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American Symbols & HolidaysMemorial Day
Living and Nonliving Kindergarten Science
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Measurement Second Grade Math
Relative Position First Grade Math
Position Kindergarten Math

Virginia Standards for Eighth Grade Science

Circulation and immunityWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 7Forces in fluidsWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 1FossilsWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 2Geologic timeWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Introduction to physical scienceWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 1MineralsWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 3Organic compoundsWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 1Our Solar SystemWorksheets: 3Plate tectonicsWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 7Respiration and excretionWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 4RocksWorksheets: 3Vocabulary: 2Stars, Galaxies and the UniverseWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 2The Digestive and nutritionWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 4The endocrine system and ReproductionWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 5The energy of wavesWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 2The Movement of Ocean WaterWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 1The nervous systemWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 5Understanding WeatherWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary: 3

VA.7-8. Virginia 2010 Science Standards of Learning


LS.1. The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
LS.1.b) A classification system is developed based on multiple attributes.
LS.1.c) Triple beam and electronic balances, thermometers, metric rulers, graduated cylinders, and probeware are used to gather data.
LS.1.d) Models and simulations are constructed and used to illustrate and explain phenomena.
LS.1.f) Dependent variables, independent variables, and constants are identified.
LS.1.g) Variables are controlled to test hypotheses, and trials are repeated.
LS.1.h) Data are organized, communicated through graphical representation, interpreted, and used to make predictions.
LS.1.i) Patterns are identified in data and are interpreted and evaluated.
LS.10. The student will investigate and understand that ecosystems, communities, populations, and organisms are dynamic, change over time, and respond to daily, seasonal, and long-term changes in their environment. Key concepts include
LS.10.a) Phototropism, hibernation, and dormancy.
LS.10.c) Eutrophication, climate changes, and catastrophic disturbances.
LS.11. The student will investigate and understand the relationships between ecosystem dynamics and human activity. Key concepts include
LS.11.b) Change in habitat size, quality, or structure.
LS.11.d) Population disturbances and factors that threaten or enhance species survival.
LS.12. The student will investigate and understand that organisms reproduce and transmit genetic information to new generations. Key concepts include
LS.12.a) The structure and role of DNA.
LS.12.b) The function of genes and chromosomes.
LS.12.c) Genotypes and phenotypes.
LS.12.d) Characteristics that can and cannot be inherited.
LS.12.e) Genetic engineering and its applications.
LS.12.f) Historical contributions and significance of discoveries related to genetics.
LS.13. The student will investigate and understand that populations of organisms change over time. Key concepts include
LS.13.a) The relationships of mutation, adaptation, natural selection, and extinction.
LS.13.b) Evidence of evolution of different species in the fossil record.
LS.2. The student will investigate and understand that all living things are composed of cells. Key concepts include
LS.2.a) Cell structure and organelles.
LS.2.b) Similarities and differences between plant and animal cells.
LS.2.c) Development of cell theory.
LS.2.d) Cell division.
LS.3. The student will investigate and understand that living things show patterns of cellular organization. Key concepts include
LS.3.a) Cells, tissues, organs, and systems.
LS.3.b) Patterns of cellular organization and their relationship to life processes in living things.
LS.4. The student will investigate and understand how organisms can be classified. Key concepts include
LS.4.a) The distinguishing characteristics of domains of organisms.
LS.4.b) The distinguishing characteristics of kingdoms of organisms.
LS.4.c) The distinguishing characteristics of major animal phyla and plant divisions.
LS.5. The student will investigate and understand the basic physical and chemical processes of photosynthesis and its importance to plant and animal life. Key concepts include
LS.5.a) Energy transfer between sunlight and chlorophyll.
LS.5.b) Transformation of water and carbon dioxide into sugar and oxygen.
LS.5.c) Photosynthesis as the foundation of virtually all food webs.
LS.6. The student will investigate and understand that organisms within an ecosystem are dependent on one another and on nonliving components of the environment. Key concepts include
LS.6.a) The carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles.
LS.6.b) Interactions resulting in a flow of energy and matter throughout the system.
LS.6.c) Complex relationships within terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems.
LS.6.d) Energy flow in food webs and energy pyramids.
LS.7. The student will investigate and understand that interactions exist among members of a population. Key concepts include
LS.7.a) Competition, cooperation, social hierarchy, territorial imperative.
LS.7.b) Influence of behavior on a population.
LS.8. The student will investigate and understand interactions among populations in a biological community. Key concepts include
LS.8.a) The relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in food webs.
LS.8.b) The relationship between predators and prey.
LS.8.c) Competition and cooperation.
LS.8.d) Symbiotic relationships.
LS.9. The student will investigate and understand how organisms adapt to biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. Key concepts include
LS.9.a) Differences between ecosystems and biomes.
LS.9.b) Characteristics of land, marine, and freshwater ecosystems.
LS.9.c) Adaptations that enable organisms to survive within a specific ecosystem.


PS.1. The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic, and the nature of science by planning and conducting investigations in which
PS.1.b) Length, mass, volume, density, temperature, weight, and force are accurately measured.
PS.1.g) Data tables showing the independent and dependent variables, derived quantities, and the number of trials are constructed and interpreted.
PS.1.h) Data tables for descriptive statistics showing specific measures of central tendency, the range of the data set, and the number of repeated trials are constructed and interpreted.
PS.1.i) Frequency distributions, scatterplots, line plots, and histograms are constructed and interpreted.
PS.1.j) Valid conclusions are made after analyzing data.
PS.1.k) Research methods are used to investigate practical problems and questions.
PS.10. The student will investigate and understand the scientific principles of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include
PS.10.a) Speed, velocity, and acceleration.
PS.10.b) Newton's laws of motion.
PS.10.c) Work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, and power.
PS.10.d) Technological applications of work, force, and motion.
PS.11. The student will investigate and understand basic principles of electricity and magnetism. Key concepts include
PS.11.a) Static electricity, current electricity, and circuits.
PS.11.b) Relationship between a magnetic field and an electric current.
PS.11.c) Electromagnets, motors, and generators and their uses.
PS.2. The student will investigate and understand the nature of matter. Key concepts include
PS.2.a) The particle theory of matter.
PS.2.b) Elements, compounds, mixtures, acids, bases, and salts.
PS.2.c) Solids, liquids, and gases.
PS.2.d) Physical properties.
PS.2.e) Chemical properties.
PS.2.f) Characteristics of types of matter based on physical and chemical properties.
PS.3. The student will investigate and understand the modern and historical models of atomic structure. Key concepts include
PS.3.a) The contributions of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, and Bohr in understanding the atom.
PS.3.b) The modern model of atomic structure.
PS.4. The student will investigate and understand the organization and use of the periodic table of elements to obtain information. Key concepts include
PS.4.a) Symbols, atomic numbers, atomic mass, chemical families (groups), and periods.
PS.4.b) Classification of elements as metals, metalloids, and nonmetals.
PS.4.c) Formation of compounds through ionic and covalent bonding.
PS.5. The student will investigate and understand changes in matter and the relationship of these changes to the Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy. Key concepts include
PS.5.a) Physical changes.
PS.5.b) Chemical changes.
PS.5.c) Nuclear reactions.
PS.6. The student will investigate and understand forms of energy and how energy is transferred and transformed. Key concepts include
PS.6.a) Potential and kinetic energy.
PS.6.b) Mechanical, chemical, electrical, thermal, radiant, and nuclear energy.
PS.7. The student will investigate and understand temperature scales, heat, and thermal energy transfer. Key concepts include
PS.7.b) Phase change, freezing point, melting point, boiling point, vaporization, and condensation.
PS.7.c) Conduction, convection, and radiation.
PS.7.d) Applications of thermal energy transfer.
PS.8. The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of sound waves. Key concepts include
PS.8.a) Wavelength, frequency, speed, amplitude, rarefaction, and compression.
PS.8.b) Resonance.
PS.8.c) The nature of compression waves.
PS.9. The student will investigate and understand the characteristics of transverse waves. Key concepts include
PS.9.a) Wavelength, frequency, speed, amplitude, crest, and trough.
PS.9.c) Images formed by lenses and mirrors.
PS.9.d) The electromagnetic spectrum.
PS.9.e) Technological applications of light.

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