New York State Learning Standards and Core Curriculum for Eighth Grade Social Studies

The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a war fought over decades in the mid to late 20th century. It is considered to be connected to the Cold War, and many of the causes of the conflict have roots imbedded in the fear of the spread of Communism that was at the front of the Cold War. Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, wanted independence for Vietnam and a Communist-run government. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1

NY.RH.5-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies

Craft and Structure

RH.5-8.4. Determine the meanings of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
Medieval Europe
The document entitled “The Articles of Confederation” was the first governing document of the United States. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handled and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Some new Acts were added to the Articles of Confederation. The Land Ordinance of 1785 was an example of this. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Renaissance in Europe
What do you know about the Renaissance in Europe? The European Renaissance was a time of social, scientific, artistic, and religious rebirth. From 1463 to 1650, inventors, artists, philosophers, and scientists created and brought to light new ideas and perspectives that changed the shape of society and daily life. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Protestant Reformation
After the Renaissance, there was a change in thought throughout Europe. The Catholic Church was having financial problems and its role with several Kings and governments had changed; it was claimed that the Church had too much influence, and that clergy members were receiving indulgences or gifts in exchange for important Church Sacraments, such as forgiveness of sins. One man, Martin Luther, challenged the Church and their actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Scientific Revolution
FreeThe Scientific Revolution changed the way that many people saw the world. The work of scientists and philosophers revolutionized the beliefs that had been accepted for hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years. Some notable leaders of the Scientific Revolution are Isaac Newton, Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Andreas Vesalius among others. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
European Exploration and Settlement
European exploration in North America began with Christopher Columbus’ discovery of what he thought was Asia. Since that time, there have many attempts by Europeans to settle in America, some successful, others not. There are many reasons why Europeans settled outside of Europe. Political, social, and economic forces encouraged the exploration of the New World, and money was almost always a motivating factor in the settlement of new colonies. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Aztecs
The Aztecs lived in the area that is now Mexico, and were one of the largest Mesoamerican societies. The Aztecs were a complex society with a governmental structure advanced for their time. The Aztecs were also known for their religious ceremonies and great temples that were built to honor their gods. The Aztecs believed in human sacrifice and were quite brutal in the sacrificial rites. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Maya
In the 1st century, a group of people called the Maya rose to civilization in Central and South America. Their society was very interactive and organized around individual city states, each with their own governmental system. They created a system of writing which consisted of individual symbols to represent sounds and words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Incas
The Incas were a civilization that lived in South America, the largest civilization to have existed in that region up to the time of their rule. The Incan people conquered much of South America using force and warfare, but treated those they conquered quite well. The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Colonial Settlement
Europe was a leader in the settlement of colonies in America. Although their attempts were not always successful, by the turn of the 17th century they had a pretty firm start in the New World. Jamestown, the first successful settlement, was founded in 1607 by a stock company searching for gold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Colonial Life
Life in the new colonies was often challenging. While the settlers were free from the restrictions of life in European society, they also did not have the amenities of European life in the 1600s. Many families in the colonies worked on a small farm. The roles of society in colonial America were clearly defined. Men were the decision-makers, and women were in a supporting role. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handles and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Government in Operation
After the signing of the Constitution, the leaders and citizens of the United States had many goals and aspirations for the growth of the nation. One type of growth was the interest in expanding the existing boundaries of the new country. The first of these initiatives was the Louisiana Purchase, under President Thomas Jefferson. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Alamo
The Alamo was a fort in Texas that became the defining point of a conflict between Texan-Americans and the Republic of Mexico. The Texans were part of Mexico but wanted to be part of the United States. A major battle in this conflict happened at the Alamo on March 6, 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Nation Grows and Expands
Around the turn of the 19th century, many changes were occurring in the United States. The industrialization of what had previously been rural and agricultural land led to a different lifestyle for many people. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Erie Canal
During the 18th and 19th century, there was a need for more advanced ways of trade and travel in the United States. One method of travel, by waterway, had proved successful in other parts of the world. The Erie Canal was America’s answer to the need for transportation across New York. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Jackson Age
Andrew Jackson was an influential leader in the 19th century, known for many reforms to the American government and society during his presidency. President Jackson is credited for the founding of the Democratic Party. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Abolitionist Movement
The Abolitionist Movement started with the denunciation of slavery by the Quakers of Pennsylvania, a religion community of believers in equality and peace. After their public resistance to slavery, many other groups of people joined their fight for the abolition of slavery. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Civil War
After Lincoln was elected in 1860, southern states seceded from the Union in an effort to uphold their stance on slavery. During the war, the Confederacy continued to own slaves and support slavery. After many devastating battles and thousands of casualties, the Civil War ended but many problems that existed before the commencement of battle still existed. However, slaves were officially free and the economies of the North and South were in a new era of growth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Progressive Era
One of the biggest reform goals was the process in which government officials were elected. This, along with the need for government involvement in reform, were two of the motivating factors for people such as Eugene Debs, Susan B. Anthony and W.E.B. DuBois to become leaders during the Progressive Era. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a war fought over decades in the mid to late 20th century. It is considered to be connected to the Cold War, and many of the causes of the conflict have roots imbedded in the fear of the spread of Communism that was at the front of the Cold War. Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, wanted independence for Vietnam and a Communist-run government. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mesopotamia
The area that is called Mesopotamia is an ancient region of land located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that saw the rise of many civilizations. Because of the relationship to the two rivers, these civilizations, like many modern-day cities, thrived culturally. The Sumerians are credited with the creation of the first system of writing, irrigation, an advanced knowledge of mathematics, and the twelve month calendar. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Egypt
Ancient Egypt refers to the people and area surrounding the Nile River in Africa. This period of history called Ancient Egypt extends beyond the 3000 BC-1200 BC era. During this time period, Ancient Egypt saw the rise of the Early Dynastic Period to the fall of the New Kingdom. Many things happened during those times, such as the creation of the pyramids, the creation of paper, and the growth of a writing system called hieroglyphics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Israel
The history of Ancient Israel is documented in one of the world’s most widely read books: the Bible. This history is told through the lives of famous biblical characters as well as remains and inscriptions found in the Middle East. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the three founding patriarchs of Israel, settled in Canaan almost four thousand years ago. The people of Canaan were divided into tribes and were ruled by judges. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Phoenicia
Phoenicia (1000-300 BC) was an ancient civilization in Asia that was made up of a number of city-states. The most prominent city-state in Phoenicia was Carthage, a city that is still a part of Asia. The Phoenicians were a polytheistic culture and celebrated many gods and goddesses. Phoenicia was well known for the extensive trading network they established during their rise as a civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Greece
To define Ancient Greece (800-200 BC) is to define an area that surrounds the modern-day country of Greece and the culture that it represents. In ancient times, the city-states of Greece expanded their culture and influence to many other places. Ancient Greece is also well known for its contributions to literature, art, science and mathematics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome (500 BC-500 AD) is characterized by many different leaders, governments and events. The history of ancient Rome spans a number of centuries, and is divided into three main categories: the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. Ancient Rome is also known for many famous leaders. Caesar, Augustus, Constantine and Nero are just a few of the historic figures that led to the expansion of Rome. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient China
FreeThe history of Ancient China spans thousands of years and a number of different dynasties. Certain Chinese dynasties lasted hundreds of years, while others were overthrown and replaced quickly by new leaders. Despite this, much of Chinese culture and religion was steadfast. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mexico
Mexico is a country located in North America; it neighbors the United States to the South and shares a border that spans from California to Texas. While parts of Mexico are home to snow covered mountains, the country is also known for its beautiful beaches and lush rainforests. After the Spanish exploration of the Americas, Mexico was under Spanish rule until they declared independence in the 19th century. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Canada
Canada has a rich history of being home to many aboriginal peoples, including Indian tribes and the Inuit. When European explorers began to reach Canada, they found a land rich in resources and began to settle in this area of North America. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Central America
Central America is the small isthmus that separates the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, and connects North America and South America. It is made up of these seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica. Central America is considered a Mesoamerican civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
South America
South America includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, and French Guiana (a part of France). In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Falkland Islands, (a British Overseas Territory), Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Economics
The functions of an economy depend largely on the goods and services that are created by the producers. In any economy, the consumers are the people who buy or exchange money or goods, and without the demand or need for goods the economy would be unsuccessful. The difference in the cost of retail sale and the cost of production is the meaning of profit for a business, and is also the goal of producers and businesses. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RH.5-8.5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Geographic Map Terms
There are many geographical settings that make up the earth’s surface. Many of these characteristics can be seen on maps as well as from satellites because of their size. Many land formations are a result of weather and time, and often they can co-exist with one another. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Geographic Tools
Throughout history, many different tools have been used to transfer graphical information. Graphs, charts, and maps are a few ways that we can represent ideas and places. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Medieval Europe
The document entitled “The Articles of Confederation” was the first governing document of the United States. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handled and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Some new Acts were added to the Articles of Confederation. The Land Ordinance of 1785 was an example of this. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Renaissance in Europe
What do you know about the Renaissance in Europe? The European Renaissance was a time of social, scientific, artistic, and religious rebirth. From 1463 to 1650, inventors, artists, philosophers, and scientists created and brought to light new ideas and perspectives that changed the shape of society and daily life. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Protestant Reformation
After the Renaissance, there was a change in thought throughout Europe. The Catholic Church was having financial problems and its role with several Kings and governments had changed; it was claimed that the Church had too much influence, and that clergy members were receiving indulgences or gifts in exchange for important Church Sacraments, such as forgiveness of sins. One man, Martin Luther, challenged the Church and their actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Scientific Revolution
FreeThe Scientific Revolution changed the way that many people saw the world. The work of scientists and philosophers revolutionized the beliefs that had been accepted for hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years. Some notable leaders of the Scientific Revolution are Isaac Newton, Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Andreas Vesalius among others. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
European Exploration and Settlement
European exploration in North America began with Christopher Columbus’ discovery of what he thought was Asia. Since that time, there have many attempts by Europeans to settle in America, some successful, others not. There are many reasons why Europeans settled outside of Europe. Political, social, and economic forces encouraged the exploration of the New World, and money was almost always a motivating factor in the settlement of new colonies. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Aztecs
The Aztecs lived in the area that is now Mexico, and were one of the largest Mesoamerican societies. The Aztecs were a complex society with a governmental structure advanced for their time. The Aztecs were also known for their religious ceremonies and great temples that were built to honor their gods. The Aztecs believed in human sacrifice and were quite brutal in the sacrificial rites. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Maya
In the 1st century, a group of people called the Maya rose to civilization in Central and South America. Their society was very interactive and organized around individual city states, each with their own governmental system. They created a system of writing which consisted of individual symbols to represent sounds and words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Incas
The Incas were a civilization that lived in South America, the largest civilization to have existed in that region up to the time of their rule. The Incan people conquered much of South America using force and warfare, but treated those they conquered quite well. The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Colonial Settlement
Europe was a leader in the settlement of colonies in America. Although their attempts were not always successful, by the turn of the 17th century they had a pretty firm start in the New World. Jamestown, the first successful settlement, was founded in 1607 by a stock company searching for gold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Colonial Life
Life in the new colonies was often challenging. While the settlers were free from the restrictions of life in European society, they also did not have the amenities of European life in the 1600s. Many families in the colonies worked on a small farm. The roles of society in colonial America were clearly defined. Men were the decision-makers, and women were in a supporting role. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handles and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Government in Operation
After the signing of the Constitution, the leaders and citizens of the United States had many goals and aspirations for the growth of the nation. One type of growth was the interest in expanding the existing boundaries of the new country. The first of these initiatives was the Louisiana Purchase, under President Thomas Jefferson. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Alamo
The Alamo was a fort in Texas that became the defining point of a conflict between Texan-Americans and the Republic of Mexico. The Texans were part of Mexico but wanted to be part of the United States. A major battle in this conflict happened at the Alamo on March 6, 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Nation Grows and Expands
Around the turn of the 19th century, many changes were occurring in the United States. The industrialization of what had previously been rural and agricultural land led to a different lifestyle for many people. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Erie Canal
During the 18th and 19th century, there was a need for more advanced ways of trade and travel in the United States. One method of travel, by waterway, had proved successful in other parts of the world. The Erie Canal was America’s answer to the need for transportation across New York. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Jackson Age
Andrew Jackson was an influential leader in the 19th century, known for many reforms to the American government and society during his presidency. President Jackson is credited for the founding of the Democratic Party. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Abolitionist Movement
The Abolitionist Movement started with the denunciation of slavery by the Quakers of Pennsylvania, a religion community of believers in equality and peace. After their public resistance to slavery, many other groups of people joined their fight for the abolition of slavery. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Civil War
After Lincoln was elected in 1860, southern states seceded from the Union in an effort to uphold their stance on slavery. During the war, the Confederacy continued to own slaves and support slavery. After many devastating battles and thousands of casualties, the Civil War ended but many problems that existed before the commencement of battle still existed. However, slaves were officially free and the economies of the North and South were in a new era of growth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Progressive Era
One of the biggest reform goals was the process in which government officials were elected. This, along with the need for government involvement in reform, were two of the motivating factors for people such as Eugene Debs, Susan B. Anthony and W.E.B. DuBois to become leaders during the Progressive Era. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a war fought over decades in the mid to late 20th century. It is considered to be connected to the Cold War, and many of the causes of the conflict have roots imbedded in the fear of the spread of Communism that was at the front of the Cold War. Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, wanted independence for Vietnam and a Communist-run government. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mesopotamia
The area that is called Mesopotamia is an ancient region of land located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that saw the rise of many civilizations. Because of the relationship to the two rivers, these civilizations, like many modern-day cities, thrived culturally. The Sumerians are credited with the creation of the first system of writing, irrigation, an advanced knowledge of mathematics, and the twelve month calendar. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Egypt
Ancient Egypt refers to the people and area surrounding the Nile River in Africa. This period of history called Ancient Egypt extends beyond the 3000 BC-1200 BC era. During this time period, Ancient Egypt saw the rise of the Early Dynastic Period to the fall of the New Kingdom. Many things happened during those times, such as the creation of the pyramids, the creation of paper, and the growth of a writing system called hieroglyphics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Israel
The history of Ancient Israel is documented in one of the world’s most widely read books: the Bible. This history is told through the lives of famous biblical characters as well as remains and inscriptions found in the Middle East. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the three founding patriarchs of Israel, settled in Canaan almost four thousand years ago. The people of Canaan were divided into tribes and were ruled by judges. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Phoenicia
Phoenicia (1000-300 BC) was an ancient civilization in Asia that was made up of a number of city-states. The most prominent city-state in Phoenicia was Carthage, a city that is still a part of Asia. The Phoenicians were a polytheistic culture and celebrated many gods and goddesses. Phoenicia was well known for the extensive trading network they established during their rise as a civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Greece
To define Ancient Greece (800-200 BC) is to define an area that surrounds the modern-day country of Greece and the culture that it represents. In ancient times, the city-states of Greece expanded their culture and influence to many other places. Ancient Greece is also well known for its contributions to literature, art, science and mathematics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome (500 BC-500 AD) is characterized by many different leaders, governments and events. The history of ancient Rome spans a number of centuries, and is divided into three main categories: the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. Ancient Rome is also known for many famous leaders. Caesar, Augustus, Constantine and Nero are just a few of the historic figures that led to the expansion of Rome. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient China
FreeThe history of Ancient China spans thousands of years and a number of different dynasties. Certain Chinese dynasties lasted hundreds of years, while others were overthrown and replaced quickly by new leaders. Despite this, much of Chinese culture and religion was steadfast. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mexico
Mexico is a country located in North America; it neighbors the United States to the South and shares a border that spans from California to Texas. While parts of Mexico are home to snow covered mountains, the country is also known for its beautiful beaches and lush rainforests. After the Spanish exploration of the Americas, Mexico was under Spanish rule until they declared independence in the 19th century. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Canada
Canada has a rich history of being home to many aboriginal peoples, including Indian tribes and the Inuit. When European explorers began to reach Canada, they found a land rich in resources and began to settle in this area of North America. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Central America
Central America is the small isthmus that separates the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, and connects North America and South America. It is made up of these seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica. Central America is considered a Mesoamerican civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
South America
South America includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, and French Guiana (a part of France). In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Falkland Islands, (a British Overseas Territory), Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Economics
The functions of an economy depend largely on the goods and services that are created by the producers. In any economy, the consumers are the people who buy or exchange money or goods, and without the demand or need for goods the economy would be unsuccessful. The difference in the cost of retail sale and the cost of production is the meaning of profit for a business, and is also the goal of producers and businesses. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Environmental Changes
The issue of global warming has been the cause of much debate in the past fifty years. Greenhouse gases, overpopulation, fossil fuel usage, and deforestation have been at the top of the list of reasons that the world’s environment is changing for the worse. Many plants and animals are becoming extinct due to these environmental changes. Industrialization and overpopulation have caused a decrease in land available for other species. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

RH.5-8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 5-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
Geographic Map Terms
There are many geographical settings that make up the earth’s surface. Many of these characteristics can be seen on maps as well as from satellites because of their size. Many land formations are a result of weather and time, and often they can co-exist with one another. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Geographic Tools
Throughout history, many different tools have been used to transfer graphical information. Graphs, charts, and maps are a few ways that we can represent ideas and places. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Medieval Europe
The document entitled “The Articles of Confederation” was the first governing document of the United States. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handled and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Some new Acts were added to the Articles of Confederation. The Land Ordinance of 1785 was an example of this. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Renaissance in Europe
What do you know about the Renaissance in Europe? The European Renaissance was a time of social, scientific, artistic, and religious rebirth. From 1463 to 1650, inventors, artists, philosophers, and scientists created and brought to light new ideas and perspectives that changed the shape of society and daily life. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Protestant Reformation
After the Renaissance, there was a change in thought throughout Europe. The Catholic Church was having financial problems and its role with several Kings and governments had changed; it was claimed that the Church had too much influence, and that clergy members were receiving indulgences or gifts in exchange for important Church Sacraments, such as forgiveness of sins. One man, Martin Luther, challenged the Church and their actions. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Scientific Revolution
FreeThe Scientific Revolution changed the way that many people saw the world. The work of scientists and philosophers revolutionized the beliefs that had been accepted for hundreds, sometimes thousands, of years. Some notable leaders of the Scientific Revolution are Isaac Newton, Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Andreas Vesalius among others. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
European Exploration and Settlement
European exploration in North America began with Christopher Columbus’ discovery of what he thought was Asia. Since that time, there have many attempts by Europeans to settle in America, some successful, others not. There are many reasons why Europeans settled outside of Europe. Political, social, and economic forces encouraged the exploration of the New World, and money was almost always a motivating factor in the settlement of new colonies. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Aztecs
The Aztecs lived in the area that is now Mexico, and were one of the largest Mesoamerican societies. The Aztecs were a complex society with a governmental structure advanced for their time. The Aztecs were also known for their religious ceremonies and great temples that were built to honor their gods. The Aztecs believed in human sacrifice and were quite brutal in the sacrificial rites. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Maya
In the 1st century, a group of people called the Maya rose to civilization in Central and South America. Their society was very interactive and organized around individual city states, each with their own governmental system. They created a system of writing which consisted of individual symbols to represent sounds and words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Incas
The Incas were a civilization that lived in South America, the largest civilization to have existed in that region up to the time of their rule. The Incan people conquered much of South America using force and warfare, but treated those they conquered quite well. The Incas lacked the use of wheeled vehicles. They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Colonial Settlement
Europe was a leader in the settlement of colonies in America. Although their attempts were not always successful, by the turn of the 17th century they had a pretty firm start in the New World. Jamestown, the first successful settlement, was founded in 1607 by a stock company searching for gold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Colonial Life
Life in the new colonies was often challenging. While the settlers were free from the restrictions of life in European society, they also did not have the amenities of European life in the 1600s. Many families in the colonies worked on a small farm. The roles of society in colonial America were clearly defined. Men were the decision-makers, and women were in a supporting role. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handles and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Government in Operation
After the signing of the Constitution, the leaders and citizens of the United States had many goals and aspirations for the growth of the nation. One type of growth was the interest in expanding the existing boundaries of the new country. The first of these initiatives was the Louisiana Purchase, under President Thomas Jefferson. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Alamo
The Alamo was a fort in Texas that became the defining point of a conflict between Texan-Americans and the Republic of Mexico. The Texans were part of Mexico but wanted to be part of the United States. A major battle in this conflict happened at the Alamo on March 6, 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Nation Grows and Expands
Around the turn of the 19th century, many changes were occurring in the United States. The industrialization of what had previously been rural and agricultural land led to a different lifestyle for many people. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Erie Canal
During the 18th and 19th century, there was a need for more advanced ways of trade and travel in the United States. One method of travel, by waterway, had proved successful in other parts of the world. The Erie Canal was America’s answer to the need for transportation across New York. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Jackson Age
Andrew Jackson was an influential leader in the 19th century, known for many reforms to the American government and society during his presidency. President Jackson is credited for the founding of the Democratic Party. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Abolitionist Movement
The Abolitionist Movement started with the denunciation of slavery by the Quakers of Pennsylvania, a religion community of believers in equality and peace. After their public resistance to slavery, many other groups of people joined their fight for the abolition of slavery. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Civil War
After Lincoln was elected in 1860, southern states seceded from the Union in an effort to uphold their stance on slavery. During the war, the Confederacy continued to own slaves and support slavery. After many devastating battles and thousands of casualties, the Civil War ended but many problems that existed before the commencement of battle still existed. However, slaves were officially free and the economies of the North and South were in a new era of growth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Progressive Era
One of the biggest reform goals was the process in which government officials were elected. This, along with the need for government involvement in reform, were two of the motivating factors for people such as Eugene Debs, Susan B. Anthony and W.E.B. DuBois to become leaders during the Progressive Era. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a war fought over decades in the mid to late 20th century. It is considered to be connected to the Cold War, and many of the causes of the conflict have roots imbedded in the fear of the spread of Communism that was at the front of the Cold War. Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, wanted independence for Vietnam and a Communist-run government. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mesopotamia
The area that is called Mesopotamia is an ancient region of land located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that saw the rise of many civilizations. Because of the relationship to the two rivers, these civilizations, like many modern-day cities, thrived culturally. The Sumerians are credited with the creation of the first system of writing, irrigation, an advanced knowledge of mathematics, and the twelve month calendar. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Egypt
Ancient Egypt refers to the people and area surrounding the Nile River in Africa. This period of history called Ancient Egypt extends beyond the 3000 BC-1200 BC era. During this time period, Ancient Egypt saw the rise of the Early Dynastic Period to the fall of the New Kingdom. Many things happened during those times, such as the creation of the pyramids, the creation of paper, and the growth of a writing system called hieroglyphics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Israel
The history of Ancient Israel is documented in one of the world’s most widely read books: the Bible. This history is told through the lives of famous biblical characters as well as remains and inscriptions found in the Middle East. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the three founding patriarchs of Israel, settled in Canaan almost four thousand years ago. The people of Canaan were divided into tribes and were ruled by judges. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Phoenicia
Phoenicia (1000-300 BC) was an ancient civilization in Asia that was made up of a number of city-states. The most prominent city-state in Phoenicia was Carthage, a city that is still a part of Asia. The Phoenicians were a polytheistic culture and celebrated many gods and goddesses. Phoenicia was well known for the extensive trading network they established during their rise as a civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Greece
To define Ancient Greece (800-200 BC) is to define an area that surrounds the modern-day country of Greece and the culture that it represents. In ancient times, the city-states of Greece expanded their culture and influence to many other places. Ancient Greece is also well known for its contributions to literature, art, science and mathematics. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome (500 BC-500 AD) is characterized by many different leaders, governments and events. The history of ancient Rome spans a number of centuries, and is divided into three main categories: the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. Ancient Rome is also known for many famous leaders. Caesar, Augustus, Constantine and Nero are just a few of the historic figures that led to the expansion of Rome. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Ancient China
FreeThe history of Ancient China spans thousands of years and a number of different dynasties. Certain Chinese dynasties lasted hundreds of years, while others were overthrown and replaced quickly by new leaders. Despite this, much of Chinese culture and religion was steadfast. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Mexico
Mexico is a country located in North America; it neighbors the United States to the South and shares a border that spans from California to Texas. While parts of Mexico are home to snow covered mountains, the country is also known for its beautiful beaches and lush rainforests. After the Spanish exploration of the Americas, Mexico was under Spanish rule until they declared independence in the 19th century. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Canada
Canada has a rich history of being home to many aboriginal peoples, including Indian tribes and the Inuit. When European explorers began to reach Canada, they found a land rich in resources and began to settle in this area of North America. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Central America
Central America is the small isthmus that separates the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, and connects North America and South America. It is made up of these seven countries: Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica. Central America is considered a Mesoamerican civilization. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
South America
South America includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, and French Guiana (a part of France). In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Falkland Islands, (a British Overseas Territory), Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Economics
The functions of an economy depend largely on the goods and services that are created by the producers. In any economy, the consumers are the people who buy or exchange money or goods, and without the demand or need for goods the economy would be unsuccessful. The difference in the cost of retail sale and the cost of production is the meaning of profit for a business, and is also the goal of producers and businesses. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Environmental Changes
The issue of global warming has been the cause of much debate in the past fifty years. Greenhouse gases, overpopulation, fossil fuel usage, and deforestation have been at the top of the list of reasons that the world’s environment is changing for the worse. Many plants and animals are becoming extinct due to these environmental changes. Industrialization and overpopulation have caused a decrease in land available for other species. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NY.8P. Grade 8: Social Studies Practices

8P.A. Gathering, Interpreting, and Using Evidence

8P.A.1. Define and frame questions about the United States and answer them by gathering, interpreting, and using evidence.
Colonial Settlement
Europe was a leader in the settlement of colonies in America. Although their attempts were not always successful, by the turn of the 17th century they had a pretty firm start in the New World. Jamestown, the first successful settlement, was founded in 1607 by a stock company searching for gold. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Colonial Life
Life in the new colonies was often challenging. While the settlers were free from the restrictions of life in European society, they also did not have the amenities of European life in the 1600s. Many families in the colonies worked on a small farm. The roles of society in colonial America were clearly defined. Men were the decision-makers, and women were in a supporting role. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. The Articles of Confederation made the laws regarding how the newly united colonies handles and shared money, reacted to war, and settled disputes. Once the Articles were in use, it became clear that some additions needed to be made for effective governance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Government in Operation
After the signing of the Constitution, the leaders and citizens of the United States had many goals and aspirations for the growth of the nation. One type of growth was the interest in expanding the existing boundaries of the new country. The first of these initiatives was the Louisiana Purchase, under President Thomas Jefferson. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Alamo
The Alamo was a fort in Texas that became the defining point of a conflict between Texan-Americans and the Republic of Mexico. The Texans were part of Mexico but wanted to be part of the United States. A major battle in this conflict happened at the Alamo on March 6, 1836. Today it is a museum in the Alamo Plaza Historic District. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Nation Grows and Expands
Around the turn of the 19th century, many changes were occurring in the United States. The industrialization of what had previously been rural and agricultural land led to a different lifestyle for many people. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Erie Canal
During the 18th and 19th century, there was a need for more advanced ways of trade and travel in the United States. One method of travel, by waterway, had proved successful in other parts of the world. The Erie Canal was America’s answer to the need for transportation across New York. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Jackson Age
Andrew Jackson was an influential leader in the 19th century, known for many reforms to the American government and society during his presidency. President Jackson is credited for the founding of the Democratic Party. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Abolitionist Movement
The Abolitionist Movement started with the denunciation of slavery by the Quakers of Pennsylvania, a religion community of believers in equality and peace. After their public resistance to slavery, many other groups of people joined their fight for the abolition of slavery. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Civil War
After Lincoln was elected in 1860, southern states seceded from the Union in an effort to uphold their stance on slavery. During the war, the Confederacy continued to own slaves and support slavery. After many devastating battles and thousands of casualties, the Civil War ended but many problems that existed before the commencement of battle still existed. However, slaves were officially free and the economies of the North and South were in a new era of growth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Progressive Era
One of the biggest reform goals was the process in which government officials were elected. This, along with the need for government involvement in reform, were two of the motivating factors for people such as Eugene Debs, Susan B. Anthony and W.E.B. DuBois to become leaders during the Progressive Era. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8P.B. Chronological Reasoning

8P.B.4. Identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationship between multiple causes and effects.
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Environmental Changes
The issue of global warming has been the cause of much debate in the past fifty years. Greenhouse gases, overpopulation, fossil fuel usage, and deforestation have been at the top of the list of reasons that the world’s environment is changing for the worse. Many plants and animals are becoming extinct due to these environmental changes. Industrialization and overpopulation have caused a decrease in land available for other species. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8P.B.5. Distinguish between long-term and immediate causes and effects of an event from current events or history.
The American Revolution
In the second half of the 18th century, the colonies began to seek independence from Great Britain. One of the main causes of the Revolutionary War was the colonist’s reaction to the taxes being placed on the necessary goods and activities of the colonies. The Revolutionary War began in 1775, when colonial militias began to fight against the British army. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Moving Southward and Westward
Manifest Destiny was the idea that the United States was destined to expand from the Atlantic to the Pacific. This motivated the government to acquire lands in the Oregon Territory as well as in areas that became Texas, Florida, and California. Many people started to move west in hope of a better life. The California Gold Rush triggered a large movement of people to California. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Causes of the Civil War
FreeIn the 1800's, America was expanding and gaining new territories. The issue of slavery was everywhere and there was much conflict over whether or not the new territories should be slave states or not. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Environmental Changes
The issue of global warming has been the cause of much debate in the past fifty years. Greenhouse gases, overpopulation, fossil fuel usage, and deforestation have been at the top of the list of reasons that the world’s environment is changing for the worse. Many plants and animals are becoming extinct due to these environmental changes. Industrialization and overpopulation have caused a decrease in land available for other species. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8P.B.6. Recognize, analyze, and evaluate dynamics of historical continuity and change over periods of time.
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8P.B.8. Relate patterns of continuity and change to larger historical processes and themes.
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

8P.D. Geographic Reasoning

8P.D.1. Use location terms and geographic representations, such as maps, photographs, satellite images, and models to describe where places are in relation to each other and connections between places; evaluate the benefits of particular places for purposeful activities.
Geographic Map Terms
There are many geographical settings that make up the earth’s surface. Many of these characteristics can be seen on maps as well as from satellites because of their size. Many land formations are a result of weather and time, and often they can co-exist with one another. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Geographic Tools
Throughout history, many different tools have been used to transfer graphical information. Graphs, charts, and maps are a few ways that we can represent ideas and places. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8P.D.2. Distinguish human activities and human-made features from “environments” (natural events or physical features—land, air, and water—that are not directly made by humans) and describe the relationship between human activities and the environment.
Geographic Map Terms
There are many geographical settings that make up the earth’s surface. Many of these characteristics can be seen on maps as well as from satellites because of their size. Many land formations are a result of weather and time, and often they can co-exist with one another. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Environmental Changes
The issue of global warming has been the cause of much debate in the past fifty years. Greenhouse gases, overpopulation, fossil fuel usage, and deforestation have been at the top of the list of reasons that the world’s environment is changing for the worse. Many plants and animals are becoming extinct due to these environmental changes. Industrialization and overpopulation have caused a decrease in land available for other species. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8P.E. Economics and Economic Systems

8P.E.1. Explain how economic decisions affect the well-being of individuals, businesses, and society; evaluate alternative approaches or solutions to economic issues in terms of benefits and costs for different groups of people.
Economics
The functions of an economy depend largely on the goods and services that are created by the producers. In any economy, the consumers are the people who buy or exchange money or goods, and without the demand or need for goods the economy would be unsuccessful. The difference in the cost of retail sale and the cost of production is the meaning of profit for a business, and is also the goal of producers and businesses. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8P.F. Civic Participation

8P.F.3. Identify and explain different types of political systems and ideologies used at various times in United States history and explain the roles of individuals and key groups in those political and social systems.
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

NY.8. History of the United States and New York State II

8.1. RECONSTRUCTION: Regional tensions following the Civil War complicated efforts to heal the nation and to redefine the status of African Americans. (Standards: 1, 4, 5; Themes: MOV, SOC, CIV, ECO)

8.1a. Different approaches toward and policies for Reconstruction highlight the challenges faced in reunifying the nation.
8.1a.1. Students will compare and contrast the differences between Reconstruction under Lincoln’s plan, Johnson’s plan, and congressional (Radical) Reconstruction.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.1b. Freed African Americans created new lives for themselves in the absence of slavery. Constitutional amendments and federal legislation sought to expand the rights and protect the citizenship of African Americans.
8.1b.1. Students will examine the Reconstruction amendments (13th, 14th, and 15th) in terms of the rights and protections provided to African Americans.
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.1b.2. Students will examine the Freedmen’s Bureau’s purpose, successes, and the extent of its success.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.1b.5. Students will examine the rise of African Americans in government.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.1c. Federal initiatives begun during Reconstruction were challenged on many levels, leading to negative impacts on the lives of African Americans.
8.1c.1. Students will explore methods used by Southern state governments to affect the lives of African Americans, including the passage of Black Codes, poll taxes, and Jim Crow laws.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.1c.3. Students will examine the ways in which the federal government failed to follow up on its promises to freed African Americans.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
The years after the Civil War were dedicated to trying to resolve the problems that were not only the cause of the war but were aggravated by four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

8.2. A CHANGING SOCIETY: Industrialization and immigration contributed to the urbanization of America. Problems resulting from these changes sparked the Progressive movement and increased calls for reform. (Standards: 1, 2, 4; Themes: MOV, SOC, TECH, EXCH)

8.2c. Increased urbanization and industrialization contributed to increasing conflicts over immigration, influenced changes in labor conditions, and led to political corruption.
8.2c.2. Students will explore the growth and effects of child labor and sweatshops.
The Nation Grows and Expands
Around the turn of the 19th century, many changes were occurring in the United States. The industrialization of what had previously been rural and agricultural land led to a different lifestyle for many people. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.2c.3. Students will explore the development of political machines, including Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall.
The Jackson Age
Andrew Jackson was an influential leader in the 19th century, known for many reforms to the American government and society during his presidency. President Jackson is credited for the founding of the Democratic Party. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.2d. In response to shifts in working conditions, laborers organized and employed a variety of strategies in an attempt to improve their conditions.
8.2d.1. Students will examine the goals and tactics of specific labor unions including the Knights of Labor, the American Federation of Labor, and the Industrial Workers of the World.
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.2d.2. Students will examine key labor events including the Haymarket affair, the Pullman Strike and the International Ladies Garment Workers’ Union strike.
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.2e. Progressive reformers sought to address political and social issues at the local, state, and federal levels of government between 1890 and 1920. These efforts brought renewed attention to women’s rights and the suffrage movement and spurred the creation of government reform policies.
8.2e.1. Students will examine the Populist Party as a reform effort by farmers in response to industrialization.
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.2e.3. Students will explore leaders and activities of the temperance and woman’s suffrage movements.
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.2e.5. Students will examine state and federal government responses to reform efforts, including the passage of the 17th amendment, child labor and minimum wage laws, antitrust legislation, and food and drug regulations.
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

8.3. EXPANSION AND IMPERIALISM: Beginning in the second half of the 19th century, economic, political, and cultural factors contributed to a push for westward expansion and more aggressive United States foreign policy. (Standards: 1, 2, 3, 5; Themes: GEO, GOV, CIV, ECO)

8.3a. Continued westward expansion contributed to increased conflicts with Native Americans.
8.3a.1. Students will examine the effects of the transcontinental railroad on the movement toward westward expansion.
Industrial Growth
After the Civil War and Reconstruction, the United States began to see a rise in industry and the growth of businesses. The Transcontinental Railroad, the first railroad to span the United States from Atlantic to Pacific, opened up the opportunity for social and economical growth towards the West. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.3b. The Spanish-American War contributed to the rise of the United States as an imperial power.
8.3b.1. Students will examine examples of yellow journalism that contributed to United States entry into the Spanish-American War, including the portrayal of the sinking of the USS Maine.
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.3b.2. Students will explain how the events and outcomes of the Spanish-American War contributed to the shift to imperialism in United States foreign policy.
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.3d. The Roosevelt Corollary expanded the Monroe Doctrine and increased United States involvement in the affairs of Latin America. This led to resentment of the United States among many in Latin America.
8.3d.1. Students will evaluate the United States actions taken under the Roosevelt Corollary and their effects on relationships between the United States and Latin American nations, including the building of the Panama Canal.
Expansionism
Over the past two centuries, the Unites States has sought to expand its territories both in North America and other parts of the world. While one of the biggest reasons for this is to continue economic growth, during the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, America found itself in a position to demonstrate its strength by intervening in other countries. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

8.4. WORLD WAR I AND THE ROARING TWENTIES: Various diplomatic, economic, and ideological factors contributed to the United States decision to enter World War I. Involvement in the war significantly altered the lives of Americans. Postwar America was characterized by economic prosperity, technological innovations, and changes in the workplace. (Standards: 1, 2, 4; Themes: SOC, GOV, ECO, TECH)

8.4a. European militarism, the alliance system, imperialism, and nationalism were all factors that contributed to the start of World War I.
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4b. International, economic, and military developments swayed opinion in favor of the United States siding with the Allies and entering World War I. Domestic responses to World War I limited civil liberties within the United States.
8.4b.1. Students will examine an overview of the causes of World War I, focusing on the factors leading to United States entry into the war.
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4b.2. Students will examine examples of war propaganda and its effects on support for United States involvement in the war.
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4b.3. Students will examine the restrictions placed on citizens after United States entry into the war, including the Espionage Act (1917) and the Sedition Act (1918).
World War I
During the first half of the 20th century, European countries were struggling for control over land and sea. Many countries wanted to establish new colonies in newly discovered territory, which led to power struggles across Europe. Technological advancements also attributed to the beginning of World War I. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4d. Following extensive political debate, the United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The United States then sought to return to prewar policies by focusing on domestic rather than international matters.
8.4d.1. Students will examine Wilson’s Fourteen Points and investigate reasons why the United States Senate refused to support the Treaty of Versailles, focusing on opposition to the League of Nations.
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4e. After World War I, the United States entered a period of economic prosperity and cultural change. This period is known as the Roaring Twenties. During this time, new opportunities for women were gained, and African Americans engaged in various efforts to distinguish themselves and celebrate their culture.
8.4e.1. Students will investigate the efforts of women suffragists and explain the historical significance of the 19th amendment.
The United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is a document created by a group of delegates to the Constitutional Convention after the United States declared its independence from Great Britain. The need for a governing document other than the Articles of Confederation was growing clear to the Constitutional Congress, and so they came together to devise a new document. The Constitution is the absolute law in the United States and has been that way since 1789. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Women's Rights
In 1848, leaders of what became the Women’s Rights Movement invited Americans to attend the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss the need for women to have the rights of suffrage (voting), education, and others. They devised a document, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, of resolutions promoting women’s civil rights. The “Declaration of Sentiments” was written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.4e.2. Students will examine the reasons for and effects of prohibition on American society.
The Roaring Twenties
The 1920’s were a time of social, economical, and political change in the United States. After World War I, the economy changed drastically. Men and women began to raise their standards of living, spending money on new technologies that they put on credit. Cars began to become a huge influence on society, and soon millions of people owned Ford’s invention. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8.5. GREAT DEPRESSION: Economic and environmental disasters in the 1930s created hardships for many Americans. Amidst much debate about the appropriate role of government, President Franklin D. Roosevelt helped to create intensive government interventions in the United States economy and society. (Standards: 1, 3, 5; Themes: TCC, SOC, GOV, ECO)

8.5a. Risky investing, protectionism, and overproduction led to the collapse of the stock market, a wave of bank failures, and a long and severe downturn in the economy called the Great Depression.
8.5a.1. Students will examine how the economic practices of the 1920s contributed to the coming of the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.5b. The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl affected American businesses and families.
8.5b.1. Students will examine the effects of the Great Depression on American families in terms of the loss of jobs, wealth, and homes, noting varying effects based on class, race, and gender. Students will explore the conditions in New York City and other communities within New York State during the Great Depression.
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.5c. President Roosevelt issued the New Deal in an attempt to revive the economy and help Americans deal with the hardships of the Great Depression. These New Deal reforms had a long-lasting effect on the role of government in American society and its economic life, but did not resolve all of the hardships Americans faced.
8.5c.1. Students will identify key programs adopted under the New Deal, including the creation of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Securities and Exchange Commission, and the adoption of the Social Security Act.
The Great Depression
In the last years of the decade commonly referred to as the Roaring Twenties, the United States saw a great gap between the rich and the poor citizens. Businesses and corporations were booming and productivity rose. However, increased production and decreased consumption took its toll and eventually the American people saw a drastic fall in the stock market. The stock market crash virtually ruined the American economy of the time and the greater part of the next decade was spent trying to reverse the damage. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

8.6. WORLD WAR II: The aggression of the Axis powers threatened United States security and led to its entry into World War II. The nature and consequences of warfare during World War II transformed the United States and the global community. The damage from total warfare and atrocities such as the Holocaust led to a call for international efforts to protect human rights and prevent future wars. (Standards: 1, 2, 3; Themes: TCC, GOV, TECH, EXCH)

8.6b. From 1939 to 1941, the United States government tried to maintain neutrality while providing aid to Britain but was drawn into the war by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. The United States fought a war on multiple fronts. At home, the economy was converted to war production, and essential resources were rationed to ensure adequate supplies for military use.
8.6b.1. Students will examine American involvement in World War II, including the American strategy in the Pacific and the invasion of Normandy on D-Day.
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.6c. The nature and consequences of warfare during World War II transformed the United States and the global community. The damage from total warfare and human atrocities, including the Holocaust, led to a call for an international organization to prevent future wars and the protection of human rights.
8.6c.1. Students will examine the role of air power by the allies, including the use of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.6c.2. Students will investigate the Holocaust and explain the historical significance of the Nuremberg trials.
World War II
After World War I and the Great Depression, many countries all over the world were trying to come back from an economic recession. Adolf Hitler, the leader of a party developed a philosophy for Germany and ignore the Treaty of Versailles. Soon, Germany was at war with many European countries and so began the reign of the Nazi Party. Germany soon invaded Poland and World War II was set in motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.6c.3. Students will examine the structure and work of the United Nations.
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8.7. FOREIGN POLICY: The period after World War II has been characterized by an ideological and political struggle, first between the United States and communism during the Cold War, then between the United States and forces of instability in the Middle East. Increased economic interdependence and competition, as well as environmental concerns, are challenges faced by the United States. (Standards: 1, 2, 4, 5; Themes: TCC, GEO, ECO, EXCH)

8.7b. The United States based its military and diplomatic policies from 1945 to 1990 on a policy of containment of communism.
8.7b.1. Students will examine the policy of containment and its application in the postwar period, including the Marshall Plan, the Korean War, the Cuban missile crisis, and the Vietnam War.
The Cold War
During and after World War II, tension between the United States and the USSR grew. Stalin was disappointed in many of the United States' decisions regarding post-war aid and nuclear research. As a result of this, the Soviet Union had little trust in the United states and President Truman. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
The Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a war fought over decades in the mid to late 20th century. It is considered to be connected to the Cold War, and many of the causes of the conflict have roots imbedded in the fear of the spread of Communism that was at the front of the Cold War. Ho Chi Minh, the leader of North Vietnam, wanted independence for Vietnam and a Communist-run government. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.7c. Following the end of the Cold War, the United States sought to define a new role in global affairs, but the legacies of Cold War actions continue to affect United States foreign policy today.
8.7c.1. Students will examine the changing relationships between the United States and foreign countries such as:
8.7c.1.b. Afghanistan beginning in the 1980s
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.7d. Terrorist groups not representing any nation entered and reshaped global military and political alliances and conflicts. American foreign and domestic policies responded to terrorism in a variety of ways.
8.7d.1. Students will examine the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001, its effects on national security and the United States responses to it, including the USA Patriot Act, the formation of the Department of Homeland Security, the War on Terror, and military attacks on suspected terrorist locations.
The New Millennium
Global conflicts have increased over time and the United States has seen the effects of this in the new millennium. On September 11th, 2001 the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were targets of terrorist attacks. As a result of this, the United States declared a “War on Terror” and has since seen the loss of many American lives. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.7e. Increased globalization has led to increased economic interdependence and competition.
8.7e.1. Students will examine the increased economic interdependence in terms of globalization and its impact on the United States and New York State economy, including the workforce.
Economics
The functions of an economy depend largely on the goods and services that are created by the producers. In any economy, the consumers are the people who buy or exchange money or goods, and without the demand or need for goods the economy would be unsuccessful. The difference in the cost of retail sale and the cost of production is the meaning of profit for a business, and is also the goal of producers and businesses. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

8.9. DOMESTIC POLITICS AND REFORM: The civil rights movement and the Great Society were attempts by people and the government to address major social, legal, economic, and environmental problems. Subsequent economic recession called for a new economic program. (Standards: 1, 4, 5; Themes: TCC, SOC, CIV, ECO)

8.9a. The civil rights movement began in the postwar era in response to long-standing inequalities in American society, and eventually brought about equality under the law, but slower progress on economic improvements.
8.9a.1. Students will compare and contrast the strategies used by civil rights activists, such as Thurgood Marshall, Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X.
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.9a.2. Students will explain the significance of key civil rights victories, including President Truman’s desegregation of the military, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), the Civil Rights Act of 1964, and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.9a.3. Students will examine the extent to which the economic situation of African Americans improved as a result of the civil rights movement.
Civil Rights
The American Civil Rights Movement developed as many worked to ensure equality and civil rights for many groups, mainly African Americans. Despite being citizens in theory, many black citizens were not granted the same constitutional rights as other American citizens. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Standards

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