Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards for Eighth Grade Science

Bones, muscles, and skin
FreeThe human body works very smoothly carrying out its daily functions because it is organized. The human body has different levels of organization that consist of cells(the smallest), tissues, organs, and organ systems (the largest). Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 6
Chemical bonding
FreeChemical bonding involves only an atom's outermost electrons. These electrons are called valence electrons and because they have more energy than other electrons, they tend to be found further away from the nucleus. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Chemical reactions
When a chemical reaction occurs, the original substances put together, called reactants, lose their chemical properties and become different substances called products with a different set of chemical properties. Reactions where energy is released are called exothermic reactions. When energy is absorbed, it is called an endothermic reaction. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Circulation and immunity
The circulatory system, otherwise known as the cardiovascular system, consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart has two separate sides, the right and left, which are separated by the septum. The septum prevents oxygen-rich blood from mixing with oxygen-poor blood. The valve prevents blood from flowing backwards in the one-way direction of the circulatory system. There are three types of blood vessels in the human body: arteries, capillaries, and veins. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
An earthquake is the result of a release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Seismographs are machines that detect and measure seismic waves caused by earthquakes. P waves, or primary seismic waves, are the fastest moving waves. They travel through solids, liquids and gases. S waves or secondary waves are slower and can travel through solids, but not liquids. The slowest and most destructive seismic waves are called surface waves. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Forces in fluids
Pressure is calculated by dividing force by area and is measured in units called pascals. For an example, if a force of 10 newtons was exerted over an area of 2 square centimeters, the pressure would be 5 pascals. In fluids, which are substances that can flow, pressure is the sum of each of the forces of each particle in the fluid. Examples of fluids include liquids such as water and gases such as air and helium. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Ancient life forms have been preserved, in part and in whole, in the rock record. These preserved pieces of ancient life forms are called fossils. Fossils found in limestone are usually formed by a process called cast and mold. Petrified wood is formed by a process called petrification. In very hot, arid environments, flesh can be dried out and preserved indefinitely. This process is called mummification. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Geologic time
Age of the Earth is 4.6 billion years. Geologic time scale is a map that divides Earth history into logical segments of time. The geologic time scale is broken into divisions and subdivisions. The divisions are called eons. Eons are divided into eras, eras are divided into periods, and periods are divided into epochs. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Heat and heat technology
All matter is made up of particles that vibrate with kinetic energy. This movement of particles occurs even when the temperature goes well below zero. When we use the term temperature, we are referring to the amount of thermal energy that a substance has. Thermal energy is the sum of the energy of the moving particle and the potential energy of the resting particles. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Introduction to physical science
Safety First! Working with flames, chemicals and glassware poses many potential dangers. You should learn about safety equipment such as eye goggles, eye washes, fire blankets and fire extinguishers. In addition, while working in the lab, you should be aware of laboratory safety rules as well as familiar with the many safety symbols that often appear in the instructions that are printed for lab activity. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
When light hits an object, it either goes through easily, partially, or not at all. An object that lets most of the light through is said to be transparent. The colors we see depend upon which wavelengths of visible light get reflected back to our eyes. Objects appear white when they reflect all of light’s wavelengths and conversely, they look black when they reflect little or none of the wavelengths. This is why it is wise to wear light-colored clothing in the summer; your clothing doesn’t absorb the light. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
A mineral, by definition, must meet four criteria. It must: be a naturally occurring substance, be a solid substance, have an internal crystal structure and have been formed by inorganic processes (in other words, it cannot be formed by an organism). A rock, by comparison, is composed of one or more minerals or organic material (such as coal). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3
Mirrors and lenses
The reflection of light can occur in different ways. Since a mirror has a very smooth surface, all the light bouncing off of a mirror reflects in a regular manner. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Modern Genetics
The main function of a gene is to regulate the production of proteins within cells. Proteins establish the phenotype, physical characteristics, and many other traits of a particular organism. Recall from Topic 5 that DNA is made up of 4 different nitrogen bases, Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), and Cytosine (C). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Organic compounds
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds. Because there are so many of these in living things, organic chemistry is sometimes thought of as living chemistry. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Our Solar System
The Sun is by far the most massive object in the Solar System, therefore gravitationally dominating all other members of the Solar System. The Sun is a star that gives off radiant energy that drives Earth systems and is essential for life. The Solar System consists of comets, asteroids, planets, and their respective satellites, most of which orbit the Sun on a plane called the ecliptic. The planets in our Solar System revolve in the same direction around the Sun in elliptical orbits that are very close to being in the same plane. Read more...iWorksheets: 3
Plate tectonics
The Earth is a dynamic planet. Its interior is actually in motion! The crust on its surface is also in motion. It was not until the 20th century that geologists truly began to understand Earth's dynamic movements. New theories, supported by ever-improving technologies, have made it possible to more clearly understand the forces working within the planet we call home. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Properties of atoms
The modern atomic model suggests that an atom has two particles in the nucleus, a proton and a neutron or neutrally charged particle. All the mass of an atom is made up with these particles. The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called atomic mass while the number of protons is called the atomic number. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Respiration and excretion
Air travels through the nose, pharynx, trachea, and the bronchi within the lungs. Oxygen is gained by the respiratory system and glucose is gained from the digestive system. Both the oxygen and glucose are transported around the body by the circulatory system. With every breath, we pull oxygen out of the atmosphere. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gases, so the air that we breathe is not all taken into the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Types of Rocks: Metamorphic: formed when igneous or sedimentary rocks are put under heat and/or pressure in the Earth's crust. Igneous: Formed when crystallized through melting and cooling. Sedimentary: Formed through the accumulation of sediment. Compaction - process by which overlying pressure from rocks and soil reduces the size or volume of sediments. Rock cycle - the continental process by which rocks can be changed into different types. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 2
Sound is a type of longitudinal wave. As it travels through its medium, the mediums particles show areas of compression and rarefaction. Sound, at room temperature, normally travels at a speed of 343m/s. At different temperatures, sound travels at different speeds. The speed of sound is also influenced by the density and elasticity of the medium. When the frequency of sound changes as its source moves in relationship to someone listening, this is called the Doppler Effect. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Stars, Galaxies and the Universe
Stars do not just exist randomly throughout the universe. They are clustered in large groups. Large groups of stars in space are called galaxies. Our galaxy is called The Milky Way. Astronomers estimate that there are from 200 billion to 400 billion stars in the Milky Way. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Digestive and nutrition
There are six different types of nutrients that the body needs. They are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, vitamins, and water. There are three main functions of the digestive system. They are to break down foods into molecules that the body can use, absorb the molecules into the blood and send them all throughout the body, and eliminate wastes from the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
The Endocrine system and Reproduction
The endocrine system controls long-term and short-term changes of the body and many of the daily activities of the body. The system is made up of glands, which are organs that produce and secrete chemicals. Endocrine glands release chemicals called hormones into the bloodstream, which will then be carried throughout the body. The hypothalamus is a small part of the brain that links the nervous system and the endocrine system together. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
The energy of waves
When a disturbance transfers energy from one place to another, this is referred to as a wave. Most waves, except for electromagnetic waves, require a substance or medium through which they can travel. This medium could be a solid, liquid or vapor like air. Waves requiring a medium are called mechanical waves. Amplitude: the maximum distance that the medium particles move away from their resting position when a wave is passing through. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Evolution and interaction of Living Things
Over 3.5 billion years ago, the Earth was much different than it is today. Scientists believe that early Earth’s atmosphere was made up of nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. All of these gases are still on Earth today, but in different quantities. The gases in Earth's atmosphere include: Nitrogen - 78 percent, Oxygen - 21 percent, Argon - 0.93 percent, Carbon dioxide - 0.04 percent, Trace amounts of neon, helium, methane, krypton and hydrogen, as well as water vapor. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
The Movement of Ocean Water
The crest of a wave is the highest point of the wave. The lowest point of a wave is the trough. The distance between two adjacent crests is the wavelength. The wave height or wave amplitude is the distance from the crest to the trough. The wave frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
The nervous system
The nervous system gathers information from inside and outside of the body, responds to the information that it gathers and helps to maintain homeostasis. There are three different types of neurons: sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. The three different types of neurons will work together to carry messages all throughout the nervous system. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Understanding Weather
The global winds in the Northern hemisphere curve to the right. The global winds in the Southern hemisphere curve to the left. One would expect them to travel in a straight line, but the Earth’s rotation on its axis causes them to curve. This is due to the Coriolis effect. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3
Earth's crust is fractured into 13 major and approximately 20 total lithospheric plates. Most of the Earth's volcanoes are located at lithospheric plate boundaries. The belt of volcanoes along the boundary of the Pacific Ocean is called the Ring Of Fire because it contains about 75% of the world's active volcanoes. Why does a volcano erupt? When magma rises towards the surface, gas bubbles expand and increase in pressure. The force of the gas pushes the magma out of the vent and causes an eruption. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3

MD.1.0. Skills and Processes: Students will demonstrate the thinking and acting inherent in the practice of science.

1.B.1. Applying Evidence and Reasoning: Review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and construct a logical argument about the cause-and-effect relationships in the experiment.

1.B.1.a. Verify the idea that there is no fixed set of steps all scientists follow, scientific investigations usually involve the collection of relevant evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses and explanations to make sense of the collected evidence.
The science of biology
The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Read more...iWorksheets :3

MD.3.0. Life Science: The students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.

3.D.1. Evolution: Recognize and describe that evolutionary change in species over time occurs as a result of natural variation in organisms and environmental changes.

3.D.1.b. Recognize that adaptations may include variations in structures, behaviors, or physiology, such as spiny leaves on a cactus, birdcalls, and antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
3.D.1.c. Recognize and describe that adaptation and speciation involve the selection of natural variations in a population.
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3

MD.4.0. Chemistry: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the composition, structure, and interactions of matter in order to support the predictability of structure and energy transformations.

4.A.1. Structure of Matter: Provide evidence to explain how compounds are produced. (No electron transfer)

4.A.1.a. Describe how elements form compounds and molecules.
4.A.1.b. Investigate and describe what happens to the properties of elements when they react chemically with other elements.
4.A.1.c. Based on data from investigations and research compare the properties of compounds with those of the elements from which they are made.

4.B.1. Conservation of Matter: Provide evidence to support the fact that the idea of atoms explains conservation of matter.

4.B.1.b. Cite evidence from investigations that the total mass of a system remains the same throughout a chemical reaction because the number of atoms of each element remains the same.
Chemical Equations
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4.B.1.c. Give reasons to justify the statement, 'If the number of atoms stays the same no matter how the same atoms are rearranged, then their total mass stays the same.'
Chemical Equations
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4.C.1. States of Matter: Describe how the motion of atoms and molecules in solids, liquids, and gases changes as heat energy is increased or decreased.

4.C.1.a, Based on data from investigations and video technology, describe and give reasons for what happens to a sample of matter when heat energy is added to it (most substances expand).
Matter and Energy
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4.C.1.b. Describe what the temperature of a solid, or a liquid, or a gas reveals about the motion of its atoms and molecules.
States of Matter
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4.C.1.c. Formulate an explanation for the different characteristics and behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases using an analysis of the data gathered on the motion and arrangement of atoms and molecules.
States of Matter
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4.D.1. Physical and Chemical Changes: Compare compounds and mixtures based on data from investigations and research.

4.D.1.b. Use evidence from data gathered to explain why the components of compounds cannot be separated using physical properties.
4.D.1.c. Analyze the results of research completed to develop a comparison of compounds and mixtures.

4.D.2. Physical and Chemical Changes: Cite evidence and give examples of chemical properties of substances.

4.D.2.a. Based on data from investigations and research, identify and describe chemical properties of common substances: Reacts with oxygen (rusting/tarnishing and burning; Reacts with acids; Reacts with bases.
4.D.2.b. Use information gathered from investigations using indicators to classify materials as acidic, basic, or neutral.

4.D.3. Physical and Chemical Changes: Provide evidence to support the fact that common substances have the ability to change into new substances.

4.D.3.a. Investigate and describe the occurrence of chemical reactions using the following evidence: Color change; Formation of a precipitate or gas; Release of heat or light.
4.D.3.b. Use evidence from observations to identify and describe factors that influence reaction rates: Change in temperature; Acidity.
4.D.3.c. Identify the reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction given a symbolic equation, a word equation, or a description of the reaction.
Chemical Reactions
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4.D.3.d. Provide data from investigations to support the fact that energy is transformed during chemical reactions.

MD.5.0. Physics: Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of matter and energy and the energy transformations that occur.

5.B.2. Thermodynamics: Identify and explain that heat energy is a product of the conversion of one form of energy to another.

5.B.2.a. Identify and describe the various forms of energy that are transformed in order for systems (living and non-living) to operate: Chemical - Flashlight-Light; Mechanical - Pulleys-Motion; Solar/Radiant - Solar calculator; Chemical - Plant cells.
Matter and Energy
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States of Matter
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Kinetics and Equilibrium
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Organic Chemistry
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MD.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
RST.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grade 6-8 texts and topics.

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