Maryland Standards for Eighth Grade Science

Bones, muscles, and skin
FreeThe human body works very smoothly carrying out its daily functions because it is organized. The human body has different levels of organization that consist of cells(the smallest), tissues, organs, and organ systems (the largest). Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 6
Circulation and immunity
The circulatory system, otherwise known as the cardiovascular system, consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart has two separate sides, the right and left, which are separated by the septum. The septum prevents oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood. The valve prevents blood from flowing backwards in the one-way direction of the circulatory system. There are three types of blood vessels in the human body: arteries, capillaries, and veins. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Forces in fluids
Pressure is calculated by dividing force by area and is measured in units called pascals. For an example, if a force of 10 newtons was exerted over an area of 2 square centimeters, the pressure would be 5 pascals. In fluids, which are substances that can flow, pressure is the sum of each of the forces of each particle in the fluid. Examples of fluids include liquids such as water and gases such as air and helium. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Geologic time
Age of the Earth is 4.6 billion years. Geologic time scale is a map that divides Earth history into logical segments of time. The geologic time scale is broken into divisions and subdivisions. The divisions are called eons. Eons are divided into eras, eras are divided into periods, and periods are divided into epochs. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Introduction to physical science
Safety First! Working with flames, chemicals and glassware poses many potential dangers. You should learn about safety equipment such as eye goggles, eye washes, fire blankets and fire extinguishers. In addition, while working in the lab, you should be aware of laboratory safety rules as well as familiar with the many safety symbols that often appear in the instructions that are printed for lab activity. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Light
When light hits an object, it either goes through easily, partially, or not at all. An object that lets most of the light through is said to be transparent. The colors we see depend upon which wavelengths of visible light get reflected back to our eyes. Objects appear white when they reflect all of light’s wavelengths and conversely, they look black when they reflect little or none of the wavelengths. This is why it is wise to wear light-colored clothing in the summer; your clothing doesn’t absorb the light. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Minerals
A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must: be a naturally occurring substance, be a solid substance, have an internal crystal structure and have been formed by inorganic processes (in other words, it cannot be formed by an organism). A rock, by comparison, is composed of one or more minerals or organic material (such as coal). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3
Mirrors and lenses
The reflection of light can occur in different ways. Since a mirror has a very smooth surface, all the light bouncing off of a mirror reflects in a regular manner. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Modern Genetics
The main function of a gene is to regulate the production of proteins within cells. Proteins establish the phenotype, physical characteristics, and many other traits of a particular organism. Recall from Topic 5 that DNA is made up of 4 different nitrogen bases, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Plate tectonics
The Earth is a dynamic planet. Its interior is actually in motion! The crust on its surface is also in motion. It was not until the 20th century that geologists truly began to understand Earth's dynamic movements. New theories, supported by ever-improving technologies, have made it possible to more clearly understand the forces working within the planet we call home. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Properties of atoms
The modern atomic model suggests that an atom has two particles in the nucleus, a proton and a neutron or neutrally charged particle. All the mass of an atom is made up with these particles. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called atomic mass while the number of protons is called the atomic number. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Respiration and excretion
Air travels through the nose, pharynx, trachea, and the bronchi within the lungs. Oxygen is gained by the respiratory system and glucose is gained from the digestive system. Both the oxygen and glucose are transported around the body by the circulatory system. With every breath, we pull oxygen out of the atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, so the air that we breathe is not all taken into the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Sound
Sound is a type of longitudinal wave. As it travels through its medium, the mediums particles show areas of compression and rarefaction. Sound, at room temperature, normally travels at a speed of 343m/s. At different temperatures, sound travels at different speeds. The speed of sound is also influenced by the density and elasticity of the medium. When the frequency of sound changes as its source moves in relationship to someone listening, this is called the Doppler Effect. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
The Digestive and nutrition
There are six different types of nutrients that the body needs. They are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. There are three main functions of the digestive system. They are to break down foods into molecules that the body can use, absorb the molecules into the blood and send them all throughout the body, and eliminate wastes from the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
The Endocrine system and Reproduction
The endocrine system controls long-term and short-term changes of the body and many of the daily activities of the body. The system is made up of glands, which are organs that produce and secrete chemicals. Endocrine glands release chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream, which will then be carried throughout the body. The hypothalamus is a small part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system together. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
The energy of waves
When a disturbance transfers energy from one place to another, this is referred to as a wave. Most waves, except for electromagnetic waves, require a substance or medium through which they can travel. This medium could be a solid, liquid or vapor like air. Waves requiring a medium are called mechanical waves. Amplitude: the maximum distance that the medium particles move away from their resting position when a wave is passing through. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The nervous system
The nervous system gathers information from inside and outside of the body, responds to the information that it gathers and helps to maintain homeostasis. There are three different types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The three different types of neurons will work together to carry messages all throughout the nervous system. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5

MD.1.0. Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.

1.A.1. Constructing Knowledge: Design, analyze, or carry out simple investigations and formulate appropriate conclusions based on data obtained or provided.

1.A.1.a. Explain that scientists differ greatly in what phenomena they study and how they go about their work.
The Study of Heredity
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Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Elements and the periodic table
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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1.A.1.e. Explain that if more than one variable changes at the same time in an investigation, the outcome of the investigation may not be clearly attributable to any one of the variables.
The World of Life Science
Scientific inquiry is a process of designing and conducting scientific investigations including asking a question, completing an investigation, attempting to answer the question, and presenting the results to other. A conclusion is summing up the information from an investigation by either supporting the hypothesis or not. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
1.A.1.h. Use mathematics to interpret and communicate data.
Properties and States of Matter
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Energy: Forms and Changes
Energy can have many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic energy. Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy. Thermal energy is the energy of an objects created by the motion (kinetic energy) of its particles (molecules and atoms). Chemical energy is the potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of charged particles called electrons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

1.B.1. Applying Evidence and Reasoning: Review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and construct a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment.

1.B.1.a. Verify the idea that there is no fixed set of steps all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.
The science of biology
The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Read more...iWorksheets :3
1.B.1.d. Describe the reasoning that lead to the interpretation of data and conclusions drawn.
Properties and States of Matter
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Sound
Sound is the energy objects produce when they vibrate. Sound energy is a form of mechanical energy. The substance that the sound waves travel through is called the medium. A medium can be a solid, liquid or gas. In a longitudinal wave, the particles of the medium move back and forth, while the energy moves forward. Then the particles are pushed together, it is called compression. When the particles are spread apart, it is called rarefaction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :4
Elements and the periodic table
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1.C.1. Communicating Scientific Information: Develop explanations that explicitly link data from investigations conducted, selected readings and, when appropriate, contributions from historical discoveries.

1.C.1.a. Organize and present data in tables and graphs and identify relationships they reveal.
Properties and States of Matter
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1.C.1.b. Interpret tables and graphs produced by others and describe in words the relationships they show.
Properties and States of Matter
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1.C.1.e. Explain how different models can be used to represent the same thing. What kind of a model to use and how complex it should be depend on its purpose. Choosing a useful model is one of the instances in which intuition and creativity come into play in science, mathematics, and engineering
The Study of Heredity
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Meiosis
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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1.D.3. Technology: Analyze the value and the limitations of different types of models in explaining real things and processes.

1.D.3.a. Explain that the kind of model to use and how complex it should be depends on its purpose and that it is possible to have different models used to represent the same thing.
The Study of Heredity
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Meiosis
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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1.D.3.b. Explain, using examples that models are often used to think about processes that happen too slowly, too quickly, or on too small a scale to observe directly, or that are too vast to be changed deliberately, or that are potentially dangerous.
The Study of Heredity
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Meiosis
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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1.D.3.c. Explain that models may sometimes mislead by suggesting characteristics that are not really shared with what is being modeled.
The Study of Heredity
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Meiosis
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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MD.2.0. Earth/Space Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the chemical and physical interactions (i.e., natural forces and cycles, transfer of energy) of the environment, Earth, and the universe that occur over time.

2.B.1. Earth History: Explain how sedimentary rock is formed periodically, embedding plant and animal remains and leaving a record of the sequence in which the plants and animals appeared and disappeared.

2.B.1.a. Explain how sedimentary rock buried deep enough may be reformed by pressure and heat and these reformed rock layers may be forced up again to become land surface and even mountains.
Rocks
There are three major groupings of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous rocks form when liquid rock cools and hardens. Sedimentary rocks: Clastic, Chemical, Biochemical or organic. Metamorphic rocks: foliated and non-foliated (or massive). Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Earthquakes
An earthquake is the result of a release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Seismographs are machines that detect and measure seismic waves caused by earthquakes. P waves, or primary seismic waves, are the fastest moving waves. They travel through solids, liquids and gases. S waves or secondary waves are slower and can travel through solids, but not liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves are called surface waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Rocks
Types of Rocks: Metamorphic: formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are put under heat and/or pressure in the Earth's crust. Igneous: Formed when crystallized through melting and cooling. Sedimentary: Formed through the accumulation of sediment. Compaction - process by which overlying pressure from rocks and soil reduces the size or volume of sediments. Rock cycle - the continental process by which rocks can be changed into different types. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Volcanoes
Earth's crust is fractured into 13 major and approximately 20 total lithospheric plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located at lithospheric plate boundaries. The belt of volcanoes along the boundary of the Pacific Ocean is called the Ring Of Fire because it contains about 75% of the world's active volcanoes. Why does a volcano erupt? When magma rises towards the surface, gas bubbles expand and increase in pressure. The force of the gas pushes the magma out of the vent and causes an eruption. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
2.B.1.c. Explain why some fossils found in the top layers of sedimentary rock are older then those found beneath in lower layers: Folding; Breaking; Uplift; Faulting; Tilting.
Earthquakes
An earthquake is the result of a release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Seismographs are machines that detect and measure seismic waves caused by earthquakes. P waves, or primary seismic waves, are the fastest moving waves. They travel through solids, liquids and gases. S waves or secondary waves are slower and can travel through solids, but not liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves are called surface waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

2.B.2. Earth History: Recognize and explain that fossils found in layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence of changing life forms.

2.B.2.a. Recognize how different types of fossils are formed, such as petrified remains, imprints, molds and casts.
Fossils
Ancient life forms have been preserved, in part and in whole, in the rock record. These preserved pieces of ancient life forms are called fossils. Fossils found in limestone are usually formed by a process called cast and mold. Petrified wood is formed by a process called petrification. In very hot, arid environments, flesh can be dried out and preserved indefinitely. This process is called mummification. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
2.B.2.b. Recognize and explain that the fossil record of plants and animals describes changes in life forms over time.
Introduction to earth science
The field of Geology includes a number of specialized disciplines including: Mineralogy - the study of minerals, Paleontology - the study of fossils, Petrology - the study of rocks, Geophysics - the study of the physics of the Earth and its atmosphere, Meteorology - the study of weather and weather prediction, Seismology - the study of earthquakes, and Volcanology - the study of volcanoes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Fossils
Ancient life forms have been preserved, in part and in whole, in the rock record. These preserved pieces of ancient life forms are called fossils. Fossils found in limestone are usually formed by a process called cast and mold. Petrified wood is formed by a process called petrification. In very hot, arid environments, flesh can be dried out and preserved indefinitely. This process is called mummification. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Plate Tectonics
The Earth's layers: crust, mantle, core. Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of plates of the Earth's crust over hot mantle rock. Plate tectonics are active on Earth since the very beginning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

2.D.1. Astronomy: Identify and describe the components of the universe.

2.D.1.a. Recognize that a galaxy contains billions of stars that cannot be distinguished by the unaided eye because of their great distance from Earth, and that there are billions of galaxies.
Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Stars do not just exist randomly throughout the universe. They are clustered in large groups. Large groups of stars in space are called galaxies. Our galaxy is called The Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that there are from 200 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Our Solar System
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2.D.1.b. Identify that our solar system is a component of the Milky Way Galaxy.
Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Stars do not just exist randomly throughout the universe. They are clustered in large groups. Large groups of stars in space are called galaxies. Our galaxy is called The Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that there are from 200 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Our Solar System
Solar systems begin in the dust and gas clouds found in between the stars. The dust is composed of elements like iron and carbon. The gas is hydrogen and helium. These dusty clouds are called nebulae. Here these particles start to come together to form planets. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Our Solar System
The Sun is by far the most massive object in the Solar System, therefore gravitationally dominating all other members of the Solar System. The Sun is a star that gives off radiant energy that drives Earth systems and is essential for life. The Solar System consists of comets, asteroids, planets, and their respective satellites, most of which orbit the Sun on a plane called the ecliptic. The planets in our Solar System revolve in the same direction around the Sun in elliptical orbits that are very close to being in the same plane. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Our Solar System
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2.D.1.d. Identify and describe the type, size, and scale, of the Milky Way Galaxy.
Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Stars do not just exist randomly throughout the universe. They are clustered in large groups. Large groups of stars in space are called galaxies. Our galaxy is called The Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that there are from 200 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Our Solar System
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2.D.2. Astronomy: Identify and explain celestial phenomena using the regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system.

2.D.2.a. Identify and describe the relationships among the period of revolution of a planet, the length of its solar year, and its distance from the sun.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.2.b. Identify and explain the relationship between the rotation of a planet or moon on its axis and the length of the solar day for that celestial object.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.2.c. Identify and explain the cause of the phases of the moon.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.2.d. Describe how lunar and solar eclipses occur.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.2.e. Identify and describe how the shape and location of the orbits of asteroids and comets affect their periods of revolution.
Our Solar System
Solar systems begin in the dust and gas clouds found in between the stars. The dust is composed of elements like iron and carbon. The gas is hydrogen and helium. These dusty clouds are called nebulae. Here these particles start to come together to form planets. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Our Solar System
The Sun is by far the most massive object in the Solar System, therefore gravitationally dominating all other members of the Solar System. The Sun is a star that gives off radiant energy that drives Earth systems and is essential for life. The Solar System consists of comets, asteroids, planets, and their respective satellites, most of which orbit the Sun on a plane called the ecliptic. The planets in our Solar System revolve in the same direction around the Sun in elliptical orbits that are very close to being in the same plane. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Our Solar System
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2.D.3. Astronomy: Recognize and explain the effects of the tilt of Earth's axis.

2.D.3.a. Recognize and describe that Earth's axis is tilted about 23 1/4 degrees from vertical with respect to the plane of its orbit and points in the same direction during the year.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.3.b. Recognize and describe that the tilt of Earth's axis causes: Changes in the angle of the sun in the sky during the year; Seasonal differences in the northern and southern latitudes.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
2.D.3.c. Recognize and describe how the tilt of Earth's axis affects the climate in Maryland.
Climate
One key factor affecting climate is latitude. Because the Earth is a globe, the sun’s rays hit the equator more directly than they do near the poles. A second factor is that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis as it rotates around the sun. As it does, the Northern and Southern hemispheres are either pointing toward or away from the sun’s rays. Consequently, lands near the equator have smaller temperature fluctuations throughout the year. The climate is predictably warm and humid. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Earth`s Climate
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2.D.4. Astronomy: Recognize and explain how the force of gravity causes the tides.

2.D.4.a. Identify and describe the cause of high and low tides.
The Sun-Earth-Moon System
The Earth is simultaneously spinning on its axis(rotation) and revolving around the sun. As viewed from space, the Earth rotates counter-clockwise. This is called prograde rotation. Planets that spin clockwise are said to have retrograde rotation. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5

2.E.1. Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere: Cite evidence to explain the relationship between the hydrosphere and atmosphere.

2.E.1.a. Describe the composition of the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
Earth's Atmosphere
FreeThe Earth is unique in our solar system because it has an atmosphere that can support life. By comparison, Venus has an atmosphere that is high in ammonia and other caustic gases; it is so dense that it would crush a human. On the other hand, Mars has no atmosphere at all. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :6
Earth`s Climate
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2.E.1.b. Recognize and describe the water cycle as the distribution and circulation of Earth's water through the glaciers, surface water, groundwater, oceans, and atmosphere.
Earth's Fresh Water
Fresh water moves over the surface by an interconnected system of streams and rivers. Small streams that feed water into larger rivers are called tributaries. Rivers are closely interconnected and flow from higher to lower elevations where the water collects in larger and larger rivers until it ultimately flows into the oceans. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Understanding Weather
The global winds in the Northern hemisphere curve to the right. The global winds in the Southern hemisphere curve to the left. One would expect them to travel in a straight line, but the Earth’s rotation on its axis causes them to curve. This is due to the Coriolis effect. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
2.E.1.c. Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation in a geographic area are affected by surface features and changes in atmospheric and ocean content: Relative location of mountains; Volcanic eruptions; Proximity to large bodies of water; Heat energy of ocean currents.
The Movement of Ocean Water
The crest of a wave is the highest point of the wave. The lowest point of a wave is the trough. The distance between two adjacent crests is the wavelength. The wave height or wave amplitude is the distance from the crest to the trough. The wave frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Climate
One key factor affecting climate is latitude. Because the Earth is a globe, the sun’s rays hit the equator more directly than they do near the poles. A second factor is that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis as it rotates around the sun. As it does, the Northern and Southern hemispheres are either pointing toward or away from the sun’s rays. Consequently, lands near the equator have smaller temperature fluctuations throughout the year. The climate is predictably warm and humid. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Earth`s Climate
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2.E.3. Interactions of Hydrosphere and Atmosphere: Recognize and describe the various factors that affect climate.

2.E.3.a. Identify and describe how the temperature and precipitation of an area are affected by surface and ocean features: Relative location of mountains; Proximity to large bodies of water; Warm and cold ocean currents.
The Movement of Ocean Water
The crest of a wave is the highest point of the wave. The lowest point of a wave is the trough. The distance between two adjacent crests is the wavelength. The wave height or wave amplitude is the distance from the crest to the trough. The wave frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Climate
One key factor affecting climate is latitude. Because the Earth is a globe, the sun’s rays hit the equator more directly than they do near the poles. A second factor is that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis as it rotates around the sun. As it does, the Northern and Southern hemispheres are either pointing toward or away from the sun’s rays. Consequently, lands near the equator have smaller temperature fluctuations throughout the year. The climate is predictably warm and humid. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Earth`s Climate
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2.E.3.b. Recognize and describe the global effects of volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, and El Nino.
The Movement of Ocean Water
The crest of a wave is the highest point of the wave. The lowest point of a wave is the trough. The distance between two adjacent crests is the wavelength. The wave height or wave amplitude is the distance from the crest to the trough. The wave frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Climate
One key factor affecting climate is latitude. Because the Earth is a globe, the sun’s rays hit the equator more directly than they do near the poles. A second factor is that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis as it rotates around the sun. As it does, the Northern and Southern hemispheres are either pointing toward or away from the sun’s rays. Consequently, lands near the equator have smaller temperature fluctuations throughout the year. The climate is predictably warm and humid. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Our impact on earth
Any waste substance that is added to a natural system in amounts greater than that natural system can break it down or eliminate it is called pollution. The waste substance itself is the pollutant. A natural resource that can be replenished is called a renewable resource. In most cases, water is a renewable resource. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth`s Climate
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2.E.3.c. Identify and describe how various tools are used to collect weather data and forecast weather conditions: Barometer; Thermometer; Anemometer; Psychrometer.
Weather patterns
Air masses are extensive bodies of air that have similar temperatures and water content throughout. The boundary or line delineating different air masses is the weather front. A small weather system that has intense energy that creates heavy rains, high winds, and lightning is called a thunderstorm. A hurricane is an extremely large, tropical, rotating weather system that has sustained winds of at least 119 km/hr. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4

MD.3.0. Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.

3.D.1. Evolution: Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes.

3.D.1.a. Recognize and describe that gradual (climatic) and sudden (floods and fires) changes in environmental conditions affect the survival of organisms and populations.
Our impact on earth
Any waste substance that is added to a natural system in amounts greater than that natural system can break it down or eliminate it is called pollution. The waste substance itself is the pollutant. A natural resource that can be replenished is called a renewable resource. In most cases, water is a renewable resource. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth`s Climate
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
3.D.1.b. Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
The Evolution and interaction of Living Things
Over 3.5 billion years ago, the Earth was much different than it is today. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere was made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. All of these gases are still on Earth today, but in different quantities. The gases in Earth's atmosphere include: Nitrogen - 78 percent, Oxygen - 21 percent, Argon - 0.93 percent, Carbon dioxide - 0.04 percent, Trace amounts of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen, as well as water vapor. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
3.D.1.c. Recognize and describe that adaptation and speciation involve the selection of natural variations in a population.
The Evolution and interaction of Living Things
Over 3.5 billion years ago, the Earth was much different than it is today. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere was made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. All of these gases are still on Earth today, but in different quantities. The gases in Earth's atmosphere include: Nitrogen - 78 percent, Oxygen - 21 percent, Argon - 0.93 percent, Carbon dioxide - 0.04 percent, Trace amounts of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen, as well as water vapor. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
3.D.1.e. Recognize that evolution accounts for the diversity of species.
The Evolution and interaction of Living Things
Over 3.5 billion years ago, the Earth was much different than it is today. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere was made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. All of these gases are still on Earth today, but in different quantities. The gases in Earth's atmosphere include: Nitrogen - 78 percent, Oxygen - 21 percent, Argon - 0.93 percent, Carbon dioxide - 0.04 percent, Trace amounts of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen, as well as water vapor. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Six Kingdoms of Life
The six Kingdoms are: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi, Protists, Plants and Animals. Fungi include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba. Eubacteria are single-celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus. Animals are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MD.4.0. Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.

4.A.1. Structure of Matter: Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced. (No electron transfer)

4.A.1.a. Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
Chemical bonding
FreeChemical bonding involves only an atom's outermost electrons. These electrons are called valence electrons and because they have more energy than other electrons, they tend to be found further away from the nucleus. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Compounds - Set I
Worksheets :3
Chemical Compounds - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mixtures and Compounds
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Elements and the periodic table
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Atoms and Chemical Bonding
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
4.A.1.c. Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.
Chemical Compounds - Set I
Worksheets :3
Chemical Compounds - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mixtures and Compounds
Worksheets :3
Elements and the periodic table
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Atoms and Chemical Bonding
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2

4.B.1. Conservation of Matter: Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.

4.B.1.b. Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same.
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Equations
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.B.1.c. Give reasons to justify the statement, 'If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.'
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Equations
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

4.C.1. States of Matter: Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased.

4.C.1.a, Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand).
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.C.1.b. Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
Solids, liquids and gases
Matter exists in three different states or phases: solid, liquids and gases or vapors. A solid has a definite shape and volume, A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape and A gas has neither a definite volume nor shape. Gases or vapors are influenced by three factors: temperature, volume and pressure. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
States of Matter
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
4.C.1.c. Formulate an explanation for the different characteristics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules.
Solids, liquids and gases
Matter exists in three different states or phases: solid, liquids and gases or vapors. A solid has a definite shape and volume, A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape and A gas has neither a definite volume nor shape. Gases or vapors are influenced by three factors: temperature, volume and pressure. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
States of Matter
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

4.D.1. Physical and Chemical Changes: Compare compounds and mixtures based on data from investigations and research.

4.D.1.b. Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties.
Chemical bonding
FreeChemical bonding involves only an atom's outermost electrons. These electrons are called valence electrons and because they have more energy than other electrons, they tend to be found further away from the nucleus. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Compounds - Set I
Worksheets :3
Chemical Compounds - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mixtures and Compounds
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Elements and the periodic table
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Atoms and Chemical Bonding
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
4.D.1.c. Analyze the results of research completed to develop a comparison of compounds and mixtures.
Chemical bonding
FreeChemical bonding involves only an atom's outermost electrons. These electrons are called valence electrons and because they have more energy than other electrons, they tend to be found further away from the nucleus. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Compounds - Set I
Worksheets :3
Chemical Compounds - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mixtures and Compounds
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Elements and the periodic table
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Atoms and Chemical Bonding
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2

4.D.2. Physical and Chemical Changes: Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of substances.

4.D.2.a. Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances: Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning; Reacts with acids; Reacts with bases.
Introduction to matter
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Some of its properties are physical and would include such things as color, volume and weight. Other properties are chemical and deal with how matter chemically reacts with other materials. Matter can undergo both physical and chemical changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Oxidation, Reduction and Electrochemistry
Worksheets :3

4.D.3. Physical and Chemical Changes: Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.

4.D.3.a. Investigate and describe the occurrence of chemical reactions using the following evidence: Color change; Formation of a precipitate or gas; Release of heat or light.
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Kinetics and Equilibrium
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.D.3.b. Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates: Change in temperature; Acidity.
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Kinetics and Equilibrium
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.D.3.c. Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction.
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.D.3.d. Provide data from investigations to support the fact that energy is transformed during chemical reactions.
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Kinetics and Equilibrium
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
4.D.3.e. Provide examples to explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MD.5.0. Physics: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

5.A.1. Mechanics: Develop an explanation of motion using the relationships among time, distance, velocity, and acceleration.

5.A.1.a. Observe, describe, and compare the motions of objects using position, speed, velocity, and the direction.
Motion
When motion occurs, there is speed and velocity. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time it took to travel. Velocity has an additional component. Velocity tells you how fast an object is going and where it is going. Therefore, if two objects have the same speed, but are going in different directions, they will have different velocities. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.1.b. Based on data given or collected, graph and calculate average speed using distance and time.
Motion
When motion occurs, there is speed and velocity. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time it took to travel. Velocity has an additional component. Velocity tells you how fast an object is going and where it is going. Therefore, if two objects have the same speed, but are going in different directions, they will have different velocities. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.1.c. Compare accelerated and constant motions using time, distance, and velocity.
Motion
When motion occurs, there is speed and velocity. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time it took to travel. Velocity has an additional component. Velocity tells you how fast an object is going and where it is going. Therefore, if two objects have the same speed, but are going in different directions, they will have different velocities. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.1.d. Describe and calculate acceleration using change in the speed and time.
Motion
When motion occurs, there is speed and velocity. Speed is calculated by dividing the distance traveled by the time it took to travel. Velocity has an additional component. Velocity tells you how fast an object is going and where it is going. Therefore, if two objects have the same speed, but are going in different directions, they will have different velocities. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

5.A.2. Mechanics: Identify and relate formal ideas (Newton's Laws) about the interaction of force and motion to real world experiences.

5.A.2.a. Investigate and explain the interaction of force and motion that causes objects that are at rest to move.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.2.b. Demonstrate and explain, through a variety of examples, that moving objects will stay in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.2.c. Investigate and collect data from multiple trials, about the motion that explain the motion that results when the same force acts on objects of different mass; and when different amounts of force act on objects of the same mass.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.2.d. Based on data collected and organized, explain qualitatively the relationship between net force applied to an object and its mass for a given acceleration.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.2.e. Calculate the net force given the mass and acceleration.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

5.A.3. Mechanics: Recognize and explain that every object exerts gravitational force on every other object.

5.A.3.a. Explain the difference between mass and weight: Mass is a measure of inertia; Weight is a measure of the force of gravity.
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.3.d. Recognize and cite examples showing that mass remains the same in all locations while weight may vary with a change in location (weight on Earth compared to weight on moon).
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

5.A.4. Mechanics: Recognize and explain that energy can neither be created nor destroyed; rather it changes form or is transferred through the action of forces.

5.A.4.a. Observe and describe the relationship between the distance an object is moved by a force and the change in its potential energy or kinetic energy, such as in a slingshot, in mechanical toys, the position of an object and its potential energy.
Forces
Force is a pull or a push and its strength is measured in units called newtons and represented by the symbol F. Forces can act in combination and produce what is referred to as net force. Gravity is a type of force that pulls objects towards each other and toward the earth. Newton’s first law is that an object that is at rest will remain at rest and that an object in motion will continue in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.4.b. Identify the relationship between the amount of energy transferred (work) to the product of the applied force and the distance moved in the direction of that force.
Work and machines
Work is the exertion of force through a distance. The formula for its calculation is: work =force x distance. For an example, if 5 newtons of force were applied for 5 meters, the amount of work done would be 25Nm. Mechanical advantage = output force/input force. For example, if a machine takes the force coming in and multiplies it three times, the mechanical advantage would be 3. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Energy and energy resources
Mechanical energy is the energy of a moving object such as an airplane in flight. Thermal energy or heat energy: When a sidewalk warms up from the sun it now has thermal energy. Electrical energy speaks for itself. Whenever electricity is used, its energy is being used. Chemical energy is the energy that gets released when chemical bonds are broken. Electromagnetic energy is energy that travels in waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Work, Power & Simple Machines
. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
5.A.4.c. Identify and describe that simple machines (levers and inclined planes) may reduce the amount of effort required to do work: Calculate input and output work using force and distance; Demonstrate that input work is always greater than output work.
Work and machines
Work is the exertion of force through a distance. The formula for its calculation is: work =force x distance. For an example, if 5 newtons of force were applied for 5 meters, the amount of work done would be 25Nm. Mechanical advantage = output force/input force. For example, if a machine takes the force coming in and multiplies it three times, the mechanical advantage would be 3. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Energy and energy resources
Mechanical energy is the energy of a moving object such as an airplane in flight. Thermal energy or heat energy: When a sidewalk warms up from the sun it now has thermal energy. Electrical energy speaks for itself. Whenever electricity is used, its energy is being used. Chemical energy is the energy that gets released when chemical bonds are broken. Electromagnetic energy is energy that travels in waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Work, Power & Simple Machines
. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

5.B.1. Thermodynamics: Describe and cite evidence that heat can be transferred by conduction, convection and radiation.

5.B.1.a. Based on observable phenomena, identify and describe examples of heat being transferred through conduction and through convection.
Heat and heat technology
All matter is made up of particles that vibrate with kinetic energy. This movement of particles occurs even when the temperature goes well below zero. When we use the term temperature, we are referring to the amount of thermal energy that a substance has. Thermal energy is the sum of the energy of the moving particle and the potential energy of the resting particles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Energy: Forms and Changes
Energy can have many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic energy. Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy. Thermal energy is the energy of an objects created by the motion (kinetic energy) of its particles (molecules and atoms). Chemical energy is the potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of charged particles called electrons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
5.B.1.b. Based on observable phenomena, identify examples to illustrate that radiation does not require matter to transfer heat energy.
Heat and heat technology
All matter is made up of particles that vibrate with kinetic energy. This movement of particles occurs even when the temperature goes well below zero. When we use the term temperature, we are referring to the amount of thermal energy that a substance has. Thermal energy is the sum of the energy of the moving particle and the potential energy of the resting particles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Energy: Forms and Changes
Energy can have many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic energy. Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy. Thermal energy is the energy of an objects created by the motion (kinetic energy) of its particles (molecules and atoms). Chemical energy is the potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of charged particles called electrons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
5.B.1.c. Research and identify the types of insulators that best reduce heat loss through conduction, convection, or radiation.
Heat and heat technology
All matter is made up of particles that vibrate with kinetic energy. This movement of particles occurs even when the temperature goes well below zero. When we use the term temperature, we are referring to the amount of thermal energy that a substance has. Thermal energy is the sum of the energy of the moving particle and the potential energy of the resting particles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1

5.B.2. Thermodynamics: Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another.

5.B.2.a. Identify and describe the various forms of energy that are transformed in order for systems (living and non-living) to operate: Chemical - Flashlight-Light; Mechanical - Pulleys-Motion; Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator; Chemical - Plant cells.
Introduction to matter
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Some of its properties are physical and would include such things as color, volume and weight. Other properties are chemical and deal with how matter chemically reacts with other materials. Matter can undergo both physical and chemical changes. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Energy and energy resources
Mechanical energy is the energy of a moving object such as an airplane in flight. Thermal energy or heat energy: When a sidewalk warms up from the sun it now has thermal energy. Electrical energy speaks for itself. Whenever electricity is used, its energy is being used. Chemical energy is the energy that gets released when chemical bonds are broken. Electromagnetic energy is energy that travels in waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Organic compounds
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Because there are so many of these in living things, organic chemistry is sometimes thought of as living chemistry. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Matter and Energy
Worksheets :3
States of Matter
Worksheets :3
Kinetics and Equilibrium
Worksheets :3
Organic Chemistry
Worksheets :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Energy: Forms and Changes
Energy can have many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic energy. Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy. Thermal energy is the energy of an objects created by the motion (kinetic energy) of its particles (molecules and atoms). Chemical energy is the potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of charged particles called electrons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MD.6.0. Environmental Science: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.

6.B.1. Environmental Issues: Recognize and explain how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes.

6.B.1.a. Based on data from research identify and describe how natural processes change the environment: Cyclic climate change; Sedimentation in watersheds; Population cycles; Extinction.
Earth`s Climate
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
6.B.1.b. Identify and describe how human activities produce changes in natural processes: Climate change; Loss of habitat; Introduction of nonnative species; Cycling of matter.
Climate
One key factor affecting climate is latitude. Because the Earth is a globe, the sun’s rays hit the equator more directly than they do near the poles. A second factor is that the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees on its axis as it rotates around the sun. As it does, the Northern and Southern hemispheres are either pointing toward or away from the sun’s rays. Consequently, lands near the equator have smaller temperature fluctuations throughout the year. The climate is predictably warm and humid. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Our impact on earth
Any waste substance that is added to a natural system in amounts greater than that natural system can break it down or eliminate it is called pollution. The waste substance itself is the pollutant. A natural resource that can be replenished is called a renewable resource. In most cases, water is a renewable resource. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Earth`s Climate
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Standards

NewPath Learning resources are fully aligned to US Education Standards. Select a standard below to view correlations to your selected resource:

Alabama Courses of StudyAlaska Content and Performance StandardsArizona's College and Career Ready StandardsArkansas Curriculum FrameworksCalifornia Content StandardsColorado Academic Standards (CAS)Common Core State StandardsConnecticut Core StandardsDelaware Standards and InstructionFlorida StandardsGeorgia Standards of ExcellenceHawaii Content and Performance StandardsIdaho Content StandardsIllinois Learning StandardsIndiana Academic StandardsIowa CoreKansas Academic StandardsKentucky Academic StandardsLouisiana Academic StandardsMaine Learning ResultsMaryland College and Career-Ready StandardsMaryland StandardsMassachusetts Curriculum FrameworksMichigan Academic StandardsMinnesota Academic StandardsMississippi College & Career Readiness StandardsMissouri Learning StandardsMontana Content StandardsNational STEM StandardsNebraska Core Academic Content StandardsNevada Academic Content StandardsNew Hampshire College and Career Ready StandardsNew Jersey Common Core StandardsNew Jersey Student Learning StandardsNew Mexico Content StandardsNew York State Learning Standards and Core CurriculumNext Generation Science Standards (NGSS Comprehensive)North Carolina Standard Course of StudyNorth Dakota Academic Content StandardsOhio Learning StandardsOklahoma Academic StandardsOregon Academic Content StandardsPennsylvania Core and Academic StandardsRhode Island World-Class StandardsSouth Carolina Standards & LearningSouth Dakota Content StandardsTennessee Academic StandardsTexas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR)Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)U.S. National StandardsUtah Core StandardsVermont Framework of Standards and LearningVirgin Islands Common Core StandardsVirginia Standards of LearningWashington DC Academic StandardsWashington State K–12 Learning Standards and GuidelinesWest Virginia College and Career Readiness StandardsWisconsin Academic StandardsWyoming Content and Performance Standards