Indiana Academic Standards for Second Grade English Language Arts

Beginning DigraphsMany words begin with a digraph. That means two letters come together and make a brand new sound. You cannot sound out the word by using each letter’s sound because they have changed into a new sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Challenge WordsWhat are some of the most difficult words a second grader must learn to spell? Here are some words you should know how to spell and some hints to help you remember. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Continuous Action (-ing)How do you add the ING suffix to verbs? We add -ing to many verbs. But to spell them correctly, you need to remember the rules. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Ending DigraphsSpelling is easy when you recognize special digraphs. Here are some words you should know that end with digraphs. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Finding InformationHow do Charts and Illustrations Help You? Charts and illustrations are special tools to help you find information easily. They are arranged in a way that puts all the information together so that it is clear and easy to read. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Mathematics VocabularyWords associated with addition, subtraction, comparing, money, fractions, and geometry. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Past Tense (-ed)Past tense means something happened in the past. It could be many years ago, yesterday, or just a few minutes ago. Verbs change in special ways to show past tense. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Plural Ending -esPlural endings adding -es for words ending in sh, ch, x, and z. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Plural NounsWhat are plurals? Plurals are the words that change a noun to mean more than one. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
R Controlled VowelsWe know that the vowels a, e, i, o, and u can have a short or long sound. But when a vowel is followed by the letter r its sounds changes. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Rhyming WordsTo rhyme, words must have the same vowel sound and the same ending sounds. Read more...iWorksheets: 5Study Guides: 1
SyllablesWhat are Syllables? Syllables are parts of words. Each part of a word has one vowel sound in it. Be careful! You may see more than one vowel letter, but still hear only one vowel sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 5Study Guides: 1
Words with /k/What are the sounds of k? The letter k is the sound you hear when you say kiss, kid, and kind. Many words begin or end with the letter k. But the sound of /k/ is written in some different ways. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Words with Ending BlendsFreeWhat are some important ending blends? <br>If you know the following blends, it will help you spell and pronounce many words correctly. Practice saying these words aloud. Listen for the ending blends. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Words with Initial BlendsA blend means two letters are read together to make a smooth sound. Each one still makes its own sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1

READING

READING: Foundations

Phonics
2.RF.4.2 Use knowledge of the six major syllable patterns (CVC, CVr, V, VV, VCe, Cle) to decode two-syllable words, independent of context.
Syllable Patterns/Word FamiliesWord families are groups of words that have a common feature or pattern. Read more...iWorksheets :3
2.RF.4.3 Apply knowledge of short and long vowels (including vowel teams) when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
Long/Short VowelsWhat is meant by long or short vowels? Long vowels are the vowels that say their own names. Short vowel sounds do not say their names. Here’s a rule to help you know when to make a short vowel sound: A vowel is usually short if it comes at the beginning of a word or between two consonants and is the only vowel in the word or syllable. A vowel is usually long if two vowels are in the word or syllable. The first vowel is long and the second is silent. Remember when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vowel DiphthongsVowel diphthongs are vowel letters whose sounds blend smoothly together. The same sounds can be spelled using different letters. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Long and Short Vowel DiscriminationA vowel is long when it says its own name. In a dictionary or glossary it will have a straight line over it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Vowel DigraphsVowels are a, e, u, o, u, and sometimes y or w. When 2 vowels come together in a word that is a vowel digraph. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
Short Vowel DiscriminationDiscriminating between short vowel sounds with one syllable words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Short Vowel SoundWhat is a Short Vowel? The vowels are the letters, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y. Vowels make special sounds in words. They make a sound we call short. Look at these words. They all have the short vowel sound. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
oo Vowel SoundWhat are the words with a double o sound as in moon? When you see oo together in a word, it usually has the sound you hear in “Moo” so put oo in when you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RF.4.4 Recognize and read common and irregularly spelled high-frequency words and abbreviations by sight (e.g., through, tough; Jan., Fri.).
High Frequency Words IIWhat are High Frequency Words? These are words you need to know at sight. That means you read them without trying to sound them out. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words IISight words are the words a second grader should be able to recognize instantly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words IWhat are High Frequency Words? High frequency words are the sight words you need to know instantly. You do not need to sound them out or look them up in a dictionary. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
AbbreviationsAn abbreviation is a shortened form of a longer word. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words IIHigh frequency words are the words you need to recognize instantly. You do not have to figure them out, sound them out, or look them up in a dictionary. You just need to know them instantly. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words IFreeHigh frequency words are the sight words you need to know as soon as you see them. Good readers do not need to sound them out. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Sight Words IVWhat are sight words? Sight words are the words every second grader should be able to read quickly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words IIISight words are words a second grader should be able to read quickly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words IAppropriate words for spelling and definitions for 2nd graders. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Frequently Misspelled WordsWords that are often misspelled and some hints to help you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words IIHigh frequency words are those words that a third grader should be able to read quickly, without sounding them out. They appear often in stories and books read by third graders. High frequency words are also known as sight words. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words IHigh frequency words are those words that a third grader should be able to read quickly, without sounding them out. They appear often in stories and books read by third graders. High frequency words are also known as sight words. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Main IdeaWhat is a Main Idea in a Visual Message? Pictures and actions send messages without words. Here are some you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RF.4.5 Know and use common word families when reading unfamiliar words (e.g., -ale, -est, -ine, -ock).
Word FamiliesWhat is a Word Family? A word family is a group of words (or syllables) that all have the same vowel and ending sound. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Syllable Patterns/Word FamiliesWord families are groups of words that have a common feature or pattern. Read more...iWorksheets :3
2.RF.4.6 Read multi-syllabic words composed of roots, prefixes, and suffixes; read contractions, possessives (e.g., kitten’s, sisters’), and compound words.
PhonicsPhonics is a method of teaching people to read by correlating sounds with symbols in an alphabetic writing system. Read more...iWorksheets :3
NounsNoun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Root Words/Prefixes/SuffixesWhen the ending, or inflection, is taken away from a word, the word that remains is called the root word or base word. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Word Meaning with Prefixes/SuffixesPrefixes are letters placed before a root word which change the meaning of the root word. Suffixes are letters placed after the root word which change the meaning of the root word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Multiple MeaningWords with multiple meanings are words with more than one meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SuffixesA suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
PrefixesA prefix is any letter or group of letters that is added to the front of a base word to change the meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
ContractionsWhat are Contractions? A contraction is a special word made by putting together a verb and another word. Every contraction has an apostrophe to show where letters are missing from the original two words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Root WordsWhat are Root Words? Root words are sometimes called base words. A root word is the smallest form of a word before it has anything added to it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Compound WordsWhat are Compound Words? Any word made up of two small words is a compound word. Examples: foot + ball = football. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Compound WordsWhat is a Compound Word? A Compound Word is a word that is composed of two or more separate words. Examples: sea + shell = seashell, basket + ball = basketball. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
ContractionsWhat is a Contraction? A contraction is really two words squeezed together to make a new word. Some of the letters from one or both of the words go away and a special mark called an apostrophe goes in their place. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

READING: Literature

Learning Outcome
2.RL.1 Read and comprehend a variety of literature within a range of complexity appropriate for grades 2-3. By the end of grade 2, students interact with texts proficiently and independently at the low end of the range and with scaffolding as needed at the high end.
Literary GenresLiterary genre is the grownup way of saying different kinds of writing. The word genre is pronounced zhan rah. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
GenreHistorical fiction, Science fiction, biography, autobiography, folktale, fairy tale, and poetry. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Key Ideas and Textual Support
2.RL.2.2 Recount the beginning, middle, and ending of stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral.
Story RetellRetell means "tell it again." When you hear or read a story, you try to remember the important parts. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Literary GenresLiterary genre is the grownup way of saying different kinds of writing. The word genre is pronounced zhan rah. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
GenreHistorical fiction, Science fiction, biography, autobiography, folktale, fairy tale, and poetry. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main Idea/Supporting DetailsMain idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main IdeaA main idea is the most important part of a sentence or story. It tells you what it's all about. When you write or read, you keep the main idea in mind. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RL.2.3 Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and how characters affect the plot.
Literary ElementsIdentify and interpret plot, character, setting, events, character motivations and actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Story ElementsWhat are the Elements of a Story? Story elements are plot, setting, and characters. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
2.RL.2.4 Make predictions about the content of text using prior knowledge of text features, explaining whether they were confirmed or not confirmed and why.
PredictionsA prediction is what you think will happen next. You do not just guess. You use clues in the picture to decide what will happen next. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Predicting EndingsWhat Does it Mean to Predict Endings? When you read, you try to make sense of what you are reading. When you write, you need to make sense in what you are writing. When you predict an ending, you try to think of the most sensible way for the story to end. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Structural Elements and Organization
2.RL.3.1 Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
Sequential OrderSequential order is the order in which events really happened - real-life order. Something that is sequential often follows a numerical or alphabetical order. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Beginning, Middle, and EndWhy Do We Need to Learn about Beginning, Middle and End? When you read a good story, you enjoy it if it was written well. To write well, you should follow the rules of beginning, middle, and end to make it a good story. The writing process helps you have a good beginning, middle, and end. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Synthesis and Connection of Ideas
2.RL.4.1 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot.
SettingsWhat are Settings? Settings are places. <br>Schools, homes, a zoo, a street, a town or city are all settings. <br>Try this! Find a setting: a] girl b] horse c] house d] mouse Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Literary ElementsIdentify and interpret plot, character, setting, events, character motivations and actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Story ElementsWhat are the Elements of a Story? Story elements are plot, setting, and characters. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1

READING: Nonfiction

Learning Outcome
2.RN.1 Read and comprehend a variety of nonfiction within a range of complexity appropriate for grades 2-3. By the end of grade 2, students interact with texts proficiently and independently at the low end of the range and with scaffolding as needed at the high end.
Literary GenresLiterary genre is the grownup way of saying different kinds of writing. The word genre is pronounced zhan rah. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Social Studies VocabularySpelling and vocabulary words for Grade Two Social Studies. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Content VocabularySpelling in content areas including Math, Social Studies, Science, Technology, Art, and Music. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Science VocabularySpelling and vocabulary words for second grade science. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Key Ideas and Textual Support
2.RN.2.2 Identify the main idea of a multiparagraph text and the topic of each paragraph.
Main Idea/Supporting DetailsMain idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main IdeaA main idea is the most important part of a sentence or story. It tells you what it's all about. When you write or read, you keep the main idea in mind. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RN.2.3 Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, and steps in a process or procedure in a text.
Social Studies VocabularySpelling and vocabulary words for Grade Two Social Studies. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Content VocabularySpelling in content areas including Math, Social Studies, Science, Technology, Art, and Music. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Science VocabularySpelling and vocabulary words for second grade science. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Structural Elements and Organization
2.RN.3.1 Use various text features (e.g., table of contents, index, headings, captions) to locate key facts or information and explain how they contribute to and clarify a text.
Parts of a BookBooks have special parts to help you find information easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Dictionary/Thesaurus/Parts of a BookAlphabetical order, table of contents, title, author, index, glossary. Read more...iWorksheets :3
2.RN.3.3 Identify what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe in the text.
Author's Purposethe author's purpose is the reason that he or she had for writing the text. Some authors' purposes are to inform, entertain or persuade. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Synthesis and Connection of Ideas
2.RN.4.1 Describe how an author uses facts to support specific points in a text.
Main Idea/Supporting DetailsMain idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3

READING: Vocabulary

Learning Outcome
2.RV.1 Use words, phrases, and strategies acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to literature and nonfiction texts to build and apply vocabulary.
Content VocabularySpelling in content areas including Math, Social Studies, Science, Technology, Art, and Music. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Vocabulary Building
2.RV.2.1 Use context clues (e.g., words and sentence clues) and text features (e.g., table of contents, headings) to determine the meanings of unknown words.
Parts of a BookBooks have special parts to help you find information easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Context CluesIdentify the meaning of unknown words by text surrounding word. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Dictionary/Thesaurus/Parts of a BookAlphabetical order, table of contents, title, author, index, glossary. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Context CluesWhat are Context Clues? When you are reading, you will come to words you do not know. You can learn the meaning of those words by looking for the clues in the sentence around that word. The clues will help you understand the meaning of the new word even if you cannot pronounce it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RV.2.2 Identify relationships among words, including common synonyms and antonyms, and simple multiple-meaning words (e.g., change, duck).
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Double Negatives and HomophonesHomophones are words that sound the same, but have different spellings and different meanings. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
SynonymsWhat are synonyms? Synonyms are words that mean the same, or nearly the same, as other words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
AntonymsFreeAntonyms are words that mean the opposite, or nearly the opposite, as other words. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
HomophonesWhat are Homophones? Homophones are words that sound exactly alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings. They are sometimes called homonyms. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RV.2.4 Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root, and identify when a common affix is added to a known word.
Root Words/Prefixes/SuffixesWhen the ending, or inflection, is taken away from a word, the word that remains is called the root word or base word. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Word Meaning with Prefixes/SuffixesPrefixes are letters placed before a root word which change the meaning of the root word. Suffixes are letters placed after the root word which change the meaning of the root word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Multiple MeaningWords with multiple meanings are words with more than one meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SuffixesA suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
PrefixesA prefix is any letter or group of letters that is added to the front of a base word to change the meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
Root WordsWhat are Root Words? Root words are sometimes called base words. A root word is the smallest form of a word before it has anything added to it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2.RV.2.5 Consult reference materials, both print and digital (e.g., dictionary), to determine or clarify the meanings of words and phrases.
Dictionary/Thesaurus/Parts of a BookAlphabetical order, table of contents, title, author, index, glossary. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Vocabulary in Literature and Nonfiction Texts
2.RV.3.2 Determine the meanings of words and phrases in a nonfiction text relevant to a second grade topic or subject area.
Content VocabularySpelling in content areas including Math, Social Studies, Science, Technology, Art, and Music. Read more...iWorksheets :3

WRITING

WRITING

The Writing Process
2.W.4 Apply the writing process to–
Generate a draft by developing, selecting and organizing ideas relevant to topic, purpose, and genre; revise writing, using appropriate reference materials, by adding details (e.g., organization, sentence structure, word choice); edit writing for format and conventions (e.g., spelling, capitalization, usage, punctuation); and provide feedback to other writers.
Unnecessary InformationWhat is unnecessary information? When you write a paragraph, story, or report you must include all important information. Sometimes writers put in too much information. It is important to know what to include ad what to leave out. The unnecessary information is any part that does not belong. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Writing ProcessPrewrite, draft, revise, proofread, and edit. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Complete & Incomplete SentencesFreeA complete sentence begins with a capital, ends with punctuation, and makes sense. Any sentence that does not begin with a capital, end with correct punctuation, or make sense is incomplete. Read more...iWorksheets :5Study Guides :1
Conventions of Standard English: Grammar and Usage/ Capitalization, Punctuation, and Spelling
2.W.6.1 Demonstrate command of English grammar and usage, focusing on:
2.W.6.1a Nouns/Pronouns – Writing sentences that include common, proper, possessive, and collective nouns, irregular plural nouns, and personal and possessive pronouns.
NounsNoun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Proper NounsA proper noun is a special name for a particular person, place, or thing. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. If there is more than one word for a particular person, place, or thing, then the first, last, and all important words are capitalized. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
PluralsRegular and irregular plural nouns. Read more...iWorksheets :3
PronounsWhat is a Pronoun? A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. E.g. I, you we, it, they, someone. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
2.W.6.1b Verbs – Writing sentences that use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs; Understanding the functions of different types of verbs (e.g., action, linking) in sentences.
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
VerbsA verb is a word that shows action or state of being. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
2.W.6.1c Adjectives/Adverbs – Writing sentences that use adjectives and adverbs.
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Adjectives/Adverbs/Vivid LanguageWhat is an Adjective? An adjective is a word that describes a noun. When an adjective is added to a noun, the sentence becomes more interesting. Read more...iWorksheets :8Study Guides :1
2.W.6.2 Demonstrate command of capitalization, punctuation, and spelling, focusing on:
2.W.6.2a Capitalization – Capitalizing greetings, months and days of the week, titles and initials in names, and proper nouns, including holidays and geographic names.
NounsNoun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Proper NounsA proper noun is a special name for a particular person, place, or thing. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. If there is more than one word for a particular person, place, or thing, then the first, last, and all important words are capitalized. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
2.W.6.2b Punctuation – Correctly using a period, question mark, or exclamation mark at the end of a sentence; Using an apostrophe to form contractions and singular possessive nouns; Using commas in greetings and closings of letters, dates, and to separate items in a series.
NounsNoun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
GrammarGrammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Periods and Question MarksA period is a special end mark for a sentence that tells. It looks like a round circle. Read more...iWorksheets :7Study Guides :1
Capitalization/PunctuationHow Should a Sentence End? A sentence should end with a punctuation mark: period (.) for a statement. Question mark (?) for a question. Exclamation point (!) for a sentence that shows excitement. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
ContractionsWhat are Contractions? A contraction is a special word made by putting together a verb and another word. Every contraction has an apostrophe to show where letters are missing from the original two words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
ContractionsWhat is a Contraction? A contraction is really two words squeezed together to make a new word. Some of the letters from one or both of the words go away and a special mark called an apostrophe goes in their place. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
2.W.6.2c Spelling – Correctly spelling words with short and long vowel sounds, r-controlled vowels, and consonant-blend patterns; Generalizing learned spelling patterns (e.g., word families) when writing words; Correctly spelling common irregularly-spelled grade-appropriate high frequency words.
SpellingFreeSpelling: forming words with the correct letters in the correct order. Spelling three or four letter words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Frequently Misspelled WordsWords that are often misspelled and some hints to help you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Standards

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