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Pushing, Moving, Pulling Kindergarten Science
Me and My Family Kindergarten Science
All About Me Kindergarten Science
All About Animals Kindergarten Science

Next Generation Science Standards for Eighth Grade Science

NGSS.MS-ESS. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

MS-ESS1. Earth’s Place in the Universe - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS1-1. Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the cyclic patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.
MS-ESS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.
MS-ESS1-4. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s 4.6-billion-year-old history.
MS-ESS1.CETS. Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
MS-ESS1.CETS.1. Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
MS-ESS1.CETS.1.1. Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems.
MS-ESS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars
ESS1.A:2. Earth and its solar system are part of the Milky Way galaxy, which is one of many galaxies in the universe. (MS-ESS1-2)
ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System
ESS1.B:1. The solar system consists of the sun and a collection of objects, including planets, their moons, and asteroids that are held in orbit around the sun by its gravitational pull on them. (MS-ESS1-2), (MS-ESS1-3)ESS1.B:2. This model of the solar system can explain eclipses of the sun and the moon. Earth’s spin axis is fixed in direction over the short-term but tilted relative to its orbit around the sun. The seasons are a result of that tilt and are caused by the differential intensity of sunlight on different areas of Earth across the year. (MS-ESS1-1)ESS1.B:3. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. (MS-ESS1-2)
ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth
ESS1.C:1. The geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth’s history. Analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale. (MS-ESS1-4)

MS-ESS2. Earth’s Systems - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS2-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales.
MS-ESS2-3. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.
MS-ESS2-4. Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
MS-ESS2-5. Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.
MS-ESS2-6. Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth cause patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.
MS-ESS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-ESS2.CC.5. Energy and Matter
MS-ESS2.CC.5.1. Within a natural or designed system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter.
MS-ESS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth
ESS1.C:1. Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor at trenches. (HS.ESS1.C GBE) (secondary to MS-ESS2-3)
ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems
ESS2.A:1. All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth’s hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth’s materials and living organisms. (MS-ESS2-1)ESS2.A:2. The planet’s systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth’s history and will determine its future. (MS-ESS2-2)
ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions
ESS2.B:1. Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth’s plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. (MS-ESS2-3)
ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes
ESS2.C:1. Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land. (MS-ESS2-4)ESS2.C:2. The complex patterns of the changes and the movement of water in the atmosphere, determined by winds, landforms, and ocean temperatures and currents, are major determinants of local weather patterns. (MS-ESS2-5)ESS2.C:3. Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity. (MS-ESS2-4)ESS2.C:4. Variations in density due to variations in temperature and salinity drive a global pattern of interconnected ocean currents. (MS-ESS2-6)ESS2.C:5. Water’s movements—both on the land and underground—cause weathering and erosion, which change the land’s surface features and create underground formations. (MS-ESS2-2)
ESS2.D: Weather and Climate
ESS2.D:1. Weather and climate are influenced by interactions involving sunlight, the ocean, the atmosphere, ice, landforms, and living things. These interactions vary with latitude, altitude, and local and regional geography, all of which can affect oceanic and atmospheric flow patterns. (MS-ESS2-6)ESS2.D:2. Because these patterns are so complex, weather can only be predicted probabilistically. (MS-ESS2-5)ESS2.D:3. The ocean exerts a major influence on weather and climate by absorbing energy from the sun, releasing it over time, and globally redistributing it through ocean currents. (MS-ESS2-6)
MS-ESS2.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
MS-ESS2.SEP.2. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations - Planning and carrying out investigations in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions.
MS-ESS2.SEP.2.1. Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test design solutions under a range of conditions.

MS-ESS3. Earth and Human Activity - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS3-1. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.
MS-ESS3-2. Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.
MS-ESS3-3. Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
MS-ESS3-4. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.
MS-ESS3-5. Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
MS-ESS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-ESS3.CC.3. Stability and Change
MS-ESS3.CC.3.1. Stability might be disturbed either by sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time.
MS-ESS3.CETS. Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
MS-ESS3.CETS.1. Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World
MS-ESS3.CETS.1.1. All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment. ,
MS-ESS3.CNS. Connections to Nature of Science
MS-ESS3.CNS.1. Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World
MS-ESS3.CNS.1.1. Science knowledge can describe consequences of actions but does not make the decisions that society takes.
MS-ESS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
ESS3.A: Natural Resources
ESS3.A:1. Humans depend on Earth’s land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources. Minerals, fresh water, and biosphere resources are limited, and many are not renewable or replaceable over human lifetimes. These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes. (MS-ESS3-1)
ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3.C:1. Human activities have significantly altered the biosphere, sometimes damaging or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species. But changes to Earth’s environments can have different impacts (negative and positive) for different living things. (MS-ESS3-3)
ESS3.D: Global Climate Change
ESS3.D:1. Human activities, such as the release of greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels, are major factors in the current rise in Earth’s mean surface temperature (global warming). Reducing the level of climate change and reducing human vulnerability to whatever climate changes do occur depend on the understanding of climate science, engineering capabilities, and other kinds of knowledge, such as understanding of human behavior and on applying that knowledge wisely in decisions and activities. (MS-ESS3-5)

NGSS.MS-LS. LIFE SCIENCE

MS-LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
MS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
MS-LS1-3. Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
MS-LS1-4. Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.
MS-LS1-6. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.
MS-LS1-7. Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.
MS-LS1-8. Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.
MS-LS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-LS1.CC.3. Systems and System Models
MS-LS1.CC.3.1. Systems may interact with other systems; they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems.
MS-LS1.CC.4. Energy and Matter
MS-LS1.CC.4.1. Matter is conserved because atoms are conserved in physical and chemical processes. MS-LS1.CC.4.2. Within a natural system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter.
MS-LS1.CC.5. Structure and Function
MS-LS1.CC.5.1. Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural and designed structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.
MS-LS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS1.A: Structure and Function
LS1.A:1. All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)LS1.A:2. Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. (MS-LS1-2)LS1.A:3. In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)
LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
LS1.B:1. Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction. (MS-LS1-4)LS1.B:2. Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and specialized features for reproduction. (MS-LS1-4)LS1.B:3. Genetic factors as well as local conditions affect the growth of the adult plant. (MS-LS1-5)
LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
LS1.C:1. Plants, algae (including phytoplankton), and many microorganisms use the energy from light to make sugars (food) from carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and water through the process of photosynthesis, which also releases oxygen. These sugars can be used immediately or stored for growth or later use. (MS-LS1-6)
LS1.D: Information Processing
LS1.D:1. Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories. (MS-LS1-8)
PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
PS3.D:1. The chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars) requires an energy input (i.e., from sunlight) to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbon-based organic molecules and release oxygen. (secondary to MS-LS1-6)PS3.D:2. Cellular respiration in plants and animals involve chemical reactions with oxygen that release stored energy. In these processes, complex molecules containing carbon react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and other materials. (secondary to MS-LS1-7)

MS-LS2. Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS2-2. Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
MS-LS2-3. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.
MS-LS2-4. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
MS-LS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-LS2.CC.3. Energy and Matter
MS-LS2.CC.3.1. The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system.
MS-LS2.CC.4. Stability and Change
MS-LS2.CC.4.1. Small changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part. ,
MS-LS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
LS2.A:1. Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. (MS-LS2-1)LS2.A:4. Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared. (MS-LS2-2)
LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
LS2.B:1. Food webs are models that demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. Transfers of matter into and out of the physical environment occur at every level. Decomposers recycle nutrients from dead plant or animal matter back to the soil in terrestrial environments or to the water in aquatic environments. The atoms that make up the organisms in an ecosystem are cycled repeatedly between the living and nonliving parts of the ecosystem. (MS-LS2-3)
LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience
LS2.C:2. Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth’s terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health. (MS-LS2-5)
LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans
LS4.D:1. Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on—for example, water purification and recycling. (MS-LS2-5)

MS-LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.
MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.
MS-LS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-LS3.CC.2. Structure and Function
MS-LS3.CC.2.1. Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural and designed structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.
MS-LS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
LS1.B:1. Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary to MS-LS3-2)
LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
LS3.A:1. Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits. (MS-LS3-1)LS3.A:2. Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited. (MS-LS3-2)
LS3.B: Variation of Traits
LS3.B:1. In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other. (MS-LS3-2)LS3.B:2. In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism. (MS-LS3-1)
MS-LS3.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
MS-LS3.SEP.1. Developing and Using Models - Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
MS-LS3.SEP.1.1. Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. ,

MS-LS4. Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.
MS-LS4-5. Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.
MS-LS4-6. Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.
MS-LS4.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-LS4.CC.1. Patterns
MS-LS4.CC.1.2. Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data. ,
MS-LS4.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
LS4.A:2. Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent. (MS-LS4-2)LS4.A:3. Comparison of the embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy. (MS-LS4-3)
LS4.B: Natural Selection
LS4.B:1. Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others. (MS-LS4-4)LS4.B:2. In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring. (MS-LS4-5)
LS4.C: Adaptation
LS4.C:1. Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. (MS-LS4-6)

NGSS.MS-PS. PHYSICAL SCIENCE

MS-PS1. Matter and Its Interactions - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
MS-PS1.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-PS1.CC.1. Patterns
MS-PS1.CC.1.1. Macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structure.
MS-PS1.CC.3. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
MS-PS1.CC.3.1. Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small.
MS-PS1.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
PS1.A:1. Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (MS-PS1-1)PS1.A:2. Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. (MS-PS1-2), (MS-PS1-3)PS1.A:3. Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. (MS-PS1-4)PS1.A:4. In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. (MS-PS1-4)PS1.A:5. Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals). (MS-PS1-1)PS1.A:6. The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter. (MS-PS1-4)
PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
PS1.B:1. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-2), (MS-PS1-3), (MS-PS1-5)PS1.B:3. Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy. (MS-PS1-6)
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS3.A:1. The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal motion (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and radiation (particularly infrared and light). In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to energy transferred when two objects or systems are at different temperatures. (secondary to MS-PS1-4)PS3.A:2. Temperature is not a measure of energy; the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. (secondary to MS-PS1-4)
MS-PS1.SEP. Science and Engineering Practices
MS-PS1.SEP.1. Developing and Using Models - Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
MS-PS1.SEP.1.1. Develop a model to predict and/or describe phenomena. , MS-PS1.SEP.1.2. Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.

MS-PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.
MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.
MS-PS2-5. Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.
MS-PS2.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-PS2.CC.3. Stability and Change
MS-PS2.CC.3.1. Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and forces at different scales.
MS-PS2.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS2.A: Forces and Motion
PS2.A:1. For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). (MS-PS2-1)PS2.A:2. The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (MS-PS2-2)
PS2.B: Types of Interactions
PS2.B:1. Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects. (MS-PS2-3)PS2.B:3. Forces that act at a distance (electric and magnetic) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a ball, a charged object, or a magnet, respectively). (MS-PS2-5)

MS-PS3. Energy - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS3-1. Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.
MS-PS3-3. Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
MS-PS3-4. Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
MS-PS3-5. Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the motion energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.
MS-PS3.CC. Crosscutting Concepts
MS-PS3.CC.1. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
MS-PS3.CC.1.1. Proportional relationships (e.g. speed as the ratio of distance traveled to time taken) among different types of quantities provide information about the magnitude of properties and processes. ,
MS-PS3.CC.3. Energy and Matter
MS-PS3.CC.3.1. Energy may take different forms (e.g. energy in fields, thermal energy, energy of motion).
MS-PS3.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
PS3.A:1. Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (MS-PS3-1)PS3.A:2. A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (MS-PS3-2)PS3.A:3. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. (MS-PS3-3), (MS-PS3-4)
PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
PS3.B:1. When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (MS-PS3-5)PS3.B:3. Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (MS-PS3-3)

MS-PS4. Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer - Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.
MS-PS4-2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.
MS-PS4.DCI. Disciplinary Core Ideas
PS4.A: Wave Properties
PS4.A:1. A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. (MS-PS4-1)
PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation
PS4.B:1. When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. (MS-PS4-2)PS4.B:2. The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. (MS-PS4-2)PS4.B:4. However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves. (MS-PS4-2)

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