New York State Learning Standards and Core Curriculum for Second Grade English Language Arts

Abbreviations
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a longer word. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Beginning Digraphs
Many words begin with a digraph. That means two letters come together and make a brand new sound. You cannot sound out the word by using each letter’s sound because they have changed into a new sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Challenge Words
What are some of the most difficult words a second grader must learn to spell? Here are some words you should know how to spell and some hints to help you remember. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Continuous Action (-ing)
How do you add the ING suffix to verbs? We add -ing to many verbs. But to spell them correctly, you need to remember the rules. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Ending Digraphs
Spelling is easy when you recognize special digraphs. Here are some words you should know that end with digraphs. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Homophones
What are Homophones? Homophones are words that sound exactly alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings. They are sometimes called homonyms. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Mathematics Vocabulary
Words associated with addition, subtraction, comparing, money, fractions, and geometry. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Plural Nouns
What are plurals? Plurals are the words that change a noun to mean more than one. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Predicting Endings
What Does it Mean to Predict Endings? When you read, you try to make sense of what you are reading. When you write, you need to make sense in what you are writing. When you predict an ending, you try to think of the most sensible way for the story to end. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
R Controlled Vowels
We know that the vowels a, e, i, o, and u can have a short or long sound. But when a vowel is followed by the letter r its sounds changes. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Rhyming Words
To rhyme, words must have the same vowel sound and the same ending sounds. Read more...iWorksheets: 5Study Guides: 1
Science Vocabulary
Spelling and vocabulary words for second grade science Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Social Studies Vocabulary
Spelling and vocabulary words for Grade Two Social Studies. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Suffixes
A suffix is a letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to change its meaning. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Syllables
What are Syllables? Syllables are parts of words. Each part of a word has one vowel sound in it. Be careful! You may see more than one vowel letter, but still hear only one vowel sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Unnecessary Information
What is unnecessary information? When you write a paragraph, story, or report you must include all important information. Sometimes writers put in too much information. It is important to know what to include ad what to leave out. The unnecessary information is any part that does not belong. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Verbs
A verb is a word that shows action or state of being. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Word Families
What is a Word Family? A word family is a group of words (or syllables) that all have the same vowel and ending sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Words with /k/
What are the sounds of k? The letter k is the sound you hear when you say kiss, kid, and kind. Many words begin or end with the letter k. But the sound of /k/ is written in some different ways. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Words with Ending Blends
FreeWhat are some important ending blends?
If you know the following blends, it will help you spell and pronounce many words correctly. Practice saying these words aloud. Listen for the ending blends. Read more...
iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Words with Initial Blends
A blend means two letters are read together to make a smooth sound. Each one still makes its own sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1

NY.2R. 2nd Grade Reading Standards (Literary and Informational Text)

Key Ideas and Details

2R2. Identify a main topic or central idea and retell key details in a text; summarize portions of a text.(RI&RL)
Story Retell
Retell means "tell it again." When you hear or read a story, you try to remember the important parts. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Main Idea/Supporting Details
Main idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main Idea
A main idea is the most important part of a sentence or story. It tells you what it's all about. When you write or read, you keep the main idea in mind. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2R3. In literary texts, describe how characters respond to major events and challenges. (RL) In informational texts, describe the connections between ideas, concepts, or a series of events. (RI)
Literary Elements
Identify and interpret plot, character, setting, events, character motivations and actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main Idea/Supporting Details
Main idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main Idea
A main idea is the most important part of a sentence or story. It tells you what it's all about. When you write or read, you keep the main idea in mind. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Story Elements
What are the Elements of a Story? Story elements are plot, setting, and characters. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Craft and Structure

2R5. Describe the overall structure of a text, including describing how the beginning introduces the text and the ending concludes the text. (RI&RL)
Sequential Order
Sequential order is the order in which events really happened---real-life order Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Beginning, Middle, and End
Why Do We Need to Learn about Beginning, Middle and End? When you read a good story, you enjoy it if it was written well. To write well, you should follow the rules of beginning, middle, and end to make it a good story. The writing process helps you have a good beginning, middle, and end. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2R6. Identify examples of how illustrations and details support the point of view or purpose of the text. (RI&RL)
Author's Purpose
the author's purpose is the reason that he or she had for writing the text. Some authors' purposes are to inform, entertain or persuade. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Finding Information
How do Charts and Illustrations Help You? Charts and illustrations are special tools to help you find information easily. They are arranged in a way that puts all the information together so that it is clear and easy to read. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Main Idea
What is a Main Idea in a Visual Message? Pictures and actions send messages without words. Here are some you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

2R7. Demonstrate understanding of story elements and/or topics by applying information gained from illustrations or text features. (RI&RL)
Finding Information
How do Charts and Illustrations Help You? Charts and illustrations are special tools to help you find information easily. They are arranged in a way that puts all the information together so that it is clear and easy to read. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Main Idea
What is a Main Idea in a Visual Message? Pictures and actions send messages without words. Here are some you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2R8. Explain how specific points the author makes in a text are supported by relevant reasons. (RI&RL)
Main Idea/Supporting Details
Main idea, supporting details, and irrelevant details. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Main Idea
A main idea is the most important part of a sentence or story. It tells you what it's all about. When you write or read, you keep the main idea in mind. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2R9. Identify genres and make connections between self, text, and the world. (RI&RL)
Literary Genres
Literary genre is the grownup way of saying different kinds of writing. The word genre is pronounced zhan rah. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NY.2RF. 2nd Grade Reading Standards: Foundational Skills

Phonics and Word Recognition

2RF3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
2RF3a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
Long/Short Vowels
What is meant by long or short vowels? Long vowels are the vowels that say their own names. Short vowel sounds do not say their names. Here’s a rule to help you know when to make a short vowel sound: A vowel is usually short if it comes at the beginning of a word or between two consonants and is the only vowel in the word or syllable. A vowel is usually long if two vowels are in the word or syllable. The first vowel is long and the second is silent. Remember when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Long and Short Vowel Discrimination
A vowel is long when it says its own name. In a dictionary or glossary it will have a straight line over it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Short Vowel Discrimination
Discriminating between short vowel sounds with one syllable words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Short Vowel Sound
What is a Short Vowel? The vowels are the letters, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y. Vowels make special sounds in words. They make a sound we call short. Look at these words. They all have the short vowel sound. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2RF3b. Decode short and long vowel sounds in two-syllable words (for example, peanut, sailboat, sunshine, and invite).
Long/Short Vowels
What is meant by long or short vowels? Long vowels are the vowels that say their own names. Short vowel sounds do not say their names. Here’s a rule to help you know when to make a short vowel sound: A vowel is usually short if it comes at the beginning of a word or between two consonants and is the only vowel in the word or syllable. A vowel is usually long if two vowels are in the word or syllable. The first vowel is long and the second is silent. Remember when two vowels go walking, the first one does the talking. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Phonics
Phonics is a method of teaching people to read by correlating sounds with symbols in an alphabetic writing system. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Long and Short Vowel Discrimination
A vowel is long when it says its own name. In a dictionary or glossary it will have a straight line over it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Short Vowel Discrimination
Discriminating between short vowel sounds with one syllable words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Short Vowel Sound
What is a Short Vowel? The vowels are the letters, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes y. Vowels make special sounds in words. They make a sound we call short. Look at these words. They all have the short vowel sound. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2RF3c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words.
Phonics
Phonics is a method of teaching people to read by correlating sounds with symbols in an alphabetic writing system. Read more...iWorksheets :3
2RF3d. Recognize and identify root words and common prefixes (e.g. re, reread, un, undo, hop, hopping).
Root Words/Prefixes/Suffixes
When the ending, or inflection, is taken away from a word, the word that remains is called the root word or base word. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Word Meaning with Prefixes/Suffixes
Prefixes are letters placed before a root word which change the meaning of the root word. Suffixes are letters placed after the root word which change the meaning of the root word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Multiple Meaning
Words with multiple meanings are words with more than one meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Prefixes
A prefix is any letter or group of letters Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vowel Digraphs
Vowels are a, e, u, o, u, and sometimes y or w. When 2 vowels come together in a word that is a vowel digraph. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Root Words
What are Root Words? Root words are sometimes called base words. A root word is the smallest form of a word before it has anything added to it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
oo Vowel Sound
What are the words with a double o sound as in moon? When you see oo together in a word, it usually has the sound you hear in “Moo” so put oo in when you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2RF3e. Read all common high-frequency worlds by sight.
High Frequency Words II
What are High Frequency Words? These are words you need to know at sight. That means you read them without trying to sound them out. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words II
Sight words are the words a second grader should be able to recognize instantly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words I
What are High Frequency Words? High frequency words are the sight words you need to know instantly. You do not need to sound them out or look them up in a dictionary. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words II
High frequency words are the words you need to recognize instantly. You do not have to figure them out, sound them out, or look them up in a dictionary. You just need to know them instantly. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words I
FreeHigh frequency words are the sight words you need to know as soon as you see them. Good readers do not need to sound them out. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Sight Words IV
What are sight words? Sight words are the words every second grader should be able to read quickly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words III
Sight words are words a second grader should be able to read quickly and spell easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Sight Words I
Appropriate words for spelling and definitions for 2nd graders Read more...iWorksheets :3
Frequently Misspelled Words
Words that are often misspelled and some hints to help you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words II
High frequency words are those words that a third grader should be able to read quickly, without sounding them out. They appear often in stories and books read by third graders. High frequency words are also known as sight words. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
High Frequency Words I
High frequency words are those words that a third grader should be able to read quickly, without sounding them out. They appear often in stories and books read by third graders. High frequency words are also known as sight words. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1

Fluency

2RF4. Read grade-level text with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
2RF4b. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
Context Clues
Identify the meaning of unknown words by text surrounding word. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Context Clues
What are Context Clues? When you are reading, you will come to words you do not know. You can learn the meaning of those words by looking for the clues in the sentence around that word. The clues will help you understand the meaning of the new word even if you cannot pronounce it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NY.2L. 2nd Grade Language Standards

Conventions of Standard English

2L1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Core Conventions Skills for Grades Prekindergarten→Grade 2:
2L1.2. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs (orally) → Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. →Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. → Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
Nouns
Noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Proper Nouns
A proper noun is a special name for a particular person, place, or thing. A proper noun always begins with a capital letter. If there is more than one word for a particular person, place, or thing, then the first, last, and all important words are capitalized. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
2L1.3. Form regular plural nouns orally (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes).
Nouns
Noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Verb Endings
Verbs may change their spelling according to which tense is being used. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Plurals
Regular and irregular plural nouns. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Plural Ending -es
Plural endings adding -es for words ending in sh, ch, x, and z. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Nouns
What are Nouns? Nouns are words used to identify ideas, actions, qualities, persons, places, or things, or to name a particular one of these. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
2L1.4. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, mice, fish).
Nouns
Noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Plurals
Regular and irregular plural nouns. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Nouns
What are Nouns? Nouns are words used to identify ideas, actions, qualities, persons, places, or things, or to name a particular one of these. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
2L1.5. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., The boy jumps; The boys jump).
Grammar Skills
Subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Complete & Incomplete Sentences
FreeA complete sentence begins with a capital, ends with punctuation, and makes sense. Any sentence that does not begin with a capital, end with correct punctuation, or make sense is incomplete. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
2L1.7. Use frequently occurring prepositions orally (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L1.9. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything). → Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
Nouns
Noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Pronouns
What is a Pronoun? A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
2L1.10. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). → Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
Verb Endings
Verbs may change their spelling according to which tense is being used. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Past Tense (-ed)
Past tense means something happened in the past. It could be many years ago, yesterday, or just a few minutes ago. Verbs change in special ways to show past tense. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L1.11. Use frequently occurring adjectives. → Use adjectives or adverbs appropriately.
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Adjectives/Adverbs/Vivid Language
What is an Adjective? An adjective is a word that describes a noun. When an adjective is added to a noun, the sentence becomes more interesting. Read more...iWorksheets :7Study Guides :1
2L2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. Core Punctuation and Spelling Skills for Grades P→2:
2L2.3. Recognize and name end punctuation. →Use end punctuation for sentences.
Capitalization/Punctuation
How Should a Sentence End? A sentence should end with a punctuation mark: period (.) for a statement. Question mark (?) for a question. Exclamation point (!) for a sentence that shows excitement. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
2L2.5. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. → Spell unknown words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions. →Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.→ Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
Spelling
FreeSpelling three or four letter words. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Frequently Misspelled Words
Words that are often misspelled and some hints to help you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L2.7. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
Nouns
Noun is a word that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance, or quality Read more...iWorksheets :3
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Contractions
What are Contractions? A contraction is a special word made by putting together a verb and another word. Every contraction has an apostrophe to show where letters are missing from the original two words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Contractions
What is a Contraction? A contraction is really two words squeezed together to make a new word. Some of the letters from one or both of the words go away and a special mark called an apostrophe goes in their place. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

2L4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
2L4a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Context Clues
Identify the meaning of unknown words by text surrounding word. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Context Clues
What are Context Clues? When you are reading, you will come to words you do not know. You can learn the meaning of those words by looking for the clues in the sentence around that word. The clues will help you understand the meaning of the new word even if you cannot pronounce it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L4b. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
Word Meaning with Prefixes/Suffixes
Prefixes are letters placed before a root word which change the meaning of the root word. Suffixes are letters placed after the root word which change the meaning of the root word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Prefixes
A prefix is any letter or group of letters Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vowel Digraphs
Vowels are a, e, u, o, u, and sometimes y or w. When 2 vowels come together in a word that is a vowel digraph. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
oo Vowel Sound
What are the words with a double o sound as in moon? When you see oo together in a word, it usually has the sound you hear in “Moo” so put oo in when you spell them. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L4c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
Root Words/Prefixes/Suffixes
When the ending, or inflection, is taken away from a word, the word that remains is called the root word or base word. Read more...iWorksheets :6Study Guides :1
Multiple Meaning
Words with multiple meanings are words with more than one meaning. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Root Words
What are Root Words? Root words are sometimes called base words. A root word is the smallest form of a word before it has anything added to it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L4d. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Compound Words
What are Compound Words? Any word made up of two small words is a compound word. Examples: foot + ball = football. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Compound Words
What is a Compound Word? A Compound Word is a word that is composed of two or more separate words. Examples: sea + shell = seashell, basket + ball = basketball. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L4e. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
Parts of a Book
Books have special parts to help you find information easily. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Dictionary/Thesaurus/Parts of a Book
Alphabetical order, table of contents, title, author, index, glossary. Read more...iWorksheets :3
2L5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
2L5c. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).
Three Step Directions
What is Logical Order? Logical order is how things happen in real life. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2L6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).
Grammar
Grammar is the subject which tells how to speak and write correctly. It is a set of rules that define the structure of a language. Here are some grammar rules you should know. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Adjectives/Adverbs/Vivid Language
What is an Adjective? An adjective is a word that describes a noun. When an adjective is added to a noun, the sentence becomes more interesting. Read more...iWorksheets :7Study Guides :1
Standards

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