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Maryland Standards for Eighth Grade Science

MD.1.0. Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.

1.A.1. Constructing Knowledge: Design, analyze, or carry out simple investigations and formulate appropriate conclusions based on data obtained or provided.

1.A.1.a. Explain that scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work.
1.A.1.e. Explain that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an investigation, the outcome of the investigation may not be clearly attributable to any one of the variables.
1.A.1.h. Use mathematics to interpret and communicate data.

1.B.1. Applying Evidence and Reasoning: Review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and construct a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment.

1.B.1.a. Verify the idea that there is no fixed set of steps all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.
1.B.1.d. Describe the reasoning that lead to the interpretation of data and conclusions drawn.

1.C.1. Communicating Scientific Information: Develop explanations that explicitly link data from investigations conducted, selected readings and, when appropriate, contributions from historical discoveries.

1.C.1.a. Organize and present data in tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
1.C.1.b. Interpret tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words the relationships they show.
1.C.1.e. Explain how different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of a model to use and how complex it should be depend on its purpose. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering

1.D.3. Technology: Analyze the value and the limitations of different types of models in explaining real things and processes.

1.D.3.a. Explain that the kind of model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose and that it is possible to have different models used to represent the same thing.
1.D.3.b. Explain, using examples that models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous.
1.D.3.c. Explain that models may sometimes mislead by suggesting characteristics that are not really shared with what is being modeled.

MD.2.0. Earth/Space Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.

2.B.1. Earth History: Explain how sedimentary rock is formed periodically, embedding plant and animal remains and leaving a record of the sequence in which the plants and animals appeared and disappeared.

2.B.1.a. Explain how sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat and these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains.
2.B.1.c. Explain why some fossils found in the top layers of sedimentary rock are older then those found beneath in lower layers: Folding; Breaking; Uplift; Faulting; Tilting.

2.B.2. Earth History: Recognize and explain that fossils found in layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence of changing life forms.

2.B.2.a. Recognize how different types of fossils are formed, such as petrified remains, imprints, molds and casts.
2.B.2.b. Recognize and explain that the fossil record of plants and animals describes changes in life forms over time.

2.D.1. Astronomy: Identify and describe the components of the universe.

2.D.1.a. Recognize that a galaxy contains billions of stars that cannot be distinguished by the unaided eye because of their great distance from Earth, and that there are billions of galaxies.
2.D.1.b. Identify that our solar system is a component of the Milky Way Galaxy.
2.D.1.d. Identify and describe the type, size, and scale, of the Milky Way Galaxy.

2.D.2. Astronomy: Identify and explain celestial phenomena using the regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system.

2.D.2.a. Identify and describe the relationships among the period of revolution of a planet, the length of its solar year, and its distance from the sun.
2.D.2.b. Identify and explain the relationship between the rotation of a planet or moon on its axis and the length of the solar day for that celestial object.
2.D.2.c. Identify and explain the cause of the phases of the moon.
2.D.2.d. Describe how lunar and solar eclipses occur.
2.D.2.e. Identify and describe how the shape and location of the orbits of asteroids and comets affect their periods of revolution.

2.D.3. Astronomy: Recognize and explain the effects of the tilt of Earth's axis.

2.D.3.a. Recognize and describe that Earth's axis is tilted about 23 1/4 degrees from vertical with respect to the plane of its orbit and points in the same direction during the year.
2.D.3.b. Recognize and describe that the tilt of Earth's axis causes: Changes in the angle of the sun in the sky during the year; Seasonal differences in the northern and southern latitudes.
2.D.3.c. Recognize and describe how the tilt of Earth's axis affects the climate in Maryland.

2.D.4. Astronomy: Recognize and explain how the force of gravity causes the tides.

2.D.4.a. Identify and describe the cause of high and low tides.

2.E.1. Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere: Cite evidence to explain the relationship between the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

2.E.1.a. Describe the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
2.E.1.b. Recognize and describe the water cycle as the distribution and circulation of Earth's water through the glaciers, surface water, groundwater, oceans, and atmosphere.
2.E.1.c. Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation in a geographic area are affected by surface features and changes in atmospheric and ocean content: Relative location of mountains; Volcanic eruptions; Proximity to large bodies of water; Heat energy of ocean currents.

2.E.3. Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere: Recognize and describe the various factors that affect climate.

2.E.3.a. Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation of an area are affected by surface and ocean features: Relative location of mountains; Proximity to large bodies of water; Warm and cold ocean currents.
2.E.3.b. Recognize and describe the global effects of volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, and El Nino.
2.E.3.c. Identify and describe how various tools are used to collect weather data and forecast weather conditions: Barometer; Thermometer; Anemometer; Psychrometer.

MD.3.0. Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.

3.D.1. Evolution: Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes.

3.D.1.a. Recognize and describe that gradual (climatic) and sudden (floods and fires) changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms and populations.
3.D.1.b. Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
3.D.1.c. Recognize and describe that adaptation and speciation involve the selection of natural variations in a population.
3.D.1.e. Recognize that evolution accounts for the diversity of species.

MD.4.0. Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.

4.A.1. Structure of Matter: Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced. (No electron transfer)

4.A.1.a. Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
4.A.1.c. Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.

4.B.1. Conservation of Matter: Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.

4.B.1.b. Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same.
4.B.1.c. Give reasons to justify the statement, 'If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.'

4.C.1. States of Matter: Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased.

4.C.1.a, Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand).
4.C.1.b. Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
4.C.1.c. Formulate an explanation for the different characteristics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules.

4.D.1. Physical and Chemical Changes: Compare compounds and mixtures based on data from investigations and research.

4.D.1.b. Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties.
4.D.1.c. Analyze the results of research completed to develop a comparison of compounds and mixtures.

4.D.2. Physical and Chemical Changes: Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of substances.

4.D.2.a. Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances: Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning; Reacts with acids; Reacts with bases.

4.D.3. Physical and Chemical Changes: Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.

4.D.3.a. Investigate and describe the occurrence of chemical reactions using the following evidence: Color change; Formation of a precipitate or gas; Release of heat or light.
4.D.3.b. Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates: Change in temperature; Acidity.
4.D.3.c. Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction.
4.D.3.d. Provide data from investigations to support the fact that energy is transformed during chemical reactions.
4.D.3.e. Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.

MD.5.0. Physics: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

5.A.1. Mechanics: Develop an explanation of motion using the relationships among time, distance, velocity, and acceleration.

5.A.1.a. Observe, describe, and compare the motions of objects using position, speed, velocity, and the direction.
5.A.1.b. Based on data given or collected, graph and calculate average speed using distance and time.
5.A.1.c. Compare accelerated and constant motions using time, distance, and velocity.
5.A.1.d. Describe and calculate acceleration using change in the speed and time.

5.A.2. Mechanics: Identify and relate formal ideas (Newton's Laws) about the interaction of force and motion to real world experiences.

5.A.2.a. Investigate and explain the interaction of force and motion that causes objects that are at rest to move.
5.A.2.b. Demonstrate and explain, through a variety of examples, that moving objects will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
5.A.2.c. Investigate and collect data from multiple trials, about the motion that explain the motion that results when the same force acts on objects of different mass; and when different amounts of force act on objects of the same mass.
5.A.2.d. Based on data collected and organized, explain qualitatively the relationship between net force applied to an object and its mass for a given acceleration.
5.A.2.e. Calculate the net force given the mass and acceleration.

5.A.3. Mechanics: Recognize and explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object.

5.A.3.a. Explain the difference between mass and weight: Mass is a measure of inertia; Weight is a measure of the force of gravity.
5.A.3.d. Recognize and cite examples showing that mass remains the same in all locations while weight may vary with a change in location (weight on Earth compared to weight on moon).

5.A.4. Mechanics: Recognize and explain that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes form or is transferred through the action of forces.

5.A.4.a. Observe and describe the relationship between the distance an object is moved by a force and the change in its potential energy or kinetic energy, such as in a slingshot, in mechanical toys, the position of an object and its potential energy.
5.A.4.b. Identify the relationship between the amount of energy transferred (work) to the product of the applied force and the distance moved in the direction of that force.
5.A.4.c. Identify and describe that simple machines (levers and inclined planes) may reduce the amount of effort required to do work: Calculate input and output work using force and distance; Demonstrate that input work is always greater than output work.

5.B.1. Thermodynamics: Describe and cite evidence that heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.

5.B.1.a. Based on observable phenomena, identify and describe examples of heat being transferred through conduction and through convection.
5.B.1.b. Based on observable phenomena, identify examples to illustrate that radiation does not require matter to transfer heat energy.
5.B.1.c. Research and identify the types of insulators that best reduce heat loss through conduction, convection, or radiation.

5.B.2. Thermodynamics: Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another.

5.B.2.a. Identify and describe the various forms of energy that are transformed in order for systems (living and non-living) to operate: Chemical - Flashlight-Light; Mechanical - Pulleys-Motion; Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator; Chemical - Plant cells.

MD.6.0. Environmental Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.

6.B.1. Environmental Issues: Recognize and explain how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes.

6.B.1.a. Based on data from research identify and describe how natural processes change the environment: Cyclic climate change; Sedimentation in watersheds; Population cycles; Extinction.
6.B.1.b. Identify and describe how human activities produce changes in natural processes: Climate change; Loss of habitat; Introduction of nonnative species; Cycling of matter.

NewPath Learning resources are fully aligned to US Education Standards. Select a standard below to view correlations to your selected resource:

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