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Kentucky Standards for Eighth Grade Science

KY.AE. Academic Expectation

AE.1. Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

1.10. Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.
1.11. Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.
1.13. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.
1.16. Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.
1.3. Students make sense of the various things they observe.
1.4. Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.
1.5-1.9. Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

AE.2. Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

2.1. Science: Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2. Science: Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3. Science: Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4. Science: Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5. Science: Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.
2.6. Science: Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.

KY.CC. Core Content for Assessment v.4.1

SC-08-1.1. Structure and Transformation of Matter: During the middle years, physical and chemical changes in matter are observed, and students begin to relate these changes to the smaller constituents of matter - namely, atoms and molecules.

SC-08-1.1.1. Physical Science: Students will interpret models/representations of atoms of different elements; classify elements based upon patterns in their physical (e.g., density, boiling point, solubility) and chemical (e.g., flammability, reactivity) properties.
SC-08-1.1.2. Physical Science: Students will understand that matter is made of minute particles called atoms, and atoms are composed of even smaller components. The components of an atom have measurable properties such as mass and electrical charge. Each atom has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. The electric force between the nucleus and the electrons holds the atom together.
SC-08-1.1.3. Physical Science: Students will understand that the atom's nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons that are much more massive than electrons.
SC-08-1.1.4. Physical Science: Students will describe interactions which cause the movement of each element among the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere, and organisms (biogeochemical cycles).

SC-08-1.2. Motion and Forces: At the middle level, qualitative descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton's Laws.

SC-08-1.2.1. Students will describe and explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on motion as found in real-life phenomena.

SC-08-2.3. The Earth and the Universe: The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on earth in many ways. At the middle level, students investigate how these changes occur.

SC-08-2.3.1. Earth/Space Science: Students will describe various techniques for estimating geological time (radioactive dating, observing rock sequences, comparing fossils).
SC-08-2.3.2. Earth/Space Science: Students will understand that earthquakes and volcanic eruptions can be observed on a human time scale, but many processes, such as mountain building and plate movements, take place over hundreds of millions of years.
SC-08-2.3.3. Earth/Space Science: Students will explain the transfer of Earth's internal heat in the mantle (crustal movement, hotspots, geysers); describe the interacting components (convection currents) within the Earth's system.
SC-08-2.3.4. Earth/Space Science: Students will understand that the Sun, Earth, and the rest of the solar system formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

SC-08-3.4. Unity and Diversity: In middle school, students begin to compare, contrast and classify the microscopic features of organisms - the cells, as well as investigate reproduction as the essential process to the continuation of all species. Expected patterns of genetic traits are predicted. Distinctions are made between learned behaviors and inherited traits.

SC-08-3.4.1. Biological Science: Students will explain the relationship between structure and function of the cell components using a variety of representations.
SC-08-3.4.3. Biological Science: Students will form or justify conclusions as to whether a response is innate or learned using data/evidence on behavioral responses to internal and external stimuli.
SC-08-3.4.4. Biological Science: Students will describe and explain patterns found within groups of organisms in order to make biological classifications of those organisms.
SC-08-3.4.5. Biological Science: Students will understand that multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific molecules.

SC-08-3.5. Biological Change: At the middle school level, students study relationships among populations and ecosystems that contribute to the success or demise of a specific population or species. Students construct basic explanations that can account for the great diversity among organisms.

SC-08-3.5.1. Biological Science: Students will draw conclusions and make inferences about the consequences of change over time that can account for the similarities among diverse species.

SC-08-4.6. Energy Transformations: Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels).

SC-08-4.6.1. Unifying Concepts: Students will explain the cause and effect relationships between global climate and energy transfer; use evidence to make inferences or predictions about global climate issues.
SC-08-4.6.2. Unifying Concepts: Students will describe or explain energy transfer and energy conservation; evaluate alternative solutions to energy problems.
SC-08-4.6.3. Unifying Concepts: Students will understand that all energy can be considered to be kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained by a field (e.g., electric, magnetic, gravitational).
SC-08-4.6.4. Unifying Concepts: Students will analyze information/data about waves and energy transfer; describe the transfer of energy via waves in real life phenomena.
SC-08-4.6.5. Unifying Concepts: Students will describe the relationships between organisms and energy flow in ecosystems (food chains and energy pyramids); explain the effects of change to any component of the ecosystem.

SC-08-4.7. Interdependence: In middle school, students should be guided from specific examples of the interdependency of organisms to a more systematic view of the interactions that take place among organisms and their surroundings.

SC-08-4.7.1. Unifying Concepts: Students will describe the interrelationships and interdependencies within an ecosystem and predict the effects of change on one or more components within an ecosystem.
SC-08-4.7.2. Students will describe and explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on motion as found in real-life phenomena.

KY.CC.6-8.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

6-8.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

6-8.RST.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
6-8.RST.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

KY.CC.6-8.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

6-8.WHST.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Text Types and Purposes

6-8.WHST.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
6-8.WHST.1.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
6-8.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
6-8.WHST.2.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
6-8.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

KY.CC.CCRA-W. College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

CCRA-W.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

CCRA-W.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

KY.PS. Program of Studies 2006

SC-8-BC. Big Idea: Biological Change (Biological Science) - The only thing certain is that everything changes. At the middle school level, students study relationships among populations and ecosystems that contribute to the success or demise of a specific population or species. Students construct basic explanations that can account for the great diversity among organisms. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.6)

SC-8-BC-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore the law of superposition and the processes of fossilization in sedimentary rock
SC-8-BC-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research the most common fossils used to support theories of biological change
SC-8-BC-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will apply research to answer student-generated questions through deductive reasoning about factors that may impact diversity of species
SC-8-BC-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of the Earth and the long history of changing life forms whose remains are found in the rocks. More recently deposited rock layers contain fossils that more closely resemble existing species.
SC-8-BC-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that observations of the fossil record provide evidence that helps to explain why externally diverse organisms are so similar at the molecular level.
SC-8-BC-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that scientists cannot always control experimental conditions to obtain evidence. When that is not possible, they try to observe as wide a range of natural occurrences as possible to be able to identify patterns.

SC-8-ET. Big Idea: Energy Transformations (Unifying Concepts) - Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple Earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels). (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-8-ET-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explain the law of conservation of energy and infer where energy goes in a number of real-life energy transformations
SC-8-ET-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify the energy transformations that occur in the 'production', transmission and use of energy by people in everyday life (e.g., electric power, automotive fuels, food)
SC-8-ET-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will illustrate examples of potential and kinetic energy in everyday life, such as objects at rest, geologic fault movement and falling water
SC-8-ET-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare a variety of energy sources (e.g., biomass, fission, fusion, ethanol) and evaluate their potential for large-scale use, as well as their benefits, risks and limitations
SC-8-ET-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will classify methods of heat transfer (convection, conduction, radiation) and forms of energy (kinetic, potential, energy contained within a field)
SC-8-ET-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will model energy transfer via waves and identify real-life examples
SC-8-ET-S-7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze multiple sources of data to identify global climate patterns
SC-8-ET-S-8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will graphically represent energy flow within an ecosystem to identify the existing relationships
SC-8-ET-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that energy can be transferred in many ways, but it can neither be created nor destroyed.
SC-8-ET-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that a steady supply of energy is essential for our society, but every source of energy has potential problems as well as benefits. Not all forms of energy are practical to use given our current state of technology.
SC-8-ET-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that solar energy influences global climate in a number of direct and indirect ways. Patterns of global climate can be determined through analysis of climatic data.
SC-8-ET-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that although many forms of energy exist, they can all be classified as either kinetic energy, potential energy, or energy contained within a field.
SC-8-ET-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the interaction of waves with matter provides the vehicle for a number of important types of energy transfer.
SC-8-ET-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that changes that occur to any one component of an ecosystem may influence the entire system, since all of the components are interrelated. The relationships that exist can be determined by observing the flow of energy.
SC-8-ET-U-7. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that many systems contain feedback mechanisms that serve to keep changes within specified limits.

SC-8-EU. Big Idea: The Earth and the Universe (Earth/Space Science) - The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on Earth in many ways. Development of conceptual understandings about processes that shape the Earth begin at the elementary level with understanding what Earth materials are and that change occurs. At the middle level, students investigate how these changes occur. An understanding of systems and their interacting components will enable students to evaluate supporting theories of Earth changes. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels. In middle school, students begin to look beyond what can be directly observed as they explore the Earth-sun-moon system, as well as the rest of our solar system, employing the concept of scale within their models. Patterns play an important role as students seek to develop a conceptual understanding of gravity in their world and in the universe. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

SC-8-EU-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research and evaluate the geological dating techniques that were used to determine the accepted age of the Earth
SC-8-EU-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify a variety of landforms on the Earth's surface that have undergone changes (both fast and slow) and investigate the forces responsible for those changes
SC-8-EU-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will observe convection currents in liquids and model the movement of molten rock within the Earth in order to explain how internal heat is transferred
SC-9-EU-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that heat flow and movement of molten rock within the interior of the Earth results in crustal changes such as earthquakes, volcanoes and continental drift.

SC-8-I. Big Idea: Interdependence (Unifying Concepts) - It is not difficult for students to grasp the general notion that species depend on one another and on the environment for survival. But their awareness must be supported by knowledge of the kinds of relationships that exist among organisms, the kinds of physical conditions that organisms must cope with, the kinds of environments created by the interaction of organisms with one another and their physical surroundings, and the complexity of such systems. In middle school, students should be guided from specific examples of the interdependency of organisms to a more systematic view of the interactions that take place among organisms and their surroundings. Students growing understanding of systems in general will reinforce the concept of ecosystems. Stability and change in ecosystems can be considered in terms of variables such as population size, number and kinds of species, productivity, and the effect of human intervention. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-8-I-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will predict the effects of change on one or more components within an ecosystem by analyzing a variety of data
SC-8-I-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze ecosystems to identify patterns of cooperation that enhance stability
SC-8-I-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will model the flow of energy and transfer of matter within ecosystems, communities and niches
SC-8-I-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will evaluate the risks and benefits of human actions affecting the environment and identify which populations will be harmed or helped. Use a variety of data/ sources to support or defend a position related to a proposed action, both orally and in writing. Analyze the validity of other arguments
SC-8-I-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify examples of human actions that have had unintended environmental consequences (e.g., DDT weakening egg shells, lead-based paint, asbestos insulation)
SC-8-I-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that organisms both cooperate and compete in ecosystems. Balanced patterns of cooperation and competition may generate ecosystems that are relatively stable for hundreds or thousands of years.
SC-8-I-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the matter in an ecosystem is constantly transferred between and among organisms and the physical environment. While the form and location is continuously changing, the total amount of matter in the system remains constant.

SC-8-MF. Big Idea: Motion and Forces (Physical Science) - Whether observing airplanes, baseballs, planets, or people, the motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. At the middle level, qualitative descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton's Laws. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

SC-8-MF-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will differentiate speed and acceleration and classify real-life examples of each
SC-8-MF-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explain and experimentally verify how Newton's Laws show that forces between objects affect their motion, allowing future positions to be predicted from their present speeds and positions
SC-8-MF-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate motion of objects to generate and experimentally test predictions/conclusions. Compare and critique the results of others for accuracy, identifying strengths and weaknesses in the experiment, insisting on the use of evidence to support decisions
SC-8-MF-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that Isaac Newton developed a set of rules that can be used to describe and predict virtually all observed motion on Earth and in the universe. These Laws of Motion demonstrate that the rules governing the Earth are the same as those controlling the rest of the observed universe.

SC-8-STM. Big Idea: Structure and Transformation of Matter (Physical Science) - A basic understanding of matter is essential to the conceptual development of other big ideas in science. During the middle years, physical and chemical changes in matter are observed, and students begin to relate these changes to the smaller constituents of matter - namely, atoms and molecules. The use of models (and an understanding of their scales and limitations) is an effective means of learning about the structure of matter. Looking for patterns in properties is also critical to comparing and explaining differences in matter. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5)

SC-8-STM-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will classify substances by how they react in given situations
SC-8-STM-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze models/representations of elements and basic atomic structure
SC-8-STM-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and illustrate the movement of elements between organisms and their physical environment and within the Earth system
SC-8-STM-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze factors that may influence the movement of elements among the solid Earth, oceans, atmosphere and organisms
SC-8-STM-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that all matter is made of tiny moving particles called atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a microscope. The atoms of any element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements.
SC-8-STM-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that because atomic structure is not directly observable, models (physical and conceptual) are used to facilitate understanding. What kind of model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose.
SC-8-STM-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that elements do not break down during chemical reactions (e.g., heating, exposure to electric currents, reaction with acids).
SC-8-STM-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that there are groups of elements that have similar properties, including highly reactive metals, less-reactive metals, highly reactive nonmetals (such as chlorine, fluorine and oxygen) and some almost completely non-reactive gases (such as helium and neon). Some elements don't fit into any of the categories; among them are carbon and hydrogen, essential elements of living matter.

SC-8-UD. Big Idea: Unity and Diversity (Biological Science) - All matter is comprised of the same basic elements, goes through the same kinds of energy transformations, and uses the same kinds of forces to move. Living organisms are no exception. In middle school, students begin to compare, contrast, and classify the microscopic features of organisms - the cells, as well as investigate reproduction as the essential process to the continuation of all species. Expected patterns of genetic traits are predicted. Distinctions are made between learned behaviors and inherited traits. Emphasis at every level should be placed upon the understanding that while every living thing is composed of similar small constituents that combine in predictable ways, it is the subtle variations within these small building blocks that account for both the likenesses and differences in form and function that create the diversity of life. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-8-UD-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate, model and explain the functions of the specialized parts within the cell
SC-8-UD-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify patterns of behavior within populations and classify them as either innate or learned
SC-8-UD-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate how the nervous systems of various organisms allow them to react (e.g. vomiting, avoidance) to internal (e.g., food toxins) and external (e.g., predator encounter) stimuli
SC-8-UD-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe the role of genes/chromosomes in the passing of information from one generation to another (heredity)
SC-8-UD-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify patterns among organisms that may be used for classification and compare those patterns to the currently accepted taxonomy
SC-8-UD-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will collect and analyze information to answer questions about factors influencing heredity and learned behaviors and explain how scientific knowledge has been modified as new information is revealed
SC-8-UD-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that all cells contain specialized parts that are structured to efficiently perform the cell's essential functions.
SC-8-UD-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that complex organisms can exist because their genes contain the information needed to create and reproduce cells with specialized functions.
SC-8-UD-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that organisms have nervous systems that allow them to react to changes in their surroundings and within themselves. Some of their reactions (e.g. pain response) are determined genetically while others (e.g. pushing a button to obtain food) are learned.
SC-8-UD-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that patterns (e.g. reproductive method, number of body segments, type of skeleton) are helpful in classifying organisms based on how they are related. Science considers details of internal and external structures to be more important than behavior or general appearance.
SC-8-UD-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that technological advances have made it possible for humans to alter the natural world. Ethical considerations and the probability of unintended consequences make it essential that the potential risks and rewards of any scientific endeavor be carefully considered before proceeding.
SC-9-UD-S-7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research and discuss the impact of technological advances, and explore the ethical questions they often create

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