationship among heat, temperature, and pressure in terms of the actions of atoms, molecules, and ions.
D.4. Force and Motion: Students understand that the laws of force and motion are the same across the universe.
D.4.a. Describe the contribution of Newton to our understanding of force and motion, and give examples of and apply Newton's three laws of motion and his theory of gravitation.
D.4.c. Describe the relationship between electric and magnetic fields and forces, and give examples of how this relationship is used in modern technologies.
D.4.d. Describe and apply characteristics of waves including wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.
D.4.e. Describe and apply an understanding of how waves interact with other waves and with materials including reflection, refraction, and absorption.
D.4.f. Describe kinetic energy (the energy of motion), potential energy (dependent on relative position), and energy contained by a field (including electromagnetic waves) and apply these understandings to energy problems.
ME.E. The Living Environment: Students understand that cells are the basic unit of life, that all life as we know it has evolved through genetic transfer and natural selection to create a great diversity of organisms, and that these organisms create interdependent webs through which matter and energy flow. Students understand similarities and differences between humans and other organisms and the interconnections of these interdependent webs.
E.1. Biodiversity: Students describe and analyze the evidence for relatedness among and within diverse populations of organisms and the importance of biodiversity.
E.1.a. Explain how the variation in structure and behavior of a population of organisms may influence the likelihood that some members of the species will have adaptations that allow them to survive in a changing environment.
E.1.b. Describe the role of DNA sequences in determining the degree of kinship among organisms and the identification of species.
E.1.c. Analyze the relatedness among organisms using structural and molecular evidence.
E.2. Ecosystems: Students describe and analyze the interactions, cycles, and factors that affect short-term and long-term ecosystem stability and change.
E.2.a. Explain why ecosystems can be reasonably stable over hundreds or thousands of years, even though populations may fluctuate.
E.2.b. Describe dynamic equilibrium in ecosystems and factors that can, in the long run, lead to change in the normal pattern of cyclic fluctuations and apply that knowledge to actual situations.
E.2.d. Describe the critical role of photosynthesis and how energy and the chemical elements that make up molecules are transformed in ecosystems and obey basic conservation laws.
E.3. Cells: Students describe structure and function of cells at the intracellular and molecular level including differentiation to form systems, interactions between cells and their environment, and the impact of cellular processes and changes on individuals.
E.3.a. Describe the similarities and differences in the basic functions of cell membranes and of the specialized parts within cells that allow them to transport materials, capture and release energy, build proteins, dispose of waste, communicate, and move.
E.3.b. Describe the relationship among DNA, protein molecules, and amino acids in carrying out the work of cells and how this is similar among all organisms.
E.3.c. Describe the interactions that lead to cell growth and division (mitosis) and allow new cells to carry the same information as the original cell (meiosis).
E.3.d. Describe ways in which cells can malfunction and put an organism at risk.
E.3.e. Describe the role of regulation and the processes that maintain an internal environment amidst changes in the external environment.
E.3.f. Describe the process of metabolism that allows a few key biomolecules to provide cells with necessary materials to perform their functions.
E.4. Heredity and Reproduction: Students examine the role of DNA in transferring traits from generation to generation, in differentiating cells, and in evolving new species.
E.4.a. Explain some of the effects of the sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction.
E.4.b. Describe genes as segments of DNA that contain instructions for the cells and include information that leads to the differentiation of cells.
E.4.c. Explain how the instructions in DNA that lead to cell differentiation result in varied cell functions in the organism and DNA.
E.4.d. Describe the possible causes and effects of gene mutations.
E.5. Evolution: Students describe the interactions between and among species, populations, and environments that lead to natural selection and evolution.
E.5.a. Describe the premise of biological evolution, citing evidence from the fossil record and evidence based on the observation of similarities within the diversity of existing organisms.
E.5.b. Describe the origins of life and how the concept of natural selection provides a mechanism for evolution that can be advantageous or disadvantageous to the next generation.
E.5.c. Explain why some organisms may have characteristics that have no apparent survival or reproduction advantage.
E.5.d. Relate structural and behavioral adaptations of an organism to its survival in the environment.
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