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U.S. National Standards for Sixth Grade Social Studies

N.NCSS. National Curriculum Standards for Social Studies (NCSS)

NCSS.1. CULTURE

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF CULTURE AND CULTURAL DIVERSITY.
1.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
1.1.1. 'Culture'' refers to the socially transmitted behaviors, beliefs, values, traditions, institutions, and ways of living together of a group of people.1.1.2. Concepts such as beliefs, values, institutions, cohesion, diversity, accommodation, adaptation, assimilation, and dissonance.1.1.3. How culture influences the ways in which human groups solve the problems of daily living.1.1.4. That the beliefs, values, and behaviors of a culture form an integrated system that helps shape the activities and ways of life that define a culture.1.1.6. That culture may change in response to changing needs, concerns, social, political, and geographic conditions.1.1.7. How people from different cultures develop different values and ways of interpreting experience.1.1.8. That language, behaviors, and beliefs of different cultures can both contribute to and pose barriers to cross--cultural understanding.
1.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
1.2.1. Ask and find answers to questions related to culture.1.2.7. Draw inferences from data about the ways in which given cultures respond to persistent human issues, and how culture influences those responses.

NCSS.10. CIVIC IDEALS AND PRACTICES

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF THE IDEALS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES OF CITIZENSHIP IN A DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC.
10.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
10.1.2. Concepts and ideals such as: individual dignity, liberty, justice, equality, individual rights, responsibility, majority and minority rights, and civil dissent.10.1.3. Key practices involving the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and the exercise of citizenship (e.g., respecting the rule of law and due process, voting, serving on a jury, researching issues, making informed judgments, expressing views on issues, and collaborating with others to take civic action).10.1.5. Key documents and excerpts from key sources that define and support democratic ideals and practices (e.g., the U.S. Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, the Gettysburg Address, the Letter from Birmingham Jail; and international documents such as the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Children).10.1.6. The origins and function of major institutions and practices developed to support democratic ideals and practices.10.1.7. Key past and present issues involving democratic ideals and practices, as well as the perspectives of various stakeholders in proposing possible solutions to these issues.
10.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
10.2.2. Identify and describe the role of citizen in various forms of government, past and present.10.2.3. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of civic action influencing public policy decisions that address the realization of civic ideals.

NCSS.2. TIME, CONTINUITY, AND CHANGE

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF THE PAST AND ITS LEGACY.
2.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
2.1.1. The study of the past provides a representation of the history of communities, nations, and the world.2.1.2. Concepts such as: chronology, causality, change, conflict, complexity, multiple perspectives, primary and secondary sources, and cause and effect.2.1.3. That learning about the past requires the interpretation of sources, and that using varied sources provides the potential for a more balanced interpretive record of the past.2.1.4. That historical interpretations of the same event may differ on the basis of such factors as conflicting evidence from varied sources, national or cultural perspectives, and the point of view of the researcher.2.1.5. Key historical periods and patterns of change within and across cultures (e.g., the rise and fall of ancient civilizations, the development of technology, the rise of modern nation-states, and the establishment and breakdown of colonial systems).2.1.6. The origins and influences of social, cultural, political, and economic systems.2.1.7. The contributions of key persons, groups, and events from the past and their influence on the present.2.1.8. The history of democratic ideals and principles, and how they are represented in documents, artifacts and symbols.2.1.9. The influences of social, geographic, economic, and cultural factors an the history of local areas, states, nations, and the world.
2.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
2.2.1. Formulate questions about topics in history, predict possible answers, and use historical methods of inquiry and literacy skills to locate, organize, analyze, and interpret sources, and present supported findings.2.2.2. Identify and use a variety of primary and secondary sources for reconstructing the past, such as documents, letters, diaries, maps, textbooks, photos, and other sources.2.2.3. Research and analyze past periods, events, and issues, using a variety of primary sources (e.g., documents, letters, artifacts, and testimony) as well as secondary sources; validate and weigh evidence for claims, and evaluate the usefulness and degree of reliability of sources to develop a supportable interpretation.
2.3. PRODUCTS - Learners demonstrate understanding by:
2.3.6. Developing an illustrated timeline of a sequence of events representing an important historic era.2.3.7. Writing historical accounts of events and developments based on evidence from primary and secondary sources, and identifying different perspectives on these events and developments.

NCSS.3. PEOPLE, PLACES, AND ENVIRONMENTS

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF PEOPLE, PLACES, AND ENVIRONMENTS.
3.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
3.1.1. The theme of people, places, and environments involves the study of the relationships between human populations in different locations and geographic phenomena such as climate, vegetation, and natural resources.3.1.2. Concerts such as: location, region, place, and migration, as well as human and physical systems.3.1.3. Past and present changes in physical systems, such as seasons, climate, and weather, and the water cycle, in both national and global contexts.3.1.5. The concept of regions identifies links between people in different locations according to specific criteria (e.g., physical, economic, social, cultural, or religious).3.1.6. Patterns of demographic and political change, and cultural diffusion in the past and present (e.g., changing national boundaries, migration, and settlement, and the diffusion of and changes in customs and ideas).3.1.7. Human modifications of the environment.3.1.8. Factors that contribute to cooperation and conflict among peoples of the nation and world, including language, religion, and political beliefs.3.1.9. The use of a variety of maps, globes, graphic representations, and geospatial technologies to help investigate the relationships among people, places, and environments.
3.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
3.2.1. Ask and find answers to geographic questions related to regions, nations, and the world in the past and present.3.2.2. Research, organize, analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information from atlases, data bases, grid systems, charts, graphs, maps, geospatial technologies, and other tools to interpret relationships among geographic factors and historic events.3.2.5. Identify and interpret ''push'' and ''pull'' factors involved in the migrations of people in this nation and other parts of the world.3.2.6. Evaluate the consequences of human actions in environmental terms.
3.3. PRODUCTS - Learners demonstrate understanding by:
3.3.2. Constructing a map depicting the historical expansion of a nation or empire that demonstrates an understanding of relative location, distance, direction, boundaries, major physical features, size, and shape.3.3.6. Graphing patterns of human migration in a selected place on the globe.

NCSS.5. INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND INSTITUTIONS

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF INTERACTIONS AMONG INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND INSTITUTIONS.
5.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
5.1.2. Concepts such as: mores, norms, status, role, socialization, ethnocentrism, cultural diffusion, competition, cooperation, conflict, race, ethnicity, and gender.5.1.5. That groups and institutions change over time.5.1.8. That when two or more groups with differing norms and beliefs interact, accommodation or conflict may result.5.1.9. That groups and institutions influence culture in a variety of ways.
5.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
5.2.2. Analyze the effects of interactions between and among individuals, groups, and institutions.5.2.3. Identify and analyze the impact of tensions between and among individuals, groups, and institutions.5.2.6. Analyze the role of institutions in furthering both continuity and change.

NCSS.6. POWER, AUTHORITY, AND GOVERNANCE

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF HOW PEOPLE CREATE, INTERACT WITH, AND CHANGE STRUCTURES OF POWER, AUTHORITY, AND GOVERNANCE.
6.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
6.1.1. Rights are guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution, the supreme law of the land.6.1.2. Fundamental ideas that are the foundation of American constitutional democracy (including those of the U.S. Constitution, popular sovereignty, the rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, minority rights, the separation of church and state, and Federalism).6.1.3. Fundamental values of constitutional democracy (e.g., the common good, liberty, justice, equality, and individual dignity).6.1.4. The ideologies and structures of political systems that differ from those of the United States.6.1.5. The ways in which governments meet the needs and wants of citizens, manage conflict, and establish order and security.
6.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
6.2.1. Ask and find answers to questions about power, authority and governance in the region, nation, and world.6.2.2. Examine persistent issues involving the rights of individuals and groups in relation to the general welfare.6.2.3. Compare and analyze the ways in which groups and nations respond to the richness of unity and diversity, as well as tensions and conflicts associated with unity and diversity.6.2.4. Analyze and evaluate conditions, actions, and motivations that contribute to conflict and cooperation among groups and nations.6.2.5. Evaluate the role of technology as it contributes to conflict and cooperation among nations and groups, and as it contributes to or detracts from systems of power, authority, and governance.

NCSS.7. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF HOW PEOPLE ORGANIZE FOR THE PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES.
7.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
7.1.1. Individuals, government, and society experience scarcity because human wants and needs exceed what can be produced from available resources.7.1.7. How markets bring buyers and sellers together to exchange goods and services.7.1.8. How goods and services are allocated in a market economy through the influence of prices on decisions about production and consumption.

NCSS.8. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY.
8.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
8.1.2. Society often turns to science and technology to solve problems.8.1.4. Science and technology have had both positive and negative impacts upon individuals, societies, and the environment in the past and present.8.1.5. Science and technology have changed peoples' perceptions of the social and natural world, as well as their relationship to the land, economy and trade, their concept of security, and their major daily activities.8.1.6. Values, beliefs, and attitudes that have been influenced by new scientific and technological knowledge (e.g., invention of the printing press, conceptions of the universe, applications of atomic energy, and genetic discoveries).
8.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
8.2.1. Ask and find answers to questions about the ways in which science and technology affect peoples' lives today in different places, and have done so in the past.8.2.3. Seek and evaluate varied perspectives when weighing how specific applications of science and technology have impacted individuals and society.8.2.4. Review sources to identify the purposes, points of view, biases, and intended audiences of reports and discussions of science and technology.8.2.5. Select, organize, evaluate, and communicate information about the impact of science or technology on a society today or in the past.
8.3. PRODUCTS - Learners demonstrate understanding by:
8.3.1. Discussing current and past issues involving science and technology, and their consequences for society.

NCSS.9. GLOBAL CONNECTIONS

SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAMS SHOULD INCLUDE EXPERIENCES THAT PROVIDE FOR THE STUDY OF GLOBAL CONNECTIONS AND INTERDEPENDENCE.
9.1. KNOWLEDGE - Learners will understand:
9.1.1. Global connections have existed in the past and increased rapidly in current times.9.1.2. Global factors such as cultural, economic, and political connections are changing the places in which people live (e.g., through trade, migration, increased travel, and communication).9.1.5. Global connections may make cultures more alike or increase their sense of distinctiveness.
9.2. PROCESSES - Learners will be able to:
9.2.1. Ask and find answers to questions about the ways in which people and societies are connected globally today and were connected in the past.9.2.2. Use maps, charts, and databases to explore patterns and predict trends regarding global connections at the community, state, or national level.9.2.3. Investigate and explain the ways in which aspects of culture, such as language, beliefs, and traditions, may facilitate understanding, or lead to misunderstanding between cultures.9.2.4. Analyze examples of conflict, cooperation, and interdependence among groups, com-munities, regions, societies, and nations.9.2.7. Describe and explain the relationships and tensions between national sovereignty and global interests in such matters as territorial rights, natural resources, trade, the different uses of technology, and the welfare of people.

N.NSCG. National Standards for Civics and Government (NSCG)

I.A. What are civic life, politics, and government? What is civic life? What is politics? What is government? Why are government and politics necessary? What purposes should government serve?

I.A.1. Defining civic life, politics, and government. Students should be able to explain the meaning of the terms civic life, politics, and government. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.A.1.2. Describe politics as the ways people whose ideas may differ reach agreements that are generally regarded as binding on the group, e.g., presenting information and evidence, stating arguments, negotiating, compromising, voting
I.A.1.5. Identify institutions with authority to direct or control the behavior of members of a society, e.g., a school board, city council, state legislature, courts, Congress
I.A.2. Necessity and purposes of government. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on why government is necessary and the purposes government should serve. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.A.2.2. Evaluate competing ideas about the purposes government should serve, e.g.,
I.A.2.2.e. Furthering the interests of a particular class or groupI.A.2.2.f. Promoting a particular religion

I.B. What are civic life, politics, and government? What are the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited government?

I.B.1. Limited and unlimited governments. Students should be able to describe the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.B.1.1. Describe the essential characteristics of limited and unlimited governments
I.B.1.1.a. Limited governments have established and respected restraints on their power, e.g., constitutional governments--governments characterized by legal limits on political powerI.B.1.1.b. Unlimited governments are those in which there are no effective means of restraining their power, e.g. authoritarian systems--governments in which political power is concentrated in one person or a small group, and individuals and groups are subordinated to that power; totalitarian systems--modern forms of extreme authoritarianism in which the government attempts to control every aspect of the lives of individuals and prohibits independent associations
I.B.1.2. Identify historical and contemporary examples of limited and unlimited governments and justify their classification, e.g.,
I.B.1.2.a. Limited governments--United States, Great Britain, Botswana, Japan, Israel, ChileI.B.1.2.b. Unlimited governments--Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, Spain under Franco, Argentina under Peron, Iraq under Hussein, Iran

I.C. What are civic life, politics, and government? What are the nature and purposes of constitutions?

I.C.1. Concepts of ''constitution.'' Students should be able to explain alternative uses of the term constitution'' and to distinguish between governments with a constitution and a constitutional government. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.C.1.1. Distinguish among the following uses of the term constitution
I.C.1.1.b. Constitution as a documentI.C.1.1.c. Constitution as a higher law limiting the powers of government, i.e., a constitutional or limited government
I.C.1.2. Identify historical and contemporary nations with constitutions that in reality do not limit power, e.g., former Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, Iraq under Saddam Hussein
I.C.1.3. Identify historical and contemporary nations with constitutions that in reality do limit power, e.g., United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, Botswana, Chile
I.C.2. Purposes and uses of constitutions. Students should be able to explain the various purposes constitutions serve. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.C.2.1. Explain how constitutions
I.C.2.1.a. Set forth the purposes of governmentI.C.2.1.b. Describe the way a government is organized and how power is allocatedI.C.2.1.c. Define the relationship between a people and their government
I.C.2.3. Describe historical and contemporary examples of how constitutions have been used to protect individual rights and promote the common good, e.g., United States Constitution ''Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, (First Amendment) ...,'' ''The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied...on account of sex (Nineteenth Amendment).''

I.D. What are civic life, politics, and government? What are alternative ways of organizing constitutional governments?

I.D.1. Shared powers and parliamentary systems. Students should be able to describe the major characteristics of systems of shared powers and of parliamentary systems. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.D.1.1. Describe the major characteristics of systems of shared powers, e.g., in the United States
I.D.1.1.a. The president and members of the Cabinet cannot be members of CongressI.D.1.1.b. Powers are separated among branches, each branch has primary responsibility for certain functions, e.g., legislative, executive, and judicialI.D.1.1.c. Each branch also shares the powers and functions of the other branches, e.g., Congress may pass laws, but the president may veto them; the president nominates certain public officials, but the Senate needs to approve them; Congress may pass laws, but the Supreme Court may declare them unconstitutional
I.D.2. Confederal, federal, and unitary systems. Students should be able to explain the advantages and disadvantages of confederal, federal, and unitary systems of government. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
I.D.2.2. Identify examples of confederal, federal, and unitary systems in the history of the United States, e.g.,
I.D.2.2.a. Confederal system--the United States under the Articles of Confederation and the Confederate States of AmericaI.D.2.2.c. Unitary system--state governments of the United States
I.D.2.3. Explain the major advantages and disadvantages of confederal, federal, and unitary systems

II.A. What are the foundations of the American political system? What is the American idea of constitutional government?

II.A.1. The American idea of constitutional government. Students should be able to explain the essential ideas of American constitutional government. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.A.1.1. Explain essential ideas of American constitutional government as expressed in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and other writings, e.g.,
II.A.1.1.a. The people are sovereign; they are the ultimate source of powerII.A.1.1.b. The Constitution is a higher law that authorizes a government of limited powersII.A.1.1.c. The purposes of government, as stated in the Preamble to the Constitution, are to form a more perfect union; establish justice; insure domestic tranquility; provide for the common defense; promote the general welfare; secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
II.A.1.2. Explain how the following provisions of the United States Constitution give government the power it needs to fulfill the purposes for which it was established
II.A.1.2.a. Delegated or enumerated powers, e.g., to lay and collect taxes, to make treaties, to decide cases and controversies between two or more states (Articles I, II & III)II.A.1.2.b. The general welfare provision (Article I, Section 8)II.A.1.2.c. The necessary and proper clause (Article I, Section 8, Clause 18)
II.A.1.3. Explain the means of limiting the powers of government under the United States Constitution
II.A.1.3.a. Separation and sharing of powersII.A.1.3.b. Checks and balancesII.A.1.3.c. Bill of Rights
II.A.1.4. Explain how specific provisions of the United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, limit the powers of government in order to protect the rights of individuals, e.g., habeas corpus; trial by jury; ex post facto; freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly; equal protection of the law; due process of law; right to counsel
II.A.1.5. Evaluate, take, and defend positions on current issues involving constitutional protection of individual rights, such as
II.A.1.5.a. Limits on speech, e.g., ''hate speech,'' advertising, libel and slander, ''fighting words''II.A.1.5.b. Separation of church and state, e.g., school vouchers, prayer in public schoolsII.A.1.5.c. Cruel and unusual punishment, e.g., death penaltyII.A.1.5.d. Search and seizure, e.g., warrantless searchesII.A.1.5.e. Privacy, e.g., fingerprinting of children, national identification cards, wiretapping, DNA banks

II.B. What are the foundations of the American political system? What are the distinctive characteristics of American society?

II.B.1. Distinctive characteristics of American society. Students should be able to identify and explain the importance of historical experience and geographic, social, and economic factors that have helped to shape American society. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.B.1.1. Explain important factors that have helped shape American society
II.B.1.1.b. Religious freedomII.B.1.1.d. A history of slaveryII.B.1.1.g. Social, economic, and geographic mobilityII.B.1.1.h. Effects of a frontierII.B.1.1.i. Large scale immigrationII.B.1.1.m. Market economy
II.B.3. Diversity in American society. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the value and challenges of diversity in American life. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.B.3.3. Explain why conflicts have arisen from diversity, using historical and contemporary examples, e.g., North/South conflict; conflict about land, suffrage, and other rights of Native Americans; Catholic/Protestant conflicts in the nineteenth century; conflict about civil rights of minorities and women; present day ethnic conflict in urban settings
II.B.3.4. Evaluate ways conflicts about diversity can be resolved in a peaceful manner that respects individual rights and promotes the common good

II.C. What are the foundations of the American political system? What is American political culture?

II.C.1. American identity. Students should be able to explain the importance of shared political values and principles to American society. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.C.1.1. Explain that an American's identity stems from belief in and allegiance to shared political values and principles rather than from ethnicity, race, religion, class, language, gender, or national origin, which determine identity in most other nations
II.C.1.2. Identify basic values and principles Americans share as set forth in such documents as the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, the Gettysburg Address
II.C.1.3. Explain why it is important to the individual and society that Americans understand and act on their shared political values and principles
II.C.2. The character of American political conflict. Students should be able to describe the character of American political conflict and explain factors that usually prevent violence or that lower its intensity. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.C.2.1. Describe political conflict in the United States both historically and at present, such as conflict about
II.C.2.1.a. Geographic and sectional interestsII.C.2.1.b. Slavery and indentured servitudeII.C.2.1.d. Extending the franchiseII.C.2.1.e. Extending civil rights to all AmericansII.C.2.1.f. The role of religion in American public lifeII.C.2.1.g. Engaging in wars
II.C.2.2. Explain some of the reasons why political conflict in the United States, with notable exceptions such as the Civil War, labor unrest, civil rights struggles, and the opposition to the war in Vietnam generally has been less divisive than in many other nations. These include
II.C.2.2.a. A shared respect for the Constitution and its principlesII.C.2.2.c. Many opportunities to influence government and to participate in itII.C.2.2.e. Acceptance of the idea of majority rule tempered by a respect for minority rights

II.D. What are the foundations of the American political system? What values and principles are basic to American constitutional democracy?

II.D.1. Fundamental values and principles. Students should be able to explain the meaning and importance of the fundamental values and principles of American constitutional democracy. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.D.1.1. Identify fundamental values and principles as expressed in
II.D.1.1.a. Basic documents, e.g., Declaration of Independence and United States ConstitutionII.D.1.1.b. Significant political speeches and writings, e.g., The Federalist, Washington's Farewell Address, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, King's ''I Have a Dream'' speechII.D.1.1.c. Individual and group actions that embody fundamental values and principles, e.g., suffrage and civil rights movements
II.D.1.2. Explain the meaning and importance of each of the following values considered to be fundamental to American public life
II.D.1.2.d. JusticeII.D.1.2.e. EqualityII.D.1.2.g. Openness and free inquiryII.D.1.2.h. TruthII.D.1.2.i. Patriotism
II.D.1.3. Explain the meaning and importance of the following fundamental principles of American constitutional democracy
II.D.1.3.a. Popular sovereignty--the concept that ultimate political authority rests with the people who create and can alter or abolish governmentsII.D.1.3.b. Constitutional government which includes the rule of law; representative institutions; shared powers; checks and balances; individual rights; separation of church and state; federalism; civilian control of the military
II.D.2. Conflicts among values and principles in American political and social life. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues in which fundamental values and principles are in conflict. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.D.2.1. Describe conflicts among fundamental values and principles and give historical and contemporary examples of these conflicts, such as
II.D.2.1.a. Conflicts between liberty and equality, e.g., liberty to exclude others from private clubs and the right of individuals to be treated equally
II.D.2.2. Explain why people may agree on values or principles in the abstract but disagree when they are applied to specific issues
II.D.2.2.a. Agreement on the value of freedom of expression but disagreement about the extent to which expression of unpopular and offensive views should be tolerated, e.g., neo-Nazi demonstrations, racial slurs, profanity, lyrics that advocate violence
II.D.3. Disparities between ideals and reality in American political and social life. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues concerning ways and means to reduce disparities between American ideals and realities. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
II.D.3.1. Identify some important American ideals, e.g., liberty and justice for all, an informed citizenry, civic virtue or concern for the common good, respect for the rights of others
II.D.3.2. Explain the importance of ideals as goals, even if they are not fully achieved
II.D.3.3. Explain, using historical and contemporary examples, discrepancies between American ideals and the realities of political and social life in the United States, e.g., the ideal of equal justice for all and the reality that the poor may not have equal access to the judicial system.
II.D.3.4. Describe historical and contemporary efforts to reduce discrepancies between ideals and the reality of American public life, e.g., abolition, suffrage, civil rights, and environmental protection movements
II.D.3.5. Explain ways in which discrepancies between reality and the ideals of American constitutional democracy can be reduced by
II.D.3.5.a. Individual actionII.D.3.5.c. Political action

III.A. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? How are power and responsibility distributed, shared, and limited in the government established by the United States Constitution?

III.A.1. Distributing, sharing, and limiting powers of the national government. Students should be able to explain how the powers of the national government are distributed, shared, and limited. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.A.1.1. Explain how the three opening words of the Preamble to the Constitution, ''We the People...,'' embody the principle of the people as sovereign--the ultimate source of authority
III.A.1.2. Explain how legislative, executive, and judicial powers are distributed and shared among the three branches of the national government
III.A.1.2.a. Legislative power--although primary legislative power lies with Congress, it is shared with the other branches, e.g., the executive branch can submit bills for consideration and can establish regulations, the Supreme Court can interpret laws and can declare them unconstitutionalIII.A.1.2.b. Executive power--although primary executive power is with the executive branch, it is shared by the other branches, e.g., congressional committees have authority to review actions of the executive branch, the Senate must approve appointments and ratify treaties, the Supreme Court can review actions of the executive branch and declare them unconstitutionalIII.A.1.2.c. Judicial power--although primary judicial power is with the federal judiciary, it is shared with other branches, e.g., the president appoints federal judges, the Senate can approve or refuse to confirm federal court appointees, the executive branch can hold administrative hearings on compliance with regulations and laws, Congress can ''overturn'' a Supreme Court interpretation of a law by amending it
III.A.1.3. Explain how each branch of government can check the powers of the other branches
III.A.1.3.a. Legislative branch has the power to establish committees to oversee activities of the executive branch; impeach the president, other members of the executive branch, and federal judges; pass laws over the president's veto by two-thirds majority vote of both Houses; disapprove appointments made by the president; propose amendments to the United States ConstitutionIII.A.1.3.b. Executive branch has the power to veto laws passed by Congress; nominate members of the federal judiciaryIII.A.1.3.c. Judicial branch has the power to overrule decisions made by lower courts; declare laws made by Congress to be unconstitutional; declare actions of the executive branch to be unconstitutional
III.A.2. Sharing of powers between the national and state governments. Students should be able to explain how and why powers are distributed and shared between national and state governments in the federal system. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.A.2.1. Identify the major parts of the federal system
III.A.2.1.a. National governmentIII.A.2.1.b. State governmentsIII.A.2.1.c. Other governmental units, e.g., District of Columbia; American tribal governments; territories of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa; Virgin Islands
III.A.2.2. Describe how some powers are shared between the national and state governments, e.g., power to tax, borrow money, regulate voting
III.A.2.3. Describe functions commonly and primarily exercised by state governments, e.g., education, law enforcement, health and hospitals, roads and highways
III.A.2.4. Identify powers prohibited to state governments by the United States Constitution, e.g., coining money, conducting foreign relations, interfering with interstate commerce, raising an army and declaring war (Article I, Section 10)
III.A.2.5. Explain how and why the United States Constitution provides that laws of the national government and treaties are the supreme law of the land

III.B. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? What does the national government do?

III.B.1. Major responsibilities for domestic and foreign policy. Students should be able to explain the major responsibilities of the national government for domestic and foreign policy. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.B.1.1. Identify historical and contemporary examples of important domestic policies, e.g., Pure Food and Drug Act, Environmental Protection Act, civil rights laws, child labor laws, minimum wage laws, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Social Security
III.B.1.2. Explain how and why domestic policies affect their lives
III.B.1.3. Identify historical and contemporary examples of important foreign policies, e.g., Monroe Doctrine, Marshall Plan, immigration acts, foreign aid, arms control, promoting democracy and human rights throughout the world
III.B.2. Financing government through taxation. Students should be able to explain the necessity of taxes and the purposes for which taxes are used. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.B.2.1. Explain why taxation is necessary to pay for government
III.B.2.2. Identify provisions of the United States Constitution that authorize the national government to collect taxes, i.e., Article One, Sections 7 and 8; Sixteenth Amendment
III.B.2.3. Identify major sources of revenue for the national government, e.g., individual income taxes, social insurance receipts (Social Security and Medicare), borrowing, taxes on corporations and businesses, estate and excise taxes, tariffs on foreign goods
III.B.2.4. Identify major uses of tax revenues received by the national government, e.g., direct payment to individuals (Social Security, Medicaid, Medicare, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), national defense, interest on the federal debt, interstate highways

III.C. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? How are state and local governments organized and what do they do?

III.C.1. State governments. Students should be able to explain why states have constitutions, their purposes, and the relationship of state constitutions to the federal constitution. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.C.1.3. Identify and explain the basic similarities and differences between their state constitution and the United States Constitution
III.C.1.4. Explain why state constitutions and state governments cannot violate the United States Constitution
III.C.2. Organization and responsibilities of state and local governments. Students should be able to describe the organization and major responsibilities of state and local governments. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.C.2.1. Identify major responsibilities of their state and local governments, e.g., education, welfare, streets and roads, parks, recreation, and law enforcement
III.C.2.2. Describe the organization of their state and local governments, e.g., legislative, executive, and judicial functions at state and local levels
III.C.2.3. Identify major sources of revenue for state and local governments, e.g., property, sales, and income taxes; fees and licenses; taxes on corporations and businesses; borrowing
III.C.2.4. Explain why state and local governments have an important effect on their own lives

III.D. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? Who represents you in local, state, and national governments?

III.D.1. Who represents you in legislative and executive branches of your local, state, and national governments? Students should be able to identify their representatives in the legislative branches as well as the heads of the executive branches of their local, state, and national governments. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.D.1.1. Name the persons representing them at state and national levels in the legislative branches of government, i.e., representatives and senators in their state legislature and in Congress
III.D.1.2. Name the persons representing them at local, state, and national levels in the executive branches of government, e.g., mayor, governor, president

III.E. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? What is the place of law in the American constitutional system?

III.E.3. Judicial protection of the rights of individuals. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on current issues regarding judicial protection of individual rights. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.E.3.1. Explain the basic concept of due process of law, i.e., government must use fair procedures to gather information and make decisions in order to protect the rights of individuals and the interests of society
III.E.3.2. Explain the importance to individuals and to society of major due process protections
III.E.3.2.a. Habeas corpusIII.E.3.2.b. Presumption of innocenceIII.E.3.2.c. Fair noticeIII.E.3.2.d. Impartial tribunalIII.E.3.2.e. Speedy and public trialsIII.E.3.2.f. Right to counselIII.E.3.2.g. Trial by juryIII.E.3.2.h. Right against self-incriminationIII.E.3.2.i. Protection against double jeopardyIII.E.3.2.j. Right of appeal
III.E.3.3. Explain why due process rights in administrative and legislative procedures are essential for the protection of individual rights and the maintenance of limited government, e.g., the right to adequate notice of a hearing that may affect one's interests, the right to counsel in legislative hearings

III.F. How does the government established by the constitution embody the purposes, values, and principles of American democracy? How does the American political system provide for choice and opportunities for participation?

III.F.3. Political parties, campaigns, and elections. Students should be able to explain how political parties, campaigns, and elections provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.F.3.1. Describe the role of political parties
III.F.3.3. Explain ways individuals can participate in political parties, campaigns, and elections
III.F.4. Associations and groups. Students should be able to explain how interest groups, unions, and professional organizations provide opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.F.4.1. Describe the historical roles of prominent associations and groups in local, state, or national politics, e.g., abolitionists, suffragists, labor unions, agricultural organizations, civil rights groups, religious organizations
III.F.5. Forming and carrying out public policy. Students should be able to explain how public policy is formed and carried out at local, state, and national levels and what roles individuals can play in the process. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
III.F.5.1. Define public policy and identify examples at local, state, and national levels
III.F.5.2. Describe how public policies are formed and implemented

IV.A. What is the relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs? How is the world organized politically?

IV.A.2. Interaction among nation-states. Students should be able to explain how nation-states interact with each other. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
IV.A.2.1. Describe the most important means nation-states use to interact with one another
IV.A.2.1.a. TradeIV.A.2.1.b. DiplomacyIV.A.2.1.c. Treaties and agreementsIV.A.2.1.e. Economic incentives and sanctionsIV.A.2.1.f. Military force and the threat of force
IV.A.2.2. Explain reasons for the breakdown of order among nation-states, e.g., conflicts about national interests, ethnicity, and religion; competition for resources and territory; absence of effective means to enforce international law
IV.A.2.3. Explain the consequences of the breakdown of order among nation-states
IV.A.3. United States' relations with other nation-states. Students should be able to explain how United States foreign policy is made and the means by which it is carried out. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
IV.A.3.2. Describe various means used to attain the ends of United States foreign policy, e.g., diplomacy; economic, military, and humanitarian aid; treaties; trade agreements; incentives; sanctions; military intervention; covert action
IV.A.4. International organizations. Students should be able to explain the role of major international organizations in the world today. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
IV.A.4.1. Describe the purposes and functions of major governmental international organizations, e.g., UN, NATO, OAS, World Court

IV.B. What is the relationship of the United States to other nations and to world affairs? How has the United States influenced other nations and how have other nations influenced American politics and society?

IV.B.1. Impact of the American concept of democracy and individual rights on the world. Students should be able to describe the influence of American political ideas on other nations. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
IV.B.1.1. Describe the impact on other nations of the American Revolution and of the values and principles expressed in the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights
IV.B.1.2. Describe the influence American ideas about rights have had on other nations and international organizations, e.g., French Revolution; democracy movements in Eastern Europe, People's Republic of China, Latin America, South Africa; United Nations Charter; Universal Declaration of Human Rights

V.A. What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? What is citizenship?

V.A.1. The meaning of citizenship. Students should be able to explain the meaning of American citizenship. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.A.1.1. Explain the important characteristics of citizenship in the United States. Specifically, citizenship
V.A.1.1.a. Is legally recognized membership in a self-governing communityV.A.1.1.b. Confers full membership in a self-governing community--there are no degrees of citizenship or of legally tolerated states of inferior citizenship in the United StatesV.A.1.1.c. Confers equal rights under the lawV.A.1.1.d. Is not dependent on inherited, involuntary groupings such as race, gender, or ethnicityV.A.1.1.e. Confers certain rights and privileges, e.g., the right to vote, to hold public office, to serve on juries
V.A.1.2. Explain that Americans are citizens of both their state and the United States
V.A.2. Becoming a citizen. Students should be able to explain how one becomes a citizen of the United States. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.A.2.1. Explain that anyone born in the United States is a U.S. citizen
V.A.2.2. Explain the distinction between citizens and noncitizens (aliens)

V.B. What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? What are the rights of citizens?

V.B.1. Personal rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues involving personal rights. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.B.1.1. Identify personal rights, e.g., freedom of conscience, freedom to marry whom one chooses, to have children, to associate with whomever one pleases, to live where one chooses, to travel freely, to emigrate
V.B.1.2. Identify the major documentary sources of personal rights, e.g., Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, state constitutions
V.B.1.3. Explain the importance to the individual and to society of such personal rights as
V.B.1.3.a. Freedom of conscience and religionV.B.1.3.b. Freedom of expression and associationV.B.1.3.c. Freedom of movement and residenceV.B.1.3.d. Privacy
V.B.1.4. Identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve personal rights, e.g., restricting membership in private organizations, school prayer, dress codes, curfews, sexual harassment, the right to refuse medical care
V.B.2. Political rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues involving political rights. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.B.2.1. Identify political rights, e.g., the right to vote, petition, assembly, freedom of press
V.B.2.2. Explain the meaning of political rights as distinguished from personal rights, e.g., the right of free speech for political discussion as distinct from the right of free speech to express personal tastes and interests, the right to register to vote as distinct from the right to live where one chooses
V.B.2.3. Identify major statements of political rights in documents such as the Declaration of Independence, United States Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, state constitutions, and civil rights legislation
V.B.2.4. Explain the importance to the individual and society of such political rights as
V.B.2.4.a. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, and petitionV.B.2.4.b. Right to vote and to seek public office
V.B.2.5. Identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve political rights, e.g., hate speech, fair trial, free press
V.B.3. Economic rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues involving economic rights. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.B.3.2. Identify statements of economic rights in the United States Constitution, e.g., requirement of just compensation, contracts, copyright, patents
V.B.3.3. Explain the importance to the individual and to society of such economic rights as the right to
V.B.3.3.b. Choose one's work, change employmentV.B.3.3.e. Copyright and patentV.B.3.3.f. Enter into lawful contracts
V.B.3.4. Identify and evaluate contemporary issues regarding economic rights, e.g., employment, welfare, social security, minimum wage, health care, equal pay for equal work, freedom of contract
V.B.4. Scope and limits of rights. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues regarding the proper scope and limits of rights. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.B.4.1. Explain what is meant by the ''scope and limits'' of a right, e.g., the scope of one's right to free speech in the United States is extensive and protects almost all forms of political expression. The right to free speech, however, can be limited if and when that speech seriously harms or endangers others
V.B.4.2. Explain the argument that all rights have limits
V.B.4.3. Explain criteria commonly used in determining what limits should be placed on specific rights, e.g.,
V.B.4.3.a. Clear and present danger ruleV.B.4.3.b. Compelling government interest testV.B.4.3.c. National securityV.B.4.3.d. Libel or slanderV.B.4.3.e. Public safetyV.B.4.3.f. Equal opportunity
V.B.4.4. Identify and evaluate positions on a contemporary conflict between rights, e.g., right to a fair trial and right to a free press, right to privacy and right to freedom of expression
V.B.4.5. Identify and evaluate positions on a contemporary conflict between rights and other social values and interests, e.g., the right of the public to know what their government is doing versus the need for national security, the right to property versus the protection of the environment

V.C. What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? What are the responsibilities of citizens?

V.C.1. Personal responsibilities. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of personal responsibilities to the individual and to society. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.C.1.1. Evaluate the importance of commonly held personal responsibilities, such as
V.C.1.1.a. Taking care of one's selfV.C.1.1.b. Supporting one's familyV.C.1.1.d. Adhering to moral principles
V.C.1.2. Identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve personal responsibilities, e.g., failure to provide adequate support or care for one's children, cheating on examinations, lack of concern for the less fortunate
V.C.2. Civic responsibilities. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of civic responsibilities to the individual and society. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.C.2.1. Evaluate the importance of commonly held civic responsibilities, such as
V.C.2.1.a. Obeying the lawV.C.2.1.c. Respecting the rights of othersV.C.2.1.f. Deciding whether and how to voteV.C.2.1.i. Serving as a juror
V.C.2.4. Evaluate the importance for the individual and society of fulfilling civic responsibilities
V.C.2.5. Identify and evaluate contemporary issues that involve civic responsibilities, e.g., low voter participation, avoidance of jury duty, failure to be informed about public issues

V.D. What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? What dispositions or traits of character are important to the preservation and improvement of American constitutional democracy?

V.D.1. Dispositions that enhance citizen effectiveness and promote the healthy functioning of American constitutional democracy. Students should be able to evaluate, take, and defend positions on the importance of certain dispositions or traits of character to themselves and American constitutional democracy. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.D.1.1. Explain the importance to the individual and society of the following dispositions or traits of character
V.D.1.1.a. Individual responsibility--fulfilling the moral and legal obligations of membership in societyV.D.1.1.n. Patriotism--being loyal to the values and principles underlying American constitutional democracy, as distinguished from jingoism and chauvinism

V.E. What are the roles of the citizen in American democracy? How can citizens take part in civic life?

V.E.3. Forms of political participation. Students should be able to describe the means by which Americans can monitor and influence politics and government. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.E.3.1. Explain how Americans can use the following means to monitor and influence politics and government at local, state, and national levels
V.E.3.1.a. VotingV.E.3.1.e. Joining political parties, interest groups, and other organizations that attempt to influence public policy and elections
V.E.3.2. Describe historical and current examples of citizen movements seeking to promote individual rights and the common good, e.g., abolition, suffrage, labor and civil rights movements
V.E.4. Political leadership and public service. Students should be able to explain the importance of political leadership and public service in a constitutional democracy. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.E.4.4. Identify opportunities for political leadership in their own school, community, state, and the nation
V.E.4.6. Evaluate the role of ''the loyal opposition'' in a constitutional democracy
V.E.5. Knowledge and participation. Students should be able to explain the importance of knowledge to competent and responsible participation in American democracy. To achieve this standard, students should be able to
V.E.5.3. Evaluate the claim that constitutional democracy requires the participation of an attentive, knowledgeable, and competent citizenry

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