Virgin Islands Common Core Standards for Eighth Grade Science

Bones, muscles, and skin
FreeThe human body works very smoothly carrying out its daily functions because it is organized. The human body has different levels of organization that consist of cells(the smallest), tissues, organs, and organ systems (the largest). Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 6
Circulation and immunity
The circulatory system, otherwise known as the cardiovascular system, consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart has two separate sides, the right and left, which are separated by the septum. The septum prevents oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood. The valve prevents blood from flowing backwards in the one-way direction of the circulatory system. There are three types of blood vessels in the human body: arteries, capillaries, and veins. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Forces in fluids
Pressure is calculated by dividing force by area and is measured in units called pascals. For an example, if a force of 10 newtons was exerted over an area of 2 square centimeters, the pressure would be 5 pascals. In fluids, which are substances that can flow, pressure is the sum of each of the forces of each particle in the fluid. Examples of fluids include liquids such as water and gases such as air and helium. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Fossils
Ancient life forms have been preserved, in part and in whole, in the rock record. These preserved pieces of ancient life forms are called fossils. Fossils found in limestone are usually formed by a process called cast and mold. Petrified wood is formed by a process called petrification. In very hot, arid environments, flesh can be dried out and preserved indefinitely. This process is called mummification. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Geologic time
Age of the Earth is 4.6 billion years. Geologic time scale is a map that divides Earth history into logical segments of time. The geologic time scale is broken into divisions and subdivisions. The divisions are called eons. Eons are divided into eras, eras are divided into periods, and periods are divided into epochs. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Heat and heat technology
All matter is made up of particles that vibrate with kinetic energy. This movement of particles occurs even when the temperature goes well below zero. When we use the term temperature, we are referring to the amount of thermal energy that a substance has. Thermal energy is the sum of the energy of the moving particle and the potential energy of the resting particles. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Introduction to physical science
Safety First! Working with flames, chemicals and glassware poses many potential dangers. You should learn about safety equipment such as eye goggles, eye washes, fire blankets and fire extinguishers. In addition, while working in the lab, you should be aware of laboratory safety rules as well as familiar with the many safety symbols that often appear in the instructions that are printed for lab activity. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Light
When light hits an object, it either goes through easily, partially, or not at all. An object that lets most of the light through is said to be transparent. The colors we see depend upon which wavelengths of visible light get reflected back to our eyes. Objects appear white when they reflect all of light’s wavelengths and conversely, they look black when they reflect little or none of the wavelengths. This is why it is wise to wear light-colored clothing in the summer; your clothing doesn’t absorb the light. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Minerals
A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must: be a naturally occurring substance, be a solid substance, have an internal crystal structure and have been formed by inorganic processes (in other words, it cannot be formed by an organism). A rock, by comparison, is composed of one or more minerals or organic material (such as coal). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3
Mirrors and lenses
The reflection of light can occur in different ways. Since a mirror has a very smooth surface, all the light bouncing off of a mirror reflects in a regular manner. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Modern Genetics
The main function of a gene is to regulate the production of proteins within cells. Proteins establish the phenotype, physical characteristics, and many other traits of a particular organism. Recall from Topic 5 that DNA is made up of 4 different nitrogen bases, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Organic compounds
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Because there are so many of these in living things, organic chemistry is sometimes thought of as living chemistry. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Our Solar System
The Sun is by far the most massive object in the Solar System, therefore gravitationally dominating all other members of the Solar System. The Sun is a star that gives off radiant energy that drives Earth systems and is essential for life. The Solar System consists of comets, asteroids, planets, and their respective satellites, most of which orbit the Sun on a plane called the ecliptic. The planets in our Solar System revolve in the same direction around the Sun in elliptical orbits that are very close to being in the same plane. Read more...iWorksheets: 3
Plate tectonics
The Earth is a dynamic planet. Its interior is actually in motion! The crust on its surface is also in motion. It was not until the 20th century that geologists truly began to understand Earth's dynamic movements. New theories, supported by ever-improving technologies, have made it possible to more clearly understand the forces working within the planet we call home. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Properties of atoms
The modern atomic model suggests that an atom has two particles in the nucleus, a proton and a neutron or neutrally charged particle. All the mass of an atom is made up with these particles. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called atomic mass while the number of protons is called the atomic number. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Respiration and excretion
Air travels through the nose, pharynx, trachea, and the bronchi within the lungs. Oxygen is gained by the respiratory system and glucose is gained from the digestive system. Both the oxygen and glucose are transported around the body by the circulatory system. With every breath, we pull oxygen out of the atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, so the air that we breathe is not all taken into the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Sound
Sound is a type of longitudinal wave. As it travels through its medium, the mediums particles show areas of compression and rarefaction. Sound, at room temperature, normally travels at a speed of 343m/s. At different temperatures, sound travels at different speeds. The speed of sound is also influenced by the density and elasticity of the medium. When the frequency of sound changes as its source moves in relationship to someone listening, this is called the Doppler Effect. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Stars do not just exist randomly throughout the universe. They are clustered in large groups. Large groups of stars in space are called galaxies. Our galaxy is called The Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that there are from 200 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Endocrine system and Reproduction
The endocrine system controls long-term and short-term changes of the body and many of the daily activities of the body. The system is made up of glands, which are organs that produce and secrete chemicals. Endocrine glands release chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream, which will then be carried throughout the body. The hypothalamus is a small part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system together. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
The energy of waves
When a disturbance transfers energy from one place to another, this is referred to as a wave. Most waves, except for electromagnetic waves, require a substance or medium through which they can travel. This medium could be a solid, liquid or vapor like air. Waves requiring a medium are called mechanical waves. Amplitude: the maximum distance that the medium particles move away from their resting position when a wave is passing through. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Evolution and interaction of Living Things
Over 3.5 billion years ago, the Earth was much different than it is today. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere was made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. All of these gases are still on Earth today, but in different quantities. The gases in Earth's atmosphere include: Nitrogen - 78 percent, Oxygen - 21 percent, Argon - 0.93 percent, Carbon dioxide - 0.04 percent, Trace amounts of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen, as well as water vapor. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Movement of Ocean Water
The crest of a wave is the highest point of the wave. The lowest point of a wave is the trough. The distance between two adjacent crests is the wavelength. The wave height or wave amplitude is the distance from the crest to the trough. The wave frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
The nervous system
The nervous system gathers information from inside and outside of the body, responds to the information that it gathers and helps to maintain homeostasis. There are three different types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The three different types of neurons will work together to carry messages all throughout the nervous system. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Understanding Weather
The global winds in the Northern hemisphere curve to the right. The global winds in the Southern hemisphere curve to the left. One would expect them to travel in a straight line, but the Earth’s rotation on its axis causes them to curve. This is due to the Coriolis effect. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3

VI.CC.RST.6-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
The Digestive and nutrition
There are six different types of nutrients that the body needs. They are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. There are three main functions of the digestive system. They are to break down foods into molecules that the body can use, absorb the molecules into the blood and send them all throughout the body, and eliminate wastes from the body. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Ecosystems, food chains and food webs
Understanding food chains and food webs requires understanding the flow of energy and food sources among living things on Earth. A food chain represents a series of organisms connected by where they obtain their energy. A food web is made up of many different food chains in an ecosystem. A food web helps us understand how organisms are interrelated within an ecosystem. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :5
Chemical bonding
FreeChemical bonding involves only an atom's outermost electrons. These electrons are called valence electrons and because they have more energy than other electrons, they tend to be found further away from the nucleus. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Ecology I
Match each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
Ecology II
Match each Ecology term to its definition like Trophic level, Food web, Consumer, Energy, Herbivore and more. Which component is not recycled in an ecosystem? Why Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem? Which characteristic does creeping vine that is parasitic on other plants shares with all other heterotrophs? Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Chemical Formulas and Bonding
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Chemical Reactions
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Measurements and Calculations
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Protection, Reproduction and Cooperation
The human body protects itself with non-specific defense systems that react naturally and automatically to invading organisms. Your skin, with its layers of protective tissue, is a very strong, watertight barrier to environmental pathogens. What is an Antigen? A antigen is a molecule that immune system can recognize as either part of the body or as foreign to the body. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Moving and Controlling the Body
Tissues are collections of cells of different types that interact to support the function of the tissues, organs and overall organ system. The brain and spinal cord communicate with all other parts of the body through the nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system. Sensory neurons carry impulses toward the brains and spinal cord. Motor neurons carry impulses away from the brain and interneurons carry impulses within the brain and spinal cord. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Providing Fuel and Transportation
Food is stored and processed in your stomach, so that your body can gain access to the nutrients in the food. Your body relies on what you eat and drink to maintain healthy tissues and to generate the energy. There are six categories of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Food Chains and Food Webs
Biological dynamics of Earth. Relationships within a community: predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, commensalism. Construct a food chain. Construct a trophic-level pyramid (energy level). Compare and contrast food webs and food chains. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Six Kingdoms of Life
The six Kingdoms are: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi, Protists, Plants and Animals. Fungi include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba. Eubacteria are single-celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus. Animals are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Plate Tectonics
The Earth's layers: crust, mantle, core. Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of plates of the Earth's crust over hot mantle rock. Plate tectonics are active on Earth since the very beginning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Cell Transport
Active and Passive Cell transport. There are three main types of passive transport - Diffusion, Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion. There are two types of active transport - Primary (direct) and Secondary (indirect). Read more...iWorksheets :2Vocabulary :2
Work, Power & Simple Machines
. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Earthquakes
An earthquake is the result of a release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Seismographs are machines that detect and measure seismic waves caused by earthquakes. P waves, or primary seismic waves, are the fastest moving waves. They travel through solids, liquids and gases. S waves or secondary waves are slower and can travel through solids, but not liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves are called surface waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Pond Microlife
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Chromosomes, Genes and DNA
Chromosomes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the hereditary material in humans and most of other organisms. Specific sections of the DNA are called genes. Each gene provides the cell with different information. Each chromosome is made up of many genes. There are about about 100000 genes found on human chromosomes. A gene is made up of a particular sequence of DNA bases. This sequence acts as a code for a protein. The production of different proteins determines the trait (inherited characteristic) of an organism. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Mitosis
Structures and functions of living organisms: Cells, Tissues, Organs, and Organ Systems. Differentiate between the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Describe different cell parts and their functions. Read more...iWorksheets :2Vocabulary :2
The Study of Heredity
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Our Solar System
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Earth`s Surface
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Properties and States of Matter
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Earth`s Climate
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Photosynthesis and Respiration
What is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is the process that green plants use to capture energy from the Sun and convert it to food. Plants produce oxygen and food in the form of sugar during the process of Photosynthesis. It occurs in two stages. The first stage occurs when light is captured by the chlorophyll pigments in the leaves and converted to energy in the chloroplast. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Rocks
Types of Rocks: Metamorphic: formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are put under heat and/or pressure in the Earth's crust. Igneous: Formed when crystallized through melting and cooling. Sedimentary: Formed through the accumulation of sediment. Compaction - process by which overlying pressure from rocks and soil reduces the size or volume of sediments. Rock cycle - the continental process by which rocks can be changed into different types. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Volcanoes
Earth's crust is fractured into 13 major and approximately 20 total lithospheric plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located at lithospheric plate boundaries. The belt of volcanoes along the boundary of the Pacific Ocean is called the Ring Of Fire because it contains about 75% of the world's active volcanoes. Why does a volcano erupt? When magma rises towards the surface, gas bubbles expand and increase in pressure. The force of the gas pushes the magma out of the vent and causes an eruption. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Meiosis
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Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
Energy: Forms and Changes
Energy can have many forms, including mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, nuclear and electromagnetic energy. Mechanical energy = potential energy + kinetic energy. Thermal energy is the energy of an objects created by the motion (kinetic energy) of its particles (molecules and atoms). Chemical energy is the potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of charged particles called electrons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Sound
Sound is the energy objects produce when they vibrate. Sound energy is a form of mechanical energy. The substance that the sound waves travel through is called the medium. A medium can be a solid, liquid or gas. In a longitudinal wave, the particles of the medium move back and forth, while the energy moves forward. Then the particles are pushed together, it is called compression. When the particles are spread apart, it is called rarefaction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :4
Light and Optics
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Elements and the periodic table
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Chemical Reactions
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
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Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.6-8.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
Earthquakes
An earthquake is the result of a release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Seismographs are machines that detect and measure seismic waves caused by earthquakes. P waves, or primary seismic waves, are the fastest moving waves. They travel through solids, liquids and gases. S waves or secondary waves are slower and can travel through solids, but not liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves are called surface waves. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
The Study of Heredity
Worksheets :2Vocabulary :2
Earth`s Surface
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Meiosis
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Atoms and Chemical Bonding
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :2
RST.6-8.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

VI.CC.WHST.6-8. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

WHST.6-8.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Moving and Controlling the Body
Tissues are collections of cells of different types that interact to support the function of the tissues, organs and overall organ system. The brain and spinal cord communicate with all other parts of the body through the nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system. Sensory neurons carry impulses toward the brains and spinal cord. Motor neurons carry impulses away from the brain and interneurons carry impulses within the brain and spinal cord. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

WHST.6-8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Text Types and Purposes

WHST.6-8.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
WHST.6-8.1(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Sound
Sound is the energy objects produce when they vibrate. Sound energy is a form of mechanical energy. The substance that the sound waves travel through is called the medium. A medium can be a solid, liquid or gas. In a longitudinal wave, the particles of the medium move back and forth, while the energy moves forward. Then the particles are pushed together, it is called compression. When the particles are spread apart, it is called rarefaction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :4
Elements and the periodic table
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WHST.6-8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.6-8.2(a) Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.6-8.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
Properties and States of Matter
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Sound
Sound is the energy objects produce when they vibrate. Sound energy is a form of mechanical energy. The substance that the sound waves travel through is called the medium. A medium can be a solid, liquid or gas. In a longitudinal wave, the particles of the medium move back and forth, while the energy moves forward. Then the particles are pushed together, it is called compression. When the particles are spread apart, it is called rarefaction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :4
Elements and the periodic table
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Standards

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