Washington DC Standards 8th Grade Science Activities
Printable Eighth Grade Science Worksheets and Study Guides.
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DC.8.1. Scientific Thinking and Inquiry: Broad Concept: Scientific progress is made by asking relevant questions and conducting careful investigations. As a basis for understanding this concept, and to address the content in this grade, students should develop their own questions and perform investigations. Students:
8.1.1. Describe how scientific knowledge is subject to modification and refinement as new information challenges prevailing theories.
8.1.11. Describe the work of pioneers of physics and cosmology such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton, Hans Christian Oersted and Andre-Marie Ampere, Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, Albert Einstein, and Lise Meitner.
8.1.12. Apply simple mathematical models to problems (e.g., formulas such as F = ma).
8.1.2. Test hypotheses that pertain to the content under study.
DC.8.2. Structure of Matter: Broad Concept: Elements have distinct macroscopic properties and atomic structures. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.2.1. Explain that all matter is made up of atoms that are far too small to see directly through an optical microscope.
8.2.10. Describe the contributions of the scientists involved with the development of current atomic theory, including John Dalton, Marie and Pierre Curie, Joseph John Thomson, Albert Einstein, Max Planck, Ernest Rutherford, Niels Bohr, and Erwin Schroedinger.
8.2.2. Construct a model of an atom and know the atom is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
8.2.3. Using a periodic chart, explain that the atoms of any element are similar to each other, but they are different from atoms of other elements. Know the atoms of a given isotope are identical to each other.
8.2.4. Diagram and describe how atoms may combine (bond) into molecules or into large crystalline arrays.
8.2.5. Know there are more than 100 elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all the living and non-living things in the universe.
8.2.6. Describe how elements can be classified, based on similar properties, into categories, including highly reactive metals, less reactive metals, highly reactive non-metals, less reactive non-metals, and some almost completely non-reactive (noble) gases.
8.2.7. Understand how an ion is an atom or group of atoms (molecule) that has acquired an electric charge by losing or gaining one or more electrons.
8.2.8. Describe how the atoms, molecules, or ions comprising an object are in constant individual motion, and explain how their average motional (kinetic) energy determines the temperature of the object and how the strength of the forces between them determines the state of matter at that temperature.
DC.8.3. Reactions: Broad Concept: Chemical reactions are processes in which atoms are rearranged into different combinations of molecules. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.3.1. Discover and explain how elements and compounds (reactants) react with each other to form products with different properties.
8.3.3. Explain how the idea of atoms, as proposed by John Dalton, explains the conservation of matter: In chemical reactions, the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, and the mass of atoms does not change significantly in chemical reactions, so their total mass stays the same.
8.3.4. Investigate how and explain that during endothermic chemical reactions heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings and in exothermic reactions heat energy is released to the surroundings.
8.3.5. Investigate and explain that reactions occur at different rates, slow to fast, and that reaction rates can be changed by changing the concentration of reactants, the temperature, the surface areas of solids and by using a catalyst.
8.3.6. Recognize that solutions can be acidic, basic, or neutral depending on the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution. Understand that because this concentration can vary over a very large range, the logarithmic (each increase of one in the pH scale is an increase of 10 times in concentration) pH scale is used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is.
DC.8.4. Density and Buoyancy: Broad Concept: All objects experience a buoyant force when immersed in a fluid. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.4.1. Demonstrate that the mass of an object is a measure of the quantity of matter it contains (measured in kg or g), and its weight (measured in N) is the magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on that much mass.
8.4.4. Determine and explain that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the fluid the object has displaced; this principle can be used to predict whether an object will float or sink in a given fluid.
DC.8.5. Conservation of Energy: Broad Concept: Energy and matter have multiple forms and can be changed from one form to another. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.5.1. Explain how energy is the ability to do work and is measured in joules (J).
8.5.10. Investigate and explain that in processes at the scale of atomic size or greater, energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form into another.
8.5.11. Compare and contrast how heat energy can be transferred through radiation, convection, or conduction.
8.5.2. Describe kinetic energy as the energy of motion (e.g., a rolling ball), and potential energy as the energy of position or configuration (e.g., a raised object or a compressed spring).
8.5.3. Investigate and explain how kinetic energy can be transformed into potential energy, and vice versa (e.g., in a bouncing ball).
8.5.4. Recognize and describe that energy is a property of many systems and can take the forms of mechanical motion, gravitational energy, the energy of electrostatic and magnetostatic fields, sound, heat, light (electromagnetic field energy)..
8.5.5. Describe that energy may be stored as potential energy in many ways, including chemical bonds and in the nucleus of atoms.
8.5.6. Explain that the sun emits energy in the form of light and other radiation, and only a tiny fraction of that energy is intercepted by the Earth.
8.5.7. Know the sun's radiation consists of a wide range of wavelengths, mainly visible light and infrared and ultraviolet radiation.
8.5.8. Investigate and explain that heat energy is a common product of an energy transformation, for example, in biological growth, the operation of machines, the operation of a light bulb, and the motion of people.
DC.8.6. Electricity and Magnetism: Broad Concept: Electricity and magnetism are related phenomena that have many useful applications in everyday life. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.6.2. Explain that when an electric current flows why there is always a magnetic field associated with it.
8.6.3. Describe the role that electromagnets play in electric motors, electric generators, and simple devices such as doorbells and earphones.
8.6.4. Explain that electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy from sources such as generators to devices in which heat, light, sound, and chemical changes are produced.
8.6.5. Know power is energy per unit time, expressed in watts, W, and 1 W = 1 J/s. Explain that devices are rated according to their power capacity or consumption.
DC.8.7. Forces: Broad Concept: When an object is subject to two or more forces at once, the effective force is the cumulative effect of all the forces. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.7.1. Recognize that a force has both magnitude and direction.
8.7.2. Observe and explain that when the forces on an object are balanced (equal and opposite forces that add up to zero), the motion of the object does not change.
8.7.3. Explain why an unbalanced force acting on an object changes the object's speed or direction of motion or both.
8.7.5. Know the greater the mass of an object, the more force is needed to change its motion.
8.7.7. Graph and interpret distance vs. time graphs for constant speed.
DC.8.8. Waves: Broad Concept: Waves have characteristic properties that are common to all types of wave. As a basis for understanding this concept, students:
8.8.1. Observe and explain how waves carry energy from one place to another.
8.8.2. Explain how a mechanical wave is a disturbance that propagates through a medium.
8.8.3. Explain how electromagnetic waves differ from mechanical waves in that they do not need a medium for propagation; nevertheless, they can be described by many of the same quantities: amplitude, wavelength, frequency (or period), and wave speed.
8.8.4. Investigate and explain how sound in a fluid (e.g., air) is a longitudinal wave whose speed depends on the properties of the fluid in which it propagates.
8.8.5. Investigate and explain how light waves, sound waves, and other waves move at different speeds in different materials.
8.8.6. Demonstrate that vibrations in materials set up wave disturbances, such as sound and earthquake waves, that spread away from the source.
8.8.7. Recognize that human eyes respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum (red through violet) called visible light.
8.8.8. Summarize how something can be 'seen' when light waves emitted or reflected by an object enter the eye just as something can be 'heard' when sound waves from it enter the ear.
8.8.9. Explain that waves obey the superposition principle: Many waves can pass through the same point at once, and the wave amplitude at that point is the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves.
DC.CC.6-8.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
6-8.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
6-8.RST.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
6-8.RST.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
DC.CC.6-8.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Production and Distribution of Writing
6-8.WHST.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
6-8.WHST.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
Text Types and Purposes
6-8.WHST.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
6-8.WHST.1.e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
6-8.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
6-8.WHST.2.a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
6-8.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
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