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Energy: Forms and Changes Seventh Grade Science
Introduction to Plants Seventh Grade Science
Forces in fluids Eighth Grade Science
Bacteria and Viruses Seventh Grade Science
Understanding Weather Eighth Grade Science
Elements and the periodic table Seventh Grade Science

Massachusetts Standards for Eighth Grade Science

MA.CC.RST.6-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
The Digestive and nutritionWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :4Ecosystems, food chains and food websWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :5Chemical bondingFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Chemical reactionsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabularies :1Ecology IWorksheets :4Vocabularies :2Ecology IIWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical Formulas and BondingWorksheets :3Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Measurements and CalculationsWorksheets :3Protection, Reproduction and CooperationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Moving and Controlling the BodyWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Providing Fuel and TransportationWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Food Chains and Food WebsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Six Kingdoms of LifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Plate TectonicsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Cell TransportWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Work, Power & Simple MachinesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2EarthquakesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Pond MicrolifeWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Chromosomes, Genes and DNAWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MitosisWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2The Study of HeredityWorksheets :2Vocabularies :2Our Solar SystemWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Earth`s SurfaceWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Properties and States of MatterWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Earth`s ClimateWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Photosynthesis and RespirationWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2RocksWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2VolcanoesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3MeiosisWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Forces and MotionWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Energy: Forms and ChangesWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3SoundWorksheets :3Vocabularies :4Light and OpticsWorksheets :4Vocabularies :3Elements and the periodic tableWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :3Vocabularies :3Atoms and Chemical BondingWorksheets :3Vocabularies :2

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.6-8.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
RST.6-8.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

MA.CC.WHST.6-8. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Production and Distribution of Writing

WHST.6-8.4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

WHST.6-8.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Text Types and Purposes

WHST.6-8.1. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
WHST.6-8.1(e) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
WHST.6-8.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
WHST.6-8.2(a) Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
WHST.6-8.2(f) Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

MA.ES. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

Earth's History

ES.5. Describe how the movement of the earth's crustal plates causes both slow changes in the earth's surface (e.g., formation of mountains and ocean basins) and rapid ones (e.g., volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).
ES.6. Describe and give examples of ways in which the earth's surface is built up and torn down by natural processes, including deposition of sediments, rock formation, erosion, and weathering.
ES.7. Explain and give examples of how physical evidence, such as fossils and surface features of glaciation, supports theories that the earth has evolved over geologic time.

Earth's Structure

ES.2. Describe the layers of the solid earth, including the lithosphere, the hot convecting mantle, and the dense metallic core.

Heat Transfer in the Earth System

ES.3. Differentiate among radiation, conduction, and convection, the three mechanisms by which heat is transferred through the earth's system.
ES.4. Explain the relationship among the energy provided by the sun, the global patterns of atmospheric movement, and the temperature differences among water, land, and atmosphere.

Mapping the Earth

ES.1. Recognize, interpret, and be able to create models of the earth's common physical features in various mapping representations, including contour maps.

The Earth in the Solar System

ES.10. Compare and contrast properties and conditions of objects in the solar system (i.e., sun, planets, and moons) to those on Earth (i.e., gravitational force, distance from the sun, speed, movement, temperature, and atmospheric conditions).
ES.11. Explain how the tilt of the earth and its revolution around the sun result in an uneven heating of the earth, which in turn causes the seasons.
ES.12. Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars.
ES.8. Recognize that gravity is a force that pulls all things on and near the earth toward the center of the earth. Gravity plays a major role in the formation of the planets, stars, and solar system and in determining their motions.
ES.9. Describe lunar and solar eclipses, the observed moon phases, and tides. Relate them to the relative positions of the earth, moon, and sun.

MA.LS. LIFE SCIENCE

Changes in Ecosystems Over Time

LS.17. Identify ways in which ecosystems have changed throughout geologic time in response to physical conditions, interactions among organisms, and the actions of humans. Describe how changes may be catastrophes such as volcanic eruptions or ice storms.
LS.18. Recognize that biological evolution accounts for the diversity of species developed through gradual processes over many generations.

Classification of Organisms

LS.1. Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar with organisms from each kingdom.

Energy and Living Things

LS.14. Explain the roles and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.
LS.15. Explain how dead plants and animals are broken down by other living organisms and how this process contributes to the system as a whole.
LS.16. Recognize that producers (plants that contain chlorophyll) use the energy from sunlight to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through a process called photosynthesis. This food can be used immediately, stored for later use, or used by other organisms.

Evolution and Biodiversity

LS.10. Give examples of ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors are causes of evolution and the diversity of organisms.
LS.11. Recognize that evidence drawn from geology, fossils, and comparative anatomy provide the basis of the theory of evolution.

Living Things and Their Environment

LS.13. Give examples of ways in which organisms interact and have different functions within an ecosystem that enable the ecosystem to survive.

Reproduction and Heredity

LS.7. Recognize that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits. These instructions are stored in the organism's chromosomes. Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.
LS.8. Recognize that hereditary information is contained in genes located in the chromosomes of each cell. A human cell contains about 30,000 different genes on 23 different chromosomes.
LS.9. Compare sexual reproduction (offspring inherit half of their genes from each parent) with asexual reproduction (offspring is an identical copy of the parent's cell).

Structure and Function of Cells

LS.2. Recognize that all organisms are composed of cells, and that many organisms are single-celled (unicellular), e.g., bacteria, yeast. In these single-celled organisms, one cell must carry out all of the basic functions of life.
LS.3. Compare and contrast plant and animal cells, including major organelles (cell membrane, cell wall, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, vacuoles).
LS.4. Recognize that within cells, many of the basic functions of organisms (e.g., extracting energy from food and getting rid of waste) are carried out. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms.

Systems in Living Things

LS.5. Describe the hierarchical organization of multicellular organisms from cells to tissues to organs to systems to organisms.
LS.6. Identify the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, protection from disease, and movement, control, and coordination) and describe ways that these systems interact with each other.

MA.PS. PHYSICAL SCIENCES

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

PS.10. Differentiate between physical changes and chemical changes.
PS.5. Recognize that there are more than 100 elements that combine in a multitude of ways to produce compounds that make up all of the living and nonliving things that we encounter.
PS.6. Differentiate between an atom (the smallest unit of an element that maintains the characteristics of that element) and a molecule (the smallest unit of a compound that maintains the characteristics of that compound).
PS.7. Give basic examples of elements and compounds.
PS.8. Differentiate between mixtures and pure substances.
PS.9. Recognize that a substance (element or compound) has a melting point and a boiling point, both of which are independent of the amount of the sample.

Forms of Energy

PS.13. Differentiate between potential and kinetic energy. Identify situations where kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy and vice versa.

Heat Energy

PS.14. Recognize that heat is a form of energy and that temperature change results from adding or taking away heat from a system.
PS.15. Explain the effect of heat on particle motion through a description of what happens to particles during a change in phase.
PS.16. Give examples of how heat moves in predictable ways, moving from warmer objects to cooler ones until they reach equilibrium.

Motion of Objects

PS.11. Explain and give examples of how the motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion, and speed.
PS.12. Graph and interpret distance vs. time graphs for constant speed.

Properties of Matter

PS.1. Differentiate between weight and mass, recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object.
PS.2. Differentiate between volume and mass. Define density.
PS.3. Recognize that the measurement of volume and mass requires understanding of the sensitivity of measurement tools (e.g., rulers, graduated cylinders, balances) and knowledge and appropriate use of significant digits.

MA.SIS. SKILLS OF INQUIRY, EXPERIMENTATION, AND DESIGN

SIS2. Design and conduct an experiment specifying variables to be changed, controlled, and measured.

SIS3. Select appropriate tools and technology (e.g., calculators, computers, thermometers, meter sticks, balances, graduated cylinders, and microscopes), and make quantitative observations.

SIS4. Present and explain data and findings using multiple representations, including tables, graphs, mathematical and physical models, and demonstrations.

SIS5. Draw conclusions based on data or evidence presented in tables or graphs, and make inferences based on patterns or trends in the data.

SIS6. Communicate procedures and results using appropriate science and technology terminology.

MA.T/E. TECHNOLOGY/ENGINEERING

T/E.1. Materials, Tools, and Machines

T/E.1.1. Given a design task, identify appropriate materials (e.g., wood, paper, plastic, aggregates, ceramics, metals, solvents, adhesives) based on specific properties and characteristics (e.g., weight, strength, hardness, and flexibility).

T/E.3. Communication Technologies

T/E.3.1. Identify and explain the components of a communication system, i.e., source, encoder, transmitter, receiver, decoder, storage, retrieval, and destination.
T/E.3.3. Identify and compare communication technologies and systems, i.e., audio, visual, printed, and mass communication.
T/E.3.4. Identify and explain how symbols and icons (e.g., international symbols and graphics) are used to communicate a message.

T/E.7. Bioengineering Technologies

T/E.7.2. Describe and explain adaptive and assistive bioengineered products, e.g., food, bio-fuels, irradiation, integrated pest management.

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