MD.1.0. Political Science: Students will understand the historical development and current status of the fundamental concepts and processes of authority, power, and influence, with particular emphasis on the democratic skills and attitudes necessary to become responsible citizens.
1.A. The foundations and function of government
1.A.1. Examine the necessity and purpose of government in early world history
1.A.1.a. Identify and compare forms of government and various distributions of power, such as those found in ancient civilizations, dynastic China, absolute and Constitutional monarchies
1.A.2. Analyze the historic events, documents, and practices in early world history that are the foundations of political systems
1.A.2.a. Examine and report on the roots of democratic principles in world history, such as Sumerian written law, Hammurabi's code, Greek city-states, Roman Republicanism, and the British Constitution (Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights)
MD.2.0. Peoples of the Nation and World: Students will understand the diversity and commonality, human interdependence, and global cooperation of the people of Maryland, the United States and the world through both a multicultural and historic perspective.
2.A. Elements of culture
2.A.1. Describe characteristics that historians use to organize people into cultures
2.A.1.a. Describe how location and environment influenced early world cultures
MD.3.0. Geography; Students will use geographic concepts and processes to examine the role of culture, technology, and the environment in the location and distribution of human activities and spatial connections throughout time.
3.A. Using geographic tools
3.A.1. Use geographic tools to locate places and describe the human and physical characteristics in early world history
3.A.1.a. Use maps to compare geographic locations of civilizations from world history to: Mesopotamia; Africa including Egypt, Nubia/Kush and sub-Saharan Africa; Indus River Valley; Northern China; Greeks and Romans; Mesoamerican, such as the Incas, Mayans and Aztecs
3.C.1.b. Explain how the development of transportation and communication networks influenced the movement of people, goods and ideas from place to place, such as trade routes in Africa, Asia and Europe, and the spread of Islam
3.D.1.b. Analyze how people in early world history perceived and reacted to environmental concerns, such as flooding, drought, and depletion of natural resources and evaluate the consequences of those actions
MD.4.0. Economics: Students will develop economic reasoning to understand the historical development and current status of economic principles, institutions, and processes needed to be effective citizens, consumers, and workers participating in local communities, the nation, and the world.
4.A. Scarcity and economic decision-making
4.A.1. Explain that people made choices because resources relative to economic wants to goods and services in the context of early world history
4.A.1.a. Identify opportunity cost of economic decisions made by individuals and groups such as the decision to engage in trade
MD.5.0. History: Students will examine significant ideas, beliefs, and themes; organize patterns and events; and analyze how individuals and societies have changed over time in Maryland, the United States and around the world.
5.A. Individuals and societies change over time
5.A.2. Examine the emergence, growth and decline of empires in the Americas
5.A.2.a. Describe and trace the development of political and social structures of the Incas, Mayans and Aztecs
5.B.1.b. Compare major cultural, political and economic achievements of river valley civilizations, such as the Tigris and Euphrates river valley, the Huang river valley, the Indus river valley and the Nile river valley including Egypt, Nubia and Kush
MD.6.0. Social Studies Skills and Processes: Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using chronological and spatial thinking, economic reasoning, and historical interpretation, by framing and evaluating questions from primary and secondary sources.
6.A. Read to learn and construct meaning about social studies
6.A.1. Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understandings of social studies vocabulary
6.A.1.a. Acquire and apply new vocabulary through investigating, listening, independent reading and discussing a variety of print and non-print sources
6.A.3. Use strategies to monitor understanding and derive meaning from text and portions of text (during reading)
6.A.3.a. Identify and use knowledge of organizational structures, such as chronological order, cause/effect, main ideas and details, description, similarities/differences, and problem/solution to gain meaning
6.B. Write to learn and communicate social studies understandings
6.B.1. Select and use informal writing strategies, such as short/response/essay answer/ brief constructed responses, journal writing, note taking, and graphic organizers, to clarify, organize, remember, and/or express new understandings
6.D.1.c. Locate and gather data and information from appropriate non-print sources, such as music, artifacts, charts, maps, graphs, photographs, video clips, illustrations, paintings, political cartoons, multimedia, interviews, and oral histories