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Geography Kindergarten Social Studies

New Mexico Standards for Fifth Grade Social Studies

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NM.I: History: Students are able to identify important people and events in order to analyze significant patterns, relationships, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in New Mexico, United States, and world history in order to understand the complexity of the human experience. Students will:

1-A: New Mexico: explore and explain how people and events have influenced the development of New Mexico up to the present day:

1-A:1. Describe changes of governance of New Mexico (e.g., indigenous, Spanish, Mexican, French, Texan, confederate, United States);
1-A:2. Explain the reasons for European exploration of the Americas.

1-B: United States: analyze and interpret major eras, events and individuals from the periods of exploration and colonization through the civil war and reconstruction in United States history:

1-B:1. Explain the motivations for the European exploration of the Americas (e.g., Leif Ericson, Christopher Columbus, John Cabot, Hernan Cortez, Jacques Cartier, Henry Hudson);
1-B:2. Describe and explain the reasons for colonization, to include: religious freedom, desire for land, economic opportunity, a new way of life, including the roles and views of key individuals who founded colonies (e.g., John Smith, William Penn, Lord Baltimore);
1-B:3. Explain the significance of major historical documents (e.g., the Mayflower compact, the declaration of independence, the federalist papers, United States constitution, bill of rights, the Gettysburg address);
1-B:4. Identify the interactions between American Indians and European settlers, including agriculture, cultural exchanges, alliances and conflicts (e.g., the first Thanksgiving, the pueblo revolt, French and Indian war);
1-B:5. Describe how the introduction of slavery into the Americas, and especially the United States, laid a foundation for conflict; and
1-B:6. Explain early representative government and identify democratic practices that emerged (e.g., Iroquois nation model, town meetings, assemblies).

1-C: World: compare and contrast major historical eras, events and figures from ancient civilizations to the age of exploration:

1-C:3. Identify the European countries that colonized the North American continent and their areas of settlement; and

1-D: Skills: research historical events and people from a variety of perspectives:

1-D:1. Differentiate between, locate and use primary and secondary sources (e.g., computer software, interviews, biographies, oral histories, print, visual material, artifacts) to acquire information;
1-D:4. Show the relationship between social contexts and events; and

NM.II: Geography: Students understand how physical, natural, and cultural processes influence where people live, the ways in which people live, and how societies interact with one another and their environments. Students will

2-A: Analyze and evaluate the characteristics and purposes of geographic tools, knowledge, skills and perspectives and apply them to explain the past, present and future in terms of patterns, events and issues:

2-A:1. Make and use different kinds of maps, globes, charts and databases;
2-A:2. Demonstrate how different areas of the United States are organized and interconnected;
2-A:3. Identify and locate each of the fifty states and capitols of the United States;
2-A:4. Identify tribal territories within states;
2-A:5. Employ fundamental geographic vocabulary (e.g., latitude, longitude, interdependence, accessibility, connections);
2-A:6. Demonstrate a relational understanding of time zones;
2-A:8. Identify and locate natural and man-made features of local, regional, state, national and international locales.

2-B: Explain the physical and human characteristics of places and use this knowledge to define regions, their relationships with other regions, and their patterns of change:

2-B:1. Describe human and natural characteristics of places; and
2-B:2. Describe similarities and differences among regions of the globe, and their patterns of change.

2-D: Explain how physical processes shape the earth's surface patterns and biosystems:

2-D:1. Explain how the four provinces of New Mexico's land surface (plains, mountains, plateau, basin and range) support life.

2-E: Explain how economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations and their interdependence, cooperation and conflict:

2-E:1. Explain how physical features influenced the expansion of the United States.

2-F: Understand the effects of interactions between human and natural systems in terms of changes in meaning, use, distribution and relative importance of resources

2-F:1. Understand how resources impact daily life.

NM.III: Civics and Government: Students understand the ideals, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship and understand the content and history of the founding documents of the United States with particular emphasis on the United States and New Mexico constitutions and how governments function at local, state, tribal, and national levels. Students will:

3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):

3-A:1. Explain how the three branches of national government function and explain how they are defined in the United States constitution;
3-A:2. Identify the fundamental ideals and principles of our republican form of government (e.g., inalienable rights such as ''life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness,'' the rule of law, justice, equality under the law);
3-A:3. Identify and describe the significance of American symbols, landmarks and essential documents (e.g., declaration of independence; United States constitution; bill of rights; the federalist papers; Washington, D.C.; liberty bell; Gettysburg address; statue of liberty; government to government accords; treaty of Guadalupe Hildago; Gadsden purchase); and
3-A:4. Compare and contrast the basic government sovereignty of local, state, tribal and national governments.

3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:

3-B:1. Explain the significance and importance of American customs, symbols, landmarks and celebrations;
3-B:2. Identify and summarize contributions of various racial, ethnic and religious groups to national identity; and
3-B:3. Describe selected ethnic and religious customs and celebrations that enhance local, state, tribal and national identities.

3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American revolution and the United States government:

3-C:1. Describe the narrative of the people and events associated with the development of the United States constitution, and describe its significance to the foundation of the American republic, to include:
3-C:1.a. Colonists' and Native Americans' shared sense of individualism, independence and religious freedom that developed before the revolution;
3-C:1.b. Articles of confederation;
3-C:1.c. Purpose of the constitutional convention;
3-C:1.d. Natural rights expressed in the Declaration of Independence; and
3-C:2. Describe the contributions and roles of major individuals, including George Washington, James Madison and Benjamin Franklin.

3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:

3-D:1. Explain the meaning of the American creed that calls on citizens to safeguard the liberty of individual Americans within a unified nation, to respect the rule of law and to preserve the constitutions of local, state, tribal and federal governments.

NM.IV: Economics: Students understand basic economic principles and use economic reasoning skills to analyze the impact of economic systems (including the market economy) on individuals, families, businesses, communities, and governments. Students will:

4-A: Explain and describe how individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions, are influenced by incentives (economic as well as intrinsic) and the availability and use of scarce resources, and that their choices involve costs and varying ways of allocating:

4-A:1. Understand the impact of supply and demand on consumers and producers in a free-enterprise system;
4-A:2. Understand the patterns of work and economic activities in New Mexico and the United States (e.g., farming, ranching, oil and gas production, high tech, manufacturing, medicine);
4-A:3. Describe the aspects of trade; and

4-B: Explain how economic systems impact the way individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions about resources and the production and distribution of goods and services:

4-B:2. Identify the influence of bordering countries (Canada and Mexico) on United States commerce.

4-C: Describe the patterns of trade and exchange in early societies and civilizations and explore the extent of their continuation in today's world:

4-C:2. Explain the economic motivation of exploration and colonization by colonial powers.