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Massachusetts Standards for Eighth Grade Social Studies

MA.8-12.CS. Concepts and Skills, Grades 8-12

CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT

8-12.CS.12. Define and use correctly the following words and terms: Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus, monarchy, and absolutism. (C)

GENERAL ECONOMICS SKILLS

8-12.CS.13. Define and use correctly mercantilism, feudalism, economic growth, and entrepreneur. (E)
8-12.CS.14. Explain how people or communities examine and weigh the benefits of each alternative when making a choice and that opportunity costs are those benefits that are given up once one alternative is chosen. (E)
8-12.CS.15. Explain how financial markets, such as the stock market, channel funds from savers to investors. (E)
8-12.CS.17. Explain how opportunity costs and tradeoffs can be evaluated through an analysis of marginal costs and benefits. (E)
8-12.CS.19. Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining the equilibrium price, and use supply and demand to explain and predict changes in quantity and price. (E)

HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY

8-12.CS.1. Apply the skills of prekindergarten through grade seven.
8-12.CS.11. Using historical maps, locate the boundaries of the major empires of world history at the height of their powers. (H, G)
8-12.CS.5. Explain how a cause and effect relationship is different from a sequence or correlation of events. (H, C, E)
8-12.CS.6. Distinguish between long-term and short-term cause and effect relationships. (H, G, C, E)
8-12.CS.7. Show connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and ideas and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. (H, G, C, E)
8-12.CS.8. Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present-day norms and values. (H, E, C)
8-12.CS.9. Distinguish intended from unintended consequences. (H, E, C)

U.S. ECONOMICS SKILLS

8-12.CS.28. Analyze how federal tax and spending policies affect the national budget and the national debt. (E)

MA.CC.RH.6-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies

Craft and Structure

RH.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
Medieval EuropeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Renaissance in EuropeWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Protestant ReformationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Scientific RevolutionFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1European Exploration and SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The AztecsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The MayaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The IncasWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Colonial SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Colonial LifeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The American RevolutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Articles of ConfederationWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The United States ConstitutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New Government in OperationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Alamo Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Nation Grows and ExpandsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Erie Canal Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Jackson Age Worksheets :3Study Guides :1Moving Southward and WestwardWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Abolitionist MovementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Women's RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Causes of the Civil WarFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Civil War Worksheets :4Study Guides :1Reconstruction after the Civil WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Industrial GrowthWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Progressive Era Worksheets :3Study Guides :1ExpansionismWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Roaring TwentiesWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Great DepressionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IIWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Cold WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Civil RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Vietnam WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New MillenniumWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MesopotamiaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1EgyptWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient Israel Worksheets :3Study Guides :1PhoeniciaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient GreeceWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient RomeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient ChinaFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MexicoWorksheets :4Study Guides :1CanadaWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Central AmericaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1South AmericaWorksheets :3EconomicsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RH.6-8.5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Geographic Map TermsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Geographic ToolsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Medieval EuropeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Renaissance in EuropeWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Protestant ReformationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Scientific RevolutionFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1European Exploration and SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The AztecsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The MayaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The IncasWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Colonial SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Colonial LifeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The American RevolutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Articles of ConfederationWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The United States ConstitutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New Government in OperationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Alamo Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Nation Grows and ExpandsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Erie Canal Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Jackson Age Worksheets :3Study Guides :1Moving Southward and WestwardWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Abolitionist MovementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Women's RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Causes of the Civil WarFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Civil War Worksheets :4Study Guides :1Reconstruction after the Civil WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Industrial GrowthWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Progressive Era Worksheets :3Study Guides :1ExpansionismWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Roaring TwentiesWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Great DepressionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IIWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Cold WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Civil RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Vietnam WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New MillenniumWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MesopotamiaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1EgyptWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient Israel Worksheets :3Study Guides :1PhoeniciaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient GreeceWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient RomeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient ChinaFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MexicoWorksheets :4Study Guides :1CanadaWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Central AmericaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1South AmericaWorksheets :3EconomicsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Environmental ChangesWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

RH.6-8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Geographic Map TermsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Geographic ToolsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Medieval EuropeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Renaissance in EuropeWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Protestant ReformationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Scientific RevolutionFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1European Exploration and SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The AztecsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The MayaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The IncasWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Colonial SettlementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Colonial LifeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The American RevolutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Articles of ConfederationWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The United States ConstitutionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New Government in OperationWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Alamo Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Nation Grows and ExpandsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Erie Canal Worksheets :3Study Guides :1The Jackson Age Worksheets :3Study Guides :1Moving Southward and WestwardWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Abolitionist MovementWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Women's RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Causes of the Civil WarFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Civil War Worksheets :4Study Guides :1Reconstruction after the Civil WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Industrial GrowthWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Progressive Era Worksheets :3Study Guides :1ExpansionismWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Roaring TwentiesWorksheets :3Study Guides :1The Great DepressionWorksheets :4Study Guides :1World War IIWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Cold WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Civil RightsWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The Vietnam WarWorksheets :4Study Guides :1The New MillenniumWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MesopotamiaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1EgyptWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient Israel Worksheets :3Study Guides :1PhoeniciaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient GreeceWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient RomeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Ancient ChinaFreeWorksheets :3Study Guides :1MexicoWorksheets :4Study Guides :1CanadaWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Central AmericaWorksheets :3Study Guides :1South AmericaWorksheets :3EconomicsWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Environmental ChangesWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

MA.USI. U.S. History I (The Revolution through Reconstruction, 1763-1877)

ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE NORTH AND SOUTH, 1800-1860

USI.27. Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19th century (the building of canals, roads, bridges, turnpikes, steamboats, and railroads), including the stimulus it provided to the growth of a market economy. (H, E)
USI.28. Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America. (H, E)
USI.28.A. The technological improvements and inventions that contributed to industrial growth
USI.28.C. The rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers
USI.28.D. The roles of women in New England textile factories
USI.29. Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. (H)

POLITICAL DEMOCRATIZATION, WESTWARD EXPANSION, AND DIPLOMATIC DEVELOPMENTS, 1790-1860

USI.22. Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington (1789-1797), John Adams (1797-1801), and Thomas Jefferson (1801-1809). (H, C)
USI.22.B. The conflicting ideas of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton
USI.22.C. The Alien and Sedition Acts
USI.22.D. The Louisiana Purchase
USI.23. Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of suffrage in antebellum America. (C, H)
USI.24. Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and Jackson's actions as President. (H)
USI.24.A. The spoils system
USI.24.C. Jackson's policy of Indian Removal
USI.26. Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America's westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America's expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon trails. (H, E, G)
USI.26.A. The War of 1812
USI.26.C. The 1823 Monroe Doctrine
USI.26.D. The Cherokees' Trail of Tears
USI.26.E. The annexation of Texas in 1845
USI.26.F. The concept of Manifest Destiny and its relationship to westward expansion
USI.26.G. The acquisition of the Oregon Territory in 1846
USI.26.H. The territorial acquisitions resulting from the Mexican War
USI.26.I. The search for gold in California
USI.26.J. The Gadsden Purchase of 1854

SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND RELIGIOUS CHANGE, 1800-1860

USI.31. Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. (H)
USI.31.B. William Lloyd Garrison
USI.31.C. Sojourner Truth
USI.31.D. Harriet Tubman
USI.31.E. Theodore Weld
USI.33. Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum women's suffrage movement. (H)
USI.33.A. The 1848 Seneca Falls convention
USI.33.B. Susan B. Anthony
USI.33.C. Margaret Fuller
USI.33.D. Lucretia Mott
USI.33.E. Elizabeth Cady Stanton

THE CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION, 1860-1877

USI.36. Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War. (H)
USI.36.D. The Compromise of 1850
USI.36.F. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
USI.36.G. The Dred Scott Supreme Court case (1857)
USI.36.H. The Lincoln-Douglas debates (1858)
USI.36.I. John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry (1859)
USI.36.J. The election of Abraham Lincoln (1860)
USI.37. On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate States at the outbreak of the war. (H, G)
USI.38. Analyze Abraham Lincoln's presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he encountered. (H, C)
USI.39. Analyze the roles and policies of various Civil War leaders and describe the important Civil War battles and events. (H)
USI.39.1. Leaders:
USI.39.1.A. Jefferson DavisUSI.39.1.B. Ulysses S. GrantUSI.39.1.C. Robert E. Lee
USI.39.2. Battles:
USI.39.2.B. AntietamUSI.39.2.C. VicksburgUSI.39.2.D. Gettysburg
USI.40. Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War. (H, E)
USI.40.A. Physical and economic destruction
USI.40.B. The increased role of the federal government
USI.40.C. The greatest loss of life on a per capita basis of any U.S. war before or since
USI.41. Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction. (H, C)
USI.41.A. Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction
USI.41.B. The impeachment of President Johnson
USI.41.C. The 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments
USI.41.D. The opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction
USI.41.E. The accomplishments and failures of Radical Reconstruction
USI.41.F. The presidential election of 1876 and the end of Reconstruction
USI.41.G. The rise of Jim Crow laws

THE FORMATION AND FRAMEWORK OF AMERICAN DEMOCRACY

USI.14. Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. (H, C)
USI.16. Describe the evolution of the role of the federal government, including public services, taxation, economic policy, foreign policy, and common defense. (H, C)
USI.20. Explain the evolution and function of political parties, including their role in federal, state, and local elections. (H, C)

THE POLITICAL AND INTELLECTUAL ORIGINS OF THE AMERICAN NATION: THE REVOLUTION AND THE CONSTITUTION, 1763-1789

USI.1. Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the American Revolution. (H, C)
USI.1.A. The impact on the colonies of the French and Indian War, including how the war led to an overhaul of British imperial policy from 1763 to 1775
USI.1.B. How freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the widespread ownership of property fostered individualism and contributed to the Revolution
USI.3. Explain the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence and the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. (H, C)
USI.4. Analyze how Americans resisted British policies before 1775 and analyze the reasons for the American victory and the British defeat during the Revolutionary war. (H)
USI.5. Explain the role of Massachusetts in the revolution, including important events that took place in Massachusetts and important leaders from Massachusetts. (H)
USI.5.A. The Boston Massacre
USI.5.C. The Battles of Lexington and Concord and Bunker Hill
USI.6. Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781, including why its drafters created a weak central government; analyze the shortcomings of the national government under the Articles; and describe the crucial events (e.g., Shays's rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention. (H, C)
USI.7. Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the ''Great Compromise'' that was reached. (H, C)
USI.7.2. Founders
USI.7.2.B. Alexander HamiltonUSI.7.2.C. James MadisonUSI.7.2.D. George Washington
USI.9. Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights. (H, C)
USI.9.A. The influence of the British concept of limited government
USI.9.B. The particular ways in which the Bill of Rights protects basic freedoms, restricts government power, and ensures rights to persons accused of crimes

MA.USII. U.S. History II (Reconstruction to the Present, 1877-2001)

COLD WAR AMERICA AT HOME: ECONOMIC GROWTH AND OPTIMISM, ANTICOMMUNISM, AND REFORM, 1945-1980

USII.23. Analyze the following domestic policies of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower. (H)
USII.23.C. Eisenhower's response to the Soviet's launching of Sputnik
USII.23.D. Eisenhower's civil rights record
USII.25. Analyze the origins, goals, and key events of the Civil Rights movement. (H)
USII.25.1. People:
USII.25.1.A. Robert KennedyUSII.25.1.B. Martin Luther King, Jr.USII.25.1.C. Thurgood MarshallUSII.25.1.D. Rosa ParksUSII.25.1.E. Malcolm X
USII.25.3. Events:
USII.25.3.B. The 1955-1956 Montgomery Bus BoycottUSII.25.3.C. The 1957-1958 Little Rock School CrisisUSII.25.3.D. The sit-ins and freedom rides of the early 1960sUSII.25.3.E. The 1963 civil rights protest in BirminghamUSII.25.3.F. The 1963 March on WashingtonUSII.25.3.G. The 1965 civil rights protest in SelmaUSII.25.3.H. The 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
USII.26. Describe the accomplishments of the civil rights movement. (H, E)
USII.26.A. The 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act
USII.26.B. The growth of the African American middle class, increased political power, and declining rates of African American poverty
USII.28. Analyze the important domestic policies and events that took place during the presidencies of Presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)
USII.28.A. The space exploration program
USII.28.B. The assassination of President Kennedy

CONTEMPORARY AMERICA, 1980-2001

USII.33. Analyze the course and consequences of America's recent diplomatic initiatives. (H, C)
USII.33.D. America's response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and on the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.

INDUSTRIAL AMERICA AND ITS EMERGING ROLE IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, 1870-1920

USII.1. Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)
USII.1.A. The economic impetus provided by the Civil War
USII.1.B. Important technological and scientific advances
USII.1.C. The role of business leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt
USII.2. Explain the important consequences of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E)
USII.2.A. The growth of big business
USII.5. Explain the formation and goals of unions as well as the rise of radical political parties during the Industrial era. (H, E)
USII.5.A. The Knights of Labor
USII.5.B. The American Federation of Labor headed by Samuel Gompers
USII.5.D. The Socialist Party headed by Eugene Debs
USII.6. Analyze the causes and course of America's growing role in world affairs from the Civil War to World War I. (H, E)
USII.6.D. The Spanish-American War
USII.6.F. President Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
USII.6.G. America's role in the building of the Panama Canal
USII.6.H. President Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
USII.6.I. President Wilson's intervention in Mexico
USII.6.J. American entry into World War I
USII.7. Explain the course and significance of President Wilson's wartime diplomacy, including his Fourteen Points, the League of Nations, and the failure of the Versailles treaty. (H)

THE AGE OF REFORM: PROGRESSIVISM AND THE NEW DEAL, 1900-1940

USII.10. Describe how the battle between traditionalism and modernity manifested itself in the major historical trends and events after World War I and throughout the 1920s. (H)
USII.10.E. Prohibition
USII.11. Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how Americans responded to the Great Depression. (H, E)
USII.11.A. Restrictive monetary policies
USII.11.B. Unemployment
USII.11.C. Support for political and economic reform
USII.12. Analyze the important policies, institutions, and personalities of the New Deal era. (H)
USII.12.1. People:
USII.12.1.A. President Herbert HooverUSII.12.1.D. Huey LongUSII.12.1.E. Charles Coughlin
USII.12.2. Policies:
USII.12.2.B. The Securities and Exchange CommissionUSII.12.2.C. The Tennessee Valley AuthorityUSII.12.2.D. The Social Security Act, the National Labor Relations ActUSII.12.2.E. The Works Progress AdministrationUSII.12.2.F. The Fair Labor Standards Act
USII.12.3. Institutions:
USII.12.3.A. The American Federation of LaborUSII.12.3.B. The Congress of Industrial Organizations
USII.13. Explain how the Great Depression and the New Deal affected American society. (H)
USII.13.A. The increased importance of the federal government in establishing economic and social policies
USII.13.B. The emergence of a ''New Deal coalition'' consisting of African Americans, blue-collar workers, poor farmers, Jews, and Catholics
USII.8. Analyze the origins of Progressivism and important Progressive leaders, and summarize the major accomplishments of Progressivism. (H, E)
USII.8.1. People:
USII.8.1.B. William Jennings BryanUSII.8.1.C. John DeweyUSII.8.1.D. Robert La FolletteUSII.8.1.E. President Theodore RooseveltUSII.8.1.G. President William H. TaftUSII.8.1.I. President Woodrow Wilson
USII.8.2. Policies:
USII.8.2.A. Bans against child laborUSII.8.2.C. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)USII.8.2.G. The Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914)USII.8.2.H. The ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920
USII.9. Analyze the post-Civil War struggles of African Americans and women to gain basic civil rights. (H)
USII.9.A. Carrie Chapman Catt
USII.9.E. Alice Paul

THE COLD WAR ABROAD, 1945-1989

USII.18. Analyze the factors that contributed to the Cold War and describe the policy of containment as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies. (H)
USII.18.A. The differences between the Soviet and American political and economic systems
USII.18.B. Soviet aggression in Eastern Europe
USII.18.C. The Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO
USII.19. Analyze the sources and, with a map of the world, locate the areas of Cold War conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. (H, G)
USII.19.B. Germany
USII.19.F. Latin America
USII.19.H. The Vietnam War
USII.20. Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the Vietnam War and summarize the diplomatic and military policies of Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. (H)

WORLD WAR II, 1939-1945

USII.14. Explain the strength of American isolationism after World War I and analyze its impact on U.S. foreign policy. (H)
USII.15. Analyze how German aggression in Europe and Japanese aggression in Asia contributed to the start of World War II and summarize the major battles and events of the war. On a map of the world, locate the Allied powers (Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States) and Axis powers (Germany, Italy, and Japan). (H)
USII.15.E. Pearl Harbor, Midway, D-Day, Okinawa, the Battle of the Bulge, Iwo Jima, and the Yalta and Potsdam conferences
USII.16. Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and their short and long-term effects. (H)
USII.17. Explain important domestic events that took place during the war. (H, E)
USII.17.A. How war-inspired economic growth ended the Great Depression

MA.WHI. World History I (The World from the Fall of Rome through the Enlightenment)

HISTORY OF CHINA, JAPAN, AND KOREA TO 1800

WHI.24. Describe the growth of commerce and towns in China and the importance of agriculture to the development of the Chinese economy to 1800, including the limited role of slavery. (H)

RENAISSANCE AND THE REFORMATION IN EUROPE

WHI.29. Describe the origins and development of the Renaissance, including the influence and accomplishments of Machiavelli, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Shakespeare, and Johannes Gutenberg. (H)
WHI.30. Describe origins and effects of the Protestant Reformation. (H)
WHI.30.A. The reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther and John Calvin
WHI.30.B. The spread of Protestantism across Europe, including the reasons and consequences of England's break with the Catholic Church
WHI.30.C. The weakening of a uniform Christian faith
WHI.30.D. The consolidation of royal power
WHI.31. Explain the purposes and policies of the Catholic Counter-Reformation, including the influence and ideas of Ignatius Loyola. (H)

SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT IN EUROPE

WHI.33. Summarize how the Scientific Revolution and the scientific method led to new theories of the universe and describe the accomplishments of leading figures of the Scientific Revolution, including Bacon, Copernicus, Descartes, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton. (H)

THE EMERGENCE AND EXPANSION OF ISLAM TO 1500

WHI.4. Describe the central political, economic, and religious developments in major periods of Islamic history. (H, E)
WHI.4.B. The importance of the trade routes connecting the Far East and Europe and the role of the Mongols in increasing trade along these routes, including the silk routes to China
WHI.4.C. The relationship of trade to the growth of Central Asian and Middle Eastern cities

THE ENCOUNTERS BETWEEN CHRISTIANITY AND ISLAM TO 1500

WHI.9. Describe the religious and political origins of conflicts between Islam and Christianity, including the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades against Islam in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. (H)

THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD IN EUROPE TO 1500

WHI.6. Describe the rise and achievements of the Byzantine Empire. (H)
WHI.6.A. The influence of Constantine, including the establishment of Christianity as an officially sanctioned religion.
WHI.6.C. The preservation of Greek and Roman traditions
WHI.6.D. The construction of the Church of the Holy Wisdom (Hagia Sophia).
WHI.7. Describe the major economic, social, and political developments that took place in medieval Europe. (H, E)
WHI.7.A. The growing influence of Christianity and the Catholic Church
WHI.7.B. The differing orders of medieval society, the development of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of western civilization
WHI.7.C. The initial emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class
WHI.8. Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance in the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures, including the Magna Carta, parliament, and habeas corpus. (H, C)

THE ORIGINS OF EUROPEAN WESTERN EXPANSION AND THE CIVILIZATIONS OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA

WHI.13. Identify the three major pre-Columbian civilizations that existed in Central and South America (Maya, Aztec, and Inca) and their locations. Describe their political structures, religious practices, economies, art and architecture, and use of slaves. (H,G, E)
WHI.14. Identify the major economic, political, and social effects of the European colonial period in South America. (H, E)

MA.WHII. World History II (The Rise of the Nation State to the Present)

ASIAN, AFRICAN, AND LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY IN THE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

WHII.16. Identify the major developments of Latin American history to the early 20th century. (H, E)
WHII.16.B. Economic and social stratification
WHII.16.C. The role of the church
WHII.16.E. The growing influence of the United States as demonstrated by the Spanish American War and the building of the Panama Canal
WHII.16.F. The Mexican Revolution

COLD WAR ERA, 1945-1989

WHII.30. Summarize the factors that contributed to the Cold War, including Soviet expansion in Eastern Europe and the differences between democracy and communism. (H, C)
WHII.31. Describe the policy of containment, including the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, and NATO, as America's response to Soviet expansionist policies. (H)
WHII.32. Describe the development of the arms race and the key events of the Cold War era. (H)
WHII.32.D. Soviet-U.S. competition in the Middle East
WHII.32.E. Conflicts involving Cuba and Berlin
WHII.32.F. The Vietnam War
WHII.37. Describe how the work of scientists in the 20th century influenced historical events, changed the lives of the general populace, and led to further scientific research. (H)
WHII.37.C. Wernher von Braun and space exploration
WHII.38. Describe the development and goals of nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East, including the ideas and importance of nationalist leaders. (H)
WHII.38.C. Ho Chi Minh (Vietnam)

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND SOCIAL AND POLITICAL CHANGE IN EUROPE, 1800-1914

WHII.10. Summarize the causes, course, and consequences of the unification of Italy and Germany. (H)
WHII.10.A. Germany's replacement of France as the dominant power in continental Europe

THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD, 1989-2001

WHII.40. Identify the causes for the decline and collapse of the Soviet Union and the communist regimes of Eastern Europe. (H, E)
WHII.40.A. The weaknesses of the Soviet command economy
WHII.42. Analyze the consequences of the Soviet Union's breakup. (H, E)
WHII.42.C. The danger of the spread of nuclear technology and other technologies of mass destruction to rogue states and terrorist organizations
WHII.47. Explain the rise and funding of Islamic fundamentalism in the last half of the 20th century and identify the major events and forces in the Middle East over the last several decades. (H, E)
WHII.47.F. The increase in terrorist attacks against Israel and the United States
WHII.48. Describe America's response to and the wider consequences of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D. C. (H)

THE GREAT WARS, 1914-1945

WHII.17. Describe the relative importance of economic and imperial competition, Balkan nationalism, German militarism and aggression, and the power vacuum in Europe due to the declining power of the Russian, Austrian, and Ottoman Empires in causing World War I. (H, E)
WHII.18. Summarize the major events and consequences of World War I. (H, E)
WHII.18.A. Physical and economic destruction
WHII.18.C. The collapse of the Romanov dynasty and the subsequent Bolshevik Revolution and Civil War in Russia
WHII.18.F. The unprecedented loss of life from prolonged trench warfare
WHII.20. Describe the various causes and consequences of the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression. (H, E)
WHII.20.A. Restrictive monetary policies
WHII.20.B. Unemployment and inflation
WHII.21. Describe the rise and goals of totalitarianism in Italy, Germany, and the Soviet Union, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin, and Stalin. (H)
WHII.22. Summarize the consequences of Soviet communism to 1945. (H, E)
WHII.22.A. The establishment of a one-party dictatorship under Lenin
WHII.24. Summarize the key battles and events of World War II. (H)
WHII.24.A. The German conquest of continental Europe
WHII.24.B. The Battle of Britain
WHII.24.C. Pearl Harbor
WHII.24.E. El Alamein
WHII.24.F. Midway
WHII.24.G. Stalingrad
WHII.24.I. Battle of the Bulge
WHII.27. Explain the reasons for the dropping of atom bombs on Japan and its short and long-term effects. (H)
WHII.28. Explain the consequences of World War II. (H, E)
WHII.28.A. Physical and economic destruction
WHII.28.B. The enormous loss of life, including millions of civilians through the bombing of population centers and the slaughter of political opponents and ethnic minorities
WHII.28.C. Support in Europe for political reform and decolonization

THE GROWTH OF THE NATION STATE IN EUROPE

WHII.4. Summarize the major effects of the French Revolution. (H)
WHII.4.D. Its support for the ideas of popular sovereignty, religious tolerance, and legal equality

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